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1.
Euro Surveill ; 27(39)2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109633

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAfter an outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 Beta variant in the district of Schwaz/Austria, vaccination with Comirnaty vaccine (BNT162b2 mRNA, BioNTech-Pfizer) had been offered to all adult inhabitants (≥ 16 years) in March 2021. This made Schwaz one of the most vaccinated regions in Europe at that time (70% of the adult population took up the offer). In contrast, all other Austrian districts remained with low vaccine coverage.AimWe studied whether this rapid mass vaccination campaign provided indirect protection to unvaccinated individuals such as children (< 16 years) living in the same district.MethodsTo study the effect of the campaign we used two complementary approaches. We compared infection rates among the population of children (< 16 years) in Schwaz with (i) the child population from similar districts (using the synthetic control method), and (ii) with the child population from municipalities along the border of Schwaz not included in the campaign (using an event study approach).ResultsBefore the campaign, we observed very similar infection spread across the cohort of children in Schwaz and the control regions. After the campaign, we found a significant reduction of new cases among children of -64.5% (95%-CI: -82.0 to -30.2%) relative to adjacent border municipalities (using the event study model). Employing the synthetic control method, we observed a significant reduction of -42.8% in the same cohort.ConclusionOur results constitute novel evidence of an indirect protection effect from a group of vaccinated individuals to an unvaccinated group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles , Adult , Austria/epidemiology , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Measles/epidemiology , Measles Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
2.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(11): e41914, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite continuing efforts to improve the inclusion of underserved groups in clinical research, gaps in diversity remain. Participation of special populations is especially important when facing problems of unprecedented complexity such as the COVID-19 pandemic. A better understanding of factors associated with the immune response in diverse populations would advance future preventive and curative approaches. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the factors potentially responsible for adverse events following COVID-19 immunization. The study population included adults from rural areas, transitional countries, and those with medically understudied conditions, across a broad age range. METHODS: The study evolved from peer support networks developed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were recruited digitally through online neighborhood and health communities. Some of the participants volunteered as study investigators assisting with offline recruitment and safety monitoring. Individuals who consented to participate were asked to share their vaccination experiences either using constantly evolving web-based surveys or via one-on-one communication. Inferential statistical analysis to estimate differences between study groups was performed using parametric and nonparametric tests. RESULTS: Of 1430 participants who shared their vaccination experiences, 648 had outcome measures at their 1.5-year follow-up. Significant differences were found between age groups, types of vaccine adverse events (VAEs), incidences of breakthrough infections, and health conditions linked to the microbiome. Pairwise comparisons showed that VAEs interfering with daily activities were significantly higher in both younger (18-59 years) and older age groups (80-100 years, P<.001) than in the 60-79-year age group. Short-term VAEs were associated with lower incidence of breakthrough COVID-19 infections relative to those who reported either minimal or long-term adverse events (P<.001). A genetic origin was suggested for some adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study demonstrate that vaccine adverse reactions in older individuals are being overlooked, and the incidence of VAEs impairing immunity may be higher than previously perceived. Better preventive measures are needed for all those at risk for life-threatening and long-term adverse events due to vaccination. Supportive community-based studies focusing on these populations could add important data to the current body of knowledge. Further and more comprehensive studies should follow. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04832932; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04832932. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1101/2021.06.28.21256779.

3.
Entertainment Computing ; : 100536, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104872

ABSTRACT

Music listening choices are considered to be a factor capable of measuring people’s emotions. Thanks to the explosion of streaming music applications in recent years, it is possible to describe listening trends of the global population based on emotional features. In this paper we have analysed the most popular songs from 52 countries on Spotify through their features of danceability, positivity and intensity. This analysis allows exploring how these song features reflect mood trends along with other contextual factors that may affect the population’s listening behaviour, such as the weather or the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, we have proposed a multivariate time series model to predict the preferred type of music in those countries based on their previous music listening patterns and the contextual factors. The results show some relevant behavioural changes in these patterns due to the effect of the pandemic. Furthermore, the resulting prediction model enables forecasting the type of music listened to in three different groups of countries in the next 4 months with an error around 1%. These results may help to better understand streaming music consumption in businesses related to the music and marketing industry.

