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1.
Revista de Stiinte Politice ; - (76):215-227, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2125177

ABSTRACT

The Russian-Ukrainian conflict that succeeded the Covid 19 pandemic marks the end of the winter of 2022 and continues to deepen Europe's socio-economic fragility. Whatever the causes of its outbreak, any armed conflict has immeasurable effects on combatants, allies and opponents alike. The leveraging of financial resources in support of one side and the triggering of pecuniary sanctions for the other implies an enormous consumption of resources with global economic effects. These are compounded by the social effects of war: loss of life, family segregation, refugee crisis, severe material deprivation, unemployment, crime, etc. As an EU and NATO member state, Romania has had to reinforce its responsibilities of support (as a geopolitical supporter of Ukraine) and responsibility towards war refugees. However, it is precisely Romania's geographical proximity to Ukraine that has led to an increase in the population's fear of the risks of conflict close to the country's borders, but also to a natural solidarity of citizens with its innocent victims: the civilian refugees in our country. Based on an analysis of the scientific literature, at the heart of which will be placed the theory of conflict (Marx, Weber, Lake, Woon, Sharma, etc.), the communication aims to present the results of a quantitative research carried out by means of an opinion survey based on a questionnaire administered to a nationally representative sample. The sociological study aims to identify Romanians' perceptions and fears regarding the social and economic effects of the Russian-Ukrainian war and to find out the mechanisms that determined the spontaneous cohesion that was at the basis of the mobilisation of citizens to support temporary refugee migrants or those seeking asylum in our country. of law specialization, aiming to highlight their views on the perspectives offered by migration.

2.
Review of Economics and Political Science ; 7(3):194-203, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2097581

ABSTRACT

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of critical macroeconomic drivers like economic growth (gross domestic product (GDP)/capita), inflation and population size on the mortality rate of Nigeria. The general lockdown imposed by the government to curb the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had so many effects like loss of jobs, insecurity, businesses collapsing, salary cuts, unemployment and increased prices of commodities in the market. Design/methodology/approach The paper focused on secondary data for the period 1991-2019 for GDP/capita, inflation, population size and mortality rate which were obtained from World Development Indicators (WDI). Time series analysis tests like augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF), Bounds co-integration and autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) were used to determine the stationarity conditions of the variables, co-integration presence among the variables and to determine the short-run and long-run relationships between the endogenous and exogenous variables. Findings The study shows that the variables are stationary at different orders i.e. I (0) and I (1) and the presence of co-integration among the variables. There exists a positive relationship between GDP/capita and mortality rate on the short-run which means increase in GDP/capita does not reduce the mortality rate in the country, there is also a positive short-run relationship between inflation and mortality rate but there are no long-run relationships among the variables. Originality/value The paper clearly examines the impact of GDP/capita, inflation and population growth on mortality rate in Nigeria.

3.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2022 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The supply of obstetrician-gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists across the United States has been described. However, these studies focused on reproductive-age patients and did not assess the growing demand for services to the advanced-age female population. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the supply of obstetrician-gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists who serve the US Medicare population per 100,000 female Medicare beneficiaries, over time and by state and region. STUDY DESIGN: The supply of obstetrician-gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists was extracted from the Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File database of Medicare Part B claims submitted to the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Data were only available from 2012 to 2019. The supply of providers was divided by the number of original female Medicare beneficiaries obtained from the Kaiser Family Foundation; all values reported are providers per 100,000 female beneficiaries by state. Trends over time were assessed as the difference in provider-to-beneficiary ratio and the percentage change from 2012 to 2019. All data were collected in 2021. All analyses were performed with SAS, version 9.4. This study was exempt from institutional review board approval. RESULTS: In 2019, the average number of obstetrician-gynecologists per 100,000 female beneficiaries across all states was 121.32 (standard deviation±33.03). The 3 states with the highest obstetrician-gynecologist-to-beneficiary ratio were the District of Columbia (268.85), Connecticut (204.62), and Minnesota (171.60), and the 3 states with the lowest were Montana (78.37), West Virginia (82.28), and Iowa (83.92). The average number of gynecologic oncologists was 4.48 (standard deviation±2.08). The 3 states with the highest gynecologic oncologist-to-beneficiary ratio were the District of Columbia (11.30), Rhode Island (10.58), and Connecticut (9.24), and the 3 states with the lowest were Kansas (0.82), Vermont (1.41), and Mississippi (1.47). The number of obstetrician-gynecologists per 100,000 female beneficiaries decreased nationally by 8.4% from 2012 to 2019; the difference in provider-to-beneficiary ratio from 2012 to 2019 ranged from +29.97 (CT) to -82.62 (AK). Regionally, the Northeast had the smallest decrease in the number of obstetrician-gynecologists per 100,000 female beneficiaries (-3.8%) and the West had the largest (-18.2%). The number of gynecologic oncologists per 100,000 female beneficiaries increased by 7.0% nationally during the study period; this difference ranged from +8.96 (DC) to -3.39 (SD). Overall, the West had the smallest increase (4.7%) and the Midwest had the largest (15.4%). CONCLUSION: There is wide geographic variation in the supply and growth rate of obstetrician-gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists for the female Medicare population. This analysis provides insight into areas of the country where the supply of obstetrician-gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists may not meet current and future demand. The national decrease in the number of obstetrician-gynecologists is alarming, especially because population projections estimate that the proportion of elderly female patients will grow. Future work is needed to determine why fewer providers are available to see Medicare patients and what minimum provider-to-enrollee ratios are needed for gynecologic and cancer care. Once such ratios are established, our results can help determine whether specific states and regions are meeting demand. Additional research is needed to assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the supply of women's health providers.