4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2501-2509, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107210

ABSTRACT

To further describe the effect of the "fragile population" and their "higher-risk" comorbidities on prognosis among hospitalized Omicron patients, this observational cohort study enrolled hospitalized patients confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 during the 2022 Omicron wave in Shanghai, China. The primary outcome was progression to severe or critical cases. The secondary outcome was viral shedding time from the first positive SARS-CoV-2 detection. A total of 847 participants were enrolled, most of whom featured as advanced age (>70 years old: 30.34%), not fully vaccinated (55.84%), combined with at least 1 comorbidity (65.41%). Multivariate cox regression suggested age >70 years old (aHR[95%CI] 0.78[0.61-0.99]), chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4-5 (aHR[95%CI] 0.61[0.46-0.80]), heart conditions (aHR[95%CI] 0.76[0.60-0.97]) would elongate viral shedding time and fully/booster vaccination (aHR[95%CI] 1.4 [1.14-1.72]) would shorten this duration. Multivariate logistic regression suggested CKD stage 4-5 (aHR[95%CI] 3.21[1.45-7.27]), cancer (aHR[95%CI] 9.52[4.19-22.61]), and long-term bedridden status (aHR[95%CI] 4.94[2.36-10.44]) were the "higher" risk factor compared with the elderly, heart conditions, metabolic disorders, isolated hypertension, etc. for severity while female (aHR[95%CI] 0.34[0.16-0.68]) and fully/booster Vaccination (aHR[95%CI] 0.35[0.12-0.87]) could provide protection from illness progression. CKD stage 4-5, cancer and long-term bedridden history were "higher-risk" factors among hospitalized Omicron patients for severity progression while full vaccination could provide protection from illness progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Female , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology
5.
Vaccine ; 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106130

ABSTRACT

Several countries started a 2nd booster COVID-19 vaccination campaign targeting the elderly population, but evidence around its effectiveness is still scarce. This study aims to estimate the relative effectiveness of a 2nd booster dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in the population aged ≥ 80 years in Italy, during predominant circulation of the Omicron BA.2 and BA.5 subvariants. We linked routine data from the national vaccination registry and the COVID-19 surveillance system. On each day between 11 April and 6 August 2022, we matched 1:1, according to several demographic and clinical characteristics, individuals who received the 2nd booster vaccine dose with individuals who received the 1st booster vaccine dose at least 120 days earlier. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to compare the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 (hospitalisation or death) between the two groups, calculating the relative vaccine effectiveness (RVE) as (1 - risk ratio)X100. Based on the analysis of 831,555 matched pairs, we found that a 2nd booster dose of mRNA vaccine, 14-118 days post administration, was moderately effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to a 1st booster dose administered at least 120 days earlier [14.3 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 2.2-20.2]. RVE decreased from 28.5 % (95 % CI: 24.7-32.1) in the time-interval 14-28 days to 7.6 % (95 % CI: -14.1 to 18.3) in the time-interval 56-118 days. However, RVE against severe COVID-19 was higher (34.0 %, 95 % CI: 23.4-42.7), decreasing from 43.2 % (95 % CI: 30.6-54.9) to 27.2 % (95 % CI: 8.3-42.9) over the same time span. Although RVE against SARS-CoV-2 infection was much reduced 2-4 months after a 2nd booster dose, RVE against severe COVID-19 was about 30 %, even during prevalent circulation of the Omicron BA.5 subvariant. The cost-benefit of a 3rd booster dose for the elderly people who received the 2nd booster dose at least four months earlier should be carefully evaluated.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 3): 160103, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105909

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are collectively responsible for tens of millions of global deaths each year. These rates are projected to intensify as the COVID-19 pandemic has caused delays in individualized diagnostics, or exacerbated prevalence due to Post Acute Coronavirus (COVID-19) Syndrome. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has successfully been employed as a useful tool for generating population-level health assessments, and was examined here in this systematic scoping literature review to (i) identify endogenous human biomarkers reported to indicate CVD or cancer in clinical practice, (ii) assess specificity to the indicated diseases, (iii) evaluate the utility for estimating population-level disease prevalence in community wastewater, and (iv) contextualize the obtained information for monitoring CVD and cancer presence via WBE. A total of 48 peer-reviewed papers were critically examined identifying five urinary protein biomarkers: cardiac troponin I (cTnI) (heart attack/heart failure), cystatin C (atherosclerosis), normetanephrine (tumor presence), α-fetoprotein (prostate and liver cancer), and microtubule assisted serine/threonine kinase 4 (MAST4) (breast cancer). Next, urinary excretion information was utilized to predict biomarker concentrations extant in community wastewater, resulting in average healthy concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 1159 ng/L, and disease-indicating thresholds from 0.16 to 3041 ng/L. Finally, estimating prevalence-adjusted wastewater measurements was explored in order to assess community-level CVD and cancer presence utilizing U.S. reported prevalence rates. Results obtained suggest that WBE can serve as a viable tool in support of current methods for CVD and cancer assessment to reduce morbidities and mortalities worldwide.

7.
J Affect Disord ; 322: 108-117, 2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on the lives of people globally and is expected to have profound effects on mental health. Here we aim to describe the mental health burden experienced in Sweden using baseline data of the Omtanke2020 Study. METHOD: We analysed self-reported, cross-sectional baseline data collected over a 12-month period (June 9, 2020-June 8, 2021) from the Omtanke2020 Study including 27,950 adults in Sweden. Participants were volunteers or actively recruited through existing cohorts and, after providing informed consent, responded to online questionnaires on socio-demographics, mental and physical health, as well as COVID-19 infection and impact. Poisson regression was fitted to assess the relative risk of demonstrating high level symptoms of depression, anxiety, and COVID-19 related distress. RESULT: The proportion of persons with high level of symptoms was 15.6 %, 9.5 % and 24.5 % for depression, anxiety, and COVID-19 specific post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), respectively. Overall, 43.4 % of the participants had significant, clinically relevant symptoms for at least one of the three mental health outcomes and 7.3 % had significant symptoms for all three outcomes. We also observed differences in the prevalence of these outcomes across strata of sex, age, recruitment type, COVID-19 status, region, and seasonality. CONCLUSION: While the proportion of persons with high mental health burden remains higher than the ones reported in pre-pandemic publications, our estimates are lower than previously reported levels of depression, anxiety, and PTSD during the pandemic in Sweden and elsewhere.

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 125: 58-60, 2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105081

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate COVID-19 messenger RNA vaccine effectiveness during the Delta- and Omicron-predominant periods in Japan. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study among individuals aged 16-64 years during two periods: the Delta-predominant period (July 1-December 31, 2021) and the Omicron-predominant period (January 1-March 29, 2022). RESULTS: When comparing individuals who were vaccinated with those who were unvaccinated, the effectiveness of a second dose against symptomatic infection was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80.5-94.7%) during the Delta-predominant period and 21.2% (95% CI: 11.0-30.3%) during the Omicron-predominant period. The effectiveness of a third dose against symptomatic infection was 71.8% (95% CI: 60.1-80.1%) during the Omicron-predominant period. CONCLUSION: Vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection decreased during the Omicron-predominant period but was maintained by a third dose.