4.
Journal of Interdisciplinary Mathematics ; 25(6):1909-1918, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2050904

ABSTRACT

In this work, three famous different fuzzy integral transforms have been attempted to evaluate the exact solution of fuzzy equation based on fuzzy convolution Volterra integral equation of the second kind due to the fact that such transforms reduce the integral problem to algebraic problem. Moreover, this article examines three aspects, a brief conversation about the classification of integral equations, some important instruments as well as a real-world problem related with population growth is considered. Population growth increases due to the increase in the number of humans. For better understanding of the growth meaning, we can relate it with renewal and industrialization, more precisely, when food, water, energy and medical care become more available. As an expectation for the growth in population, however, due to the Covid-19 pandemic, millions of people worldwide have died since 2020. It has increased to 8.5 billion by 2030 and the global population will reach 9.7 billion in 2050, whereas 10.9 billion in 2100 [11]. In order to address population growth equation, three common fuzzy transforms are used for estimating its exact solution. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Interdisciplinary Mathematics is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

5.
Hervormde Teologiese Studies ; 78(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2040085

ABSTRACT

This article considers how the metaphor of Mother Earth, for women, concerns a dual stance of both belonging and distance. The link between women, nature and Mother Earth is problematised by considering the possible, or contested, link between population growth and climate change, and the South African population policy specifically is considered as an example. Ecofeminism’s challenge to the perceived connection between women, motherhood and Earth, that is the ‘distance’ stance, is considered and a response to that is offered by reflecting on Mercy Oduyoye’s notion of mothering, which represents the ‘belonging’ stance. In this regard, an intercultural approach to the definition of motherhood is implied. It is ultimately indicated that for women to reclaim their own agency regarding a perceived responsibility towards nature, it is necessary to deconstruct and reconstruct ‘motherhood’ to free themselves from being stuck between Mother Earth and a mother’s womb. Contribution: This article makes a contribution to feminist studies at the intersection of gender roles and the climate crisis, as it relates to population growth and an intercultural definition of motherhood. It contributes to UN’s sustainable development agenda as it relates to both SDG 5 (gender equality) and SDG 13 (climate action).

6.
Sovremennaya Evropa ; 2022(1):113-124, 2022.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2030626

ABSTRACT

The deep economic lag of developing countries contributes to the spread of new global threats to the world community, namely, pandemics, climate change, the takeover of Europe and North America by flows of refugees from Africa, Asia, South and Central America. The limited economic opportunities of developing countries for vaccination and adoption of sanitary and epidemiological measures create the preconditions for the return of pandemic waves to the countries of the developed world. In addition, the relative poverty of many developing countries inhibits the substitution of coal with renewable sources of energy, limiting possibil-ities to preserve the planet's climate. The uneven economic development of countries is the most important driver of increasing migrant flows to Europe and the United States. The article substantiates the effectiveness of a number of additional measures to bring the level of economic development of the countries of the developing world closer to developed countries. Some elements of the concept of the future world order are proposed. The high uncertainty of the future evolution of the virus, the threats of global warming, forces the world community to change in order to overcome the global threats of the spread of COVID-19 pandemic waves, climate change and uncontrolled migration. © 2022, Institute of Europe Russian Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

7.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series ; 2322(1):012026, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2017574

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection cases forecasting is a process of estimating future values based on historical data which is playing an important role in health decision making in various fields. Daily infection cases of COVID-19 can be considered as a time series represent the growth of the number of infected persons in a population. Consequently, the growth models may be used to forecast any population growth such as population of infected people with the Covid-19 virus. The popular models of growth such as logistic, log-logistic, Gompertz, Weibull and Richards models are useful to describe the growth of many phenomena like an epidemic and the spread of the number of infected people. The main objective of this paper is to choose a successful growth model after comparing these models to make good use of the current data on COVID-19 in Iraq to better understand the spread of this disease and to forecast the future daily infection cases. AIC, BIC and other goodness of fit criteria and daily infection cases in Iraq for the period from 1st Jan. 2021 until 30th April 2021 were used to compare these models and choose the successful model. The results of fitting these model show that the appropriate models are Weibull type 1 and log-logistic with five parameters models, and the predicted numbers of infected cases are near the actual numbers of infected cases.

8.
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin ; 31(8A):8328, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2012275

ABSTRACT

In this study, the mission of agriculture, which is the primary sector, in meeting the most basic need of humanity, was investigated. Declining agricultural lands in parallel with the increasing world population and the functional status of organic agriculture on these agricultural lands have been examined. On the other hand the organic farming activities in Turkey is evaluated in terms of product design. The export and import data of these products have been tabulated by compiling up-to-date information on organic agriculture and marketing from various statistical portals and articles. Descriptive scanning method was used in our study. In the study, the declining agricultural lands due to the increase in urbanization and industrial activities on the world scale since the 1950s and the insufficiency of these lands against the increasing population are mentioned. On the other hand, the environmental damage caused by conventional agriculture, which is intensively carried out today, has been examined. Organic agricultural activities that are friendly to both the environment and human health and the marketing opportunities of these products has been evaluated in order to eliminate this damage. As is known, demographic pressures on agricultural land continue to increase. In order to prevent this pressure and to protect the agricultural lands for future generations, it is needed to plan these regions in the light of scientific data with correct agricultural techniques and policies. The Covid-19 outbreak seen today has made it inevitable to protect agricultural areas. In this sense, organic agriculture should be positioned with effective marketing strategies by combining both production and marketing activities

9.
SciDev.net ; 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1998779

ABSTRACT

Enock Chikava, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation It became clear to me that COVID-19 containment measures such as stay-at-home decrees, slowed down agricultural extension services, reduced household incomes against the rising cost of cultivation, led to unavailability of agricultural input materials and uncertainty about the marketing of the products, among others. Speakers at the event were particularly concerned with how the region can find innovative solutions to increase agricultural production that can address the challenges of shrinking arable land caused by population growth and other shocks such as climate change and COVID-19. Ahead of the UN Food Systems Summit next week, it is critical that African governments and development partners clearly outline the need to address the continent’s food systems challenges with commitments to invest in research and strengthen local research organisations for home-grown innovations that support food systems and increase uptake at the grassroots level.

10.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9730, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994201

ABSTRACT

The growing demand for hospital services and the pressure to incorporate sustainable strategies into hospital management have led hospitals to rethink their business model and seek new ways to manage their operations. Corporate sustainability is an important way to make hospitals more sustainable and competitive. Therefore, this paper proposes a framework that contains the drivers for the management of sustainability in hospitals (SH), developed through the content analysis method. As a result, this study proposes five drivers: toward the circular economy;making sustainable buildings;adopting knowledge management and organizational culture;employing management systems, tools, and methods;and applying technological innovations. This framework contributes in a managerial way to helping managers of hospitals in managing sustainability;making their businesses fairer, greener, and more prosperous;and fulfilling their commitments to the well-being of their employees and society, providing a basis for moving toward the premises of the United Nation’s 2030 Agenda. This study also scientifically contributes to the academic maturation of the topic by systematizing elements and adding insights to the state of the art on SH. It is recommended that future studies add new elements to the drivers or even propose new drivers for the continuous scientific advancement of this topic.

11.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9715, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994199

ABSTRACT

Land-use transition is one of the most profound human-induced alterations of the Earth’s system. It can support better land management and decision-making for increasing the yield of food production to fulfill the food needs in a specific area. However, modeling land-use change involves the complexity of human drivers and natural or environmental constraints. This study develops an agent-based model (ABM) for land use transitions using critical indicators that contribute to food deserts. The model’s performance was evaluated using Guilford County, North Carolina, as a case study. The modeling inputs include land covers, climate variability (rainfall and temperature), soil quality, land-use-related policies, and population growth. Studying the interrelationships between these factors can improve the development of effective land-use policies and help responsible agencies and policymakers plan accordingly to improve food security. The agent-based model illustrates how and when individuals or communities could make specific land-cover transitions to fulfill the community’s food needs. The results indicate that the agent-based model could effectively monitor land use and environmental changes to visualize potential risks over time and help the affected communities plan accordingly.