10.
Eur Econ Rev ; 150: 104283, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104917

ABSTRACT

Do cities accelerate COVID-19 transmission? Increased transmission arising from population density prompts spatial policies for financial support and containment, and poorer prospects for recovery. Using daily case counts from over 3,000 counties in the U.S. from February to September 2020, I estimate a compartmental transmission equation. Rational sheltering behavior plausibly varies by location, so I propose two instruments that exploit unanticipated variation in exposure to potential infection. In the first month of local infections, an additional log point of population density raises the expected transmission parameter estimate by around 3%. After the first month, the relation vanishes: density effects occur only in the outbreaks. Public transport, work-from-home jobs and income explain additional variation in transmission but do not account for the density effects. Consistent with location-varying optimal sheltering behavior, I document stronger mobility declines in denser areas, but only after the first month of infections. These results suggest that differences in transmission between cities and other places do not motivate spatial policies for recovery or containment, or poorer prospects after the pandemic.

11.
International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning ; 17(3):327-331, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2104057

ABSTRACT

This edition of the International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning comes just as many of us are about to or have recently begun a new academic year. Though COVID continues to be a force to contend with, this Fall brings a marked change from the past few Falls in terms of the ability to gather and enjoy community. This September issue comprises four full articles with three interrelated themes, namely, the ability to grow, assessments to measure growth, and real time assessment through analytics to prompt growth. These topics are contextualized within challenging contexts where growth occurs as individuals reach beyond the comfort zone of their own perspective, culture, and history, and reach out for others different from themselves. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

12.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 24(11): 635-643, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104097

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed current evidence on the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on sleep of different populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies demonstrated that sleep deprivation may cause immune system dysregulation, which deteriorates the course of COVID-19. The increased prevalence of sleep disorders among COVID-19 patients has been associated with more severe disease and worse clinical outcomes. Healthcare workers who were subjected to atypical workload and more nightshifts developed sleep disorders which associated with work-related errors and COVID-19 infection susceptibility. In general population, circadian misalignment and excessive stressors impaired sleep quality. Sleep dysfunction has been recorded due to the pandemic. It is essential to implement interventions in order to alleviate pandemic-related sleep disorders. Telemedicine, cognitive behavioral therapy, and sleep hygiene practices appear to be helpful. Psychotropic medication should be cautiously administered, while other pharmacological agents, such as melatonin, have shown promising results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep/physiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/therapy , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology
13.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect ; 13(5): 377-381, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100733

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We estimated the overall and age-specific percentages of the Korean population with presumed immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) as of April 2022 using the national registry. METHODS: We used the national coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and vaccination registry from South Korea, as described to define individuals with a previous history of COVID-19 infection, vaccination, or both, as persons with presumed immunity. RESULTS: Of a total of 53,304,627 observed persons, 24.4% had vaccination and infection, 58.1% had vaccination and no infection, 7.6% had infection and no vaccination, and 9.9% had no immunity. The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant emerged at a time when the presumed population immunity ranged from 80% to 85%; however, nearly half of the children were presumed to have no immunity. CONCLUSION: We report a gap in population immunity, with lower presumed protection in children than in adults. The approach presented in this work can provide valuable informed tools to assist vaccine policy-making at a national level.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099536

ABSTRACT

This study examines the possibility of correlation between the data on human mobility restrictions and the COVID-19 infection rates in two European countries: Poland and Portugal. The aim of this study is to verify the correlation and causation between mobility changes and the infection spread as well as to investigate the impact of the introduced restrictions on changes in human mobility. The data were obtained from Google Community Mobility Reports, Apple Mobility Trends Reports, and The Humanitarian Data Exchange along with other reports published online. All the data were organized in one dataset, and three groups of variables were distinguished: restrictions, mobility, and intensity of the disease. The causal-comparative research design method is used for this study. The results show that in both countries the state restrictions reduced human mobility, with the strongest impact in places related to retail and recreation, grocery, pharmacy, and transit stations. At the same time, the data show that the increase in restrictions had strong positive correlation with stays in residential places both in Poland and Portugal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Portugal/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Europe
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099520

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In the US, the COVID-19 pandemic has exposed deeply rooted resistance to public health. This has important consequences for SARS-CoV-2 variant spread and for future uptake of influenza and other vaccines. We examine these phenomena in Missouri, where its low vaccination rates, high levels of uninsured residents, predominance of conservative values, and stark rural-urban divides are intricately connected to public health resistance. The Socio-Ecological model guides our approach. METHODS: We use data from the Fall 2020 Midwestern University (MWU-a pseudonym) Study of Seropositivity and Risk for SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 which are harmonized with the American Community Survey, Missouri County-Level Study, and the USDA Rural-Urban Continuum Codes to estimate multi-level regression models on the relationship between undergraduate students' "home" locales and their own COVID-19 and influenza vaccine hesitancy. FINDINGS: The availability of primary care physicians, the prevalence of influenza vaccinations, and location type at the county level, as well as the percentage of residents without health insurance at the zip code level differentially predict COVID-19 and influenza vaccine hesitancy. CONCLUSIONS: There is a link between county-level health and geographic characteristics, and individuals'-who were influenced by those counties because that is where their parents live-hesitancy towards vaccines. Identifying feasible, precise, local solutions to reducing vaccine hesitancy could take place if community members and other stakeholders would be open to changes in local-level health policy or practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Vaccines , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination Hesitancy , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Vaccination , Students
16.
Risk Anal ; 42(7): 1571-1584, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097864

ABSTRACT

Understanding is still developing about spatial risk factors for COVID-19 infection or mortality. This is a secondary analysis of patient records in a confined area of eastern England, covering persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 through end May 2020, including dates of death and residence area. We obtained residence area data on air quality, deprivation levels, care home bed capacity, age distribution, rurality, access to employment centers, and population density. We considered these covariates as risk factors for excess cases and excess deaths in the 28 days after confirmation of positive Covid status relative to the overall case load and death recorded for the study area as a whole. We used the conditional autoregressive Besag-York-Mollie model to investigate the spatial dependency of cases and deaths allowing for a Poisson error structure. Structural equation models were applied to clarify relationships between predictors and outcomes. Excess case counts or excess deaths were both predicted by the percentage of population age 65 years, care home bed capacity and less rurality: older population and more urban areas saw excess cases. Greater deprivation did not correlate with excess case counts but was significantly linked to higher mortality rates after infection. Neither excess cases nor excess deaths were predicted by population density, travel time to local employment centers, or air quality indicators. Only 66% of mortality was explained by locally high case counts. Higher deprivation clearly linked to higher COVID-19 mortality separate from wider community prevalence and other spatial risk factors.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Aged , Air Pollution/adverse effects , England/epidemiology , Humans , Mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
International Journal of Computational Economics and Econometrics ; 12(4):342-365, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2098800

ABSTRACT

This work focuses on the so called 'first wave' of COVID-19 epidemic (21 February-10 April 2020) and aims at outlining a viable strategy to contain the COVID-19 spread and efficiently plan an exit from lockdown measures. It offers a model to estimate the total number of actual infected among the population at national and regional level inferring from the lethality rate, to fill the proven gap with the number of officially reported cases. The result is the reference population used to develop a forecasting exercise of new daily cases, compared to the reported ones. The eventual discrepancy is analysed in terms of compliance with the restrictive measures or to an insufficient number of tests performed. This simulation indicates that an efficient testing policy is the main actionable measure. Furthermore, the paper estimates the optimal number of tests to be performed at national and regional level, in order to be able to release an increasing number of individuals from restrictive measures.

18.
Review of Economics and Political Science ; 7(3):194-203, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2097581

ABSTRACT

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of critical macroeconomic drivers like economic growth (gross domestic product (GDP)/capita), inflation and population size on the mortality rate of Nigeria. The general lockdown imposed by the government to curb the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had so many effects like loss of jobs, insecurity, businesses collapsing, salary cuts, unemployment and increased prices of commodities in the market. Design/methodology/approach The paper focused on secondary data for the period 1991-2019 for GDP/capita, inflation, population size and mortality rate