12.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(3):11153-11154, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1976235
13.
Studies on Russian Economic Development ; 33(4):409-421, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1962115

ABSTRACT

—The article examines the current demographic trends in Russia as compared to population changes in the world and its major regions based on data from the Russian Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat), Eurostat, and the UN Population Division. It is shown that in terms of a number of characteristics of population reproduction—low fertility, ageing population structure, natural population decline—Russia is quite similar to the developed countries group. However, Russia is behind many countries in reducing the mortality rate of the middle-aged and older population, especially in men, and, correspondingly, in life expectancy for all age groups, which results in a noticeable increase in natural population decline and in deformation of the sex structure of the population. The specifics of the age structure of the Russian population that have been formed by a number of demographic waves are such that changes in the number of births and in age group sizes come in waves;this trend will continue in the coming decades. The article also analyzes excess mortality in Russia during the COVID-19 pandemic in comparison with similar data for the European Union (EU-27) and compares healthy life expectancy estimates for Russia, the entire world, individual countries, and different groups of countries by income.

14.
Webology ; 19(2):8393-8404, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958459

ABSTRACT

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals also talk about the ZERO HUNGER by 2030, which itself shows that we must think about this alarming situation, the situation is becoming worse due to the Covid -19 pandemic, which has increased the level of stress. As the recent trend, the number of people affected by hunger will surpass 840 million by 2030, or 9.8 percent of the global population [16]. With soaring food prices pushing millions of people into food insecurity, the United Nations International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) is calling on governments and the private sector to urgently step up their investments in small-scale agriculture focused on locally produced, nutrition-rich food [14].This move is very essential and will be effective too, as if local food production will increase, the food will be made easily available to the people & at a much lower rate, this in turn will reduce the insecurity of the food at a much higher level. After realizing the United Nations Goal 2 -ZERO HUNGER and looking at the announcement of the International Fund for Agriculture Development ahead of Tokyo Nutrition for Growth (N4G) Summit on 7-8 of December, 2021, we may conclude that to overcome the fear of hunger in the near future, we must rebuild our agriculture system to produce the maximum output with the available resources & for this we must use the latest technological tools and ICT also.

15.
Webology ; 19(2):9350-9362, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1957813

ABSTRACT

Role of money demand occupies a central place in regulating the monetary management of the economy and a topic of keen interest among researchers and academics (Sichei & Kamau, 2012). Growing money demand ensures an upsurge in the economic activity and vice versa. The present study analyzes the money demand function in Pakistan. The ARDL method to co-integration is used on data ranged between 1972 and 2018. The results showed that statistically significant effects of all main hypothesized factors including number of bank branches, population growth rate and agricultural output are found positive, negative and negative, respectively, both in the short-run and long- run. Whereas the effect of traditional factors viz., income and inflation rate on money demand appeared as positive, and statistically significant. The broad money demand function appeared to be stable in Pakistan. Policy to be focused on certain factors is discussed.

16.
Agricultural and Resource Economics Review ; 51(2):391-421, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1947026

ABSTRACT

Food security in many developing countries has been threatened by several factors such as unequal land distribution, ineffective land reform policies, inefficient agricultural value chains, and an increasing number of climate disasters. In Nigeria, these threats are exacerbated by rapid population growth and extreme weather events, which have resulted in farmer-herder conflicts in most agrarian communities. This paper examines the differential impacts of the incidence and severity of farmer-herder resource use conflicts on food insecurity of rural households in Nigeria. We employ a two-stage predictor substitution model to estimate survey data collected from 401 rural households in Nigeria. The empirical results show that both the incidence and the severity of farmer-herder conflicts significantly increase food insecurity, and the severity of these conflicts has a larger impact than their incidence. The estimates of the conditional mixed process models confirm the robustness of our results. Additional analysis reveals that the incidence and severity of farmer-herder conflicts positively and significantly affect food insecurity, measured by the number of days with limited varieties of food eaten. Our findings highlight the importance of policy interventions that address ongoing farmer-herder conflicts in affected countries like Nigeria to enhance food security from a sustainable development perspective.

17.
International Journal of Simulation and Process Modelling ; 18(1):23-35, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1923730

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to model, map, and identify why some areas present a completely different dispersion pattern of COVID-19, as well as creating a risk model, composed of variables such as probability, susceptibility, danger, vulnerability, and potential damage, that characterises each of the defined regions. The model is based on a risk conceptual model proposed by Bachmann and Allgower in 2001, based on the wildfire terminology, analysing the spatial distribution. Additionally, a model based on population growth, chaotic maps, and turbulent flows is applied in the calculation of the variable probability, based on the work of Bonasera (2020). The results for the Portuguese case are promising, regarding the fitness of the said models and the outcome results of a conceptual model for the epidemiological risk assessment for the spread of coronavirus for each region. © 2022 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.. All rights reserved.

18.
Finnish Yearbook of Population Research ; 56:31-63, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1918979

ABSTRACT

Few producers of official population projections provide regular evaluations ofpast projection inaccuracies. This paper assesses deviations between the projected and registered total population for Norway (1996-2018), as well as deviations in the age structure, total fertility rate and number of births, period life expectancy at birth and number of deaths, and net international migration. Projected life expectancy was consistently lower than the real development. Few systematic deviations were observed for fertility up to 2009, but thereafter fertility has been consistently overprojected. However, the deviations between projected and realised trends in births and deaths have been relatively small as compared to those for net international migration. The projections produced between 1996-2005 underestimated long-term population growth due primarily to the unforeseen increase in immigration following EU expansion in 2004. More recent projections contain no consistent under- or overprojection of net migration and the deviations for the total population have been moderate.

19.
Finnish Yearbook of Population Research ; 56:137-159, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1918790

ABSTRACT

This study projects different dependency ratios under various scenarios of future fertility and tertiary education in Finland to assess how the economic consequences of population aging depend on these trends. Applying a multidimensional demographic approach through a discrete-time microsimulation model, we project the newly introduced productivity-weighted labour force dependency ratio for Finnish scenarios until 2060 and compared it with the labour force dependency ratio and the traditional age dependency ratio. Results show that population aging looks less daunting when considering labour force dependency ratios as compared to purely age-based ratios, yet all measures and scenarios show a deterioration of the dependency ratio. While the old age dependency ratio is projected to increase by 73 per cent, the labour force dependency ratio would increase by 32 per cent, and the productivity weighted labour force dependency ratio by 28 per cent. Provided a more rapid increase in educational attainment, the last indicator is expected to increase less, with 21 per cent until 2060. Should the stalled trend in educational achievement of the 2010s continue, there would be very modest future gains in the productivity-weighted ratio. In other words, the consequences of population ageing look less dramatic for economic productivity, if the current gender gap in educational achievement would disappear and were Finnish men to become as educated as Finnish women. Of the three fertility scenarios considered, a total fertility rate of 2.0 is most advantageous and a low fertility of 1.2 least optimal for adult dependency ratios, but only after 2050. Interestingly, a combination of recovered fertility to 1.6 with a more rapid educational expansion would be better for productivity than only raising fertility to 2.0. Boosting educational levels would hence mitigate the negative effects of a shrinking labour force more than increasing fertility within reasonable bounds. Our results suggest that implementation of the current government goals for educational expansion, combined with a not unrealistic recovery of total fertility rates to around 1.6, would both clearly alleviate the worsening dependency ratio. We conclude that although there is no quick fix to the economic effects of population ageing, these can be proactively mitigated with different and complementing policies, and taking into account multidimensional population trends.

20.
Sociologicky Casopis ; 58(2):119-150, 2022.
Article in Czech | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1912199

ABSTRACT

Public support for government institutions tends to increase in the face of threats such as armed conflict, terrorism, or natural disasters. This phenomenon, known as the 'rally-'round-the-flag' effect, has also been observed as a response to the Covid-19 pandemic in many countries. Citizens' trust in the government's good intentions and ability to handle a crisis is very important, as it gives government the legitimacy to take strong measures. High trust in government also increases citizens' willingness to comply with these measures. The aim of this study is to examine the 'rally-'round-the-flag' effect in the Czech Republic, analyse the characteristics related to the increase in trust in government, and test the relationship between trust in government and compliance with anti-pandemic measures. The analysis uses data from five waves of the Czech Household Panel Study (2016-2020) and finds a dramatic increase in trust in government in response to the Covid-19 pandemic. A relatively higher increase in trust in government was observed among people with a low level of education and low social trust. Overall, however, the rise in trust in government is more of a general tendency across society than it is an increase in one specific group of the population. Trust in government is also linked to compliance with anti-pandemic measures.

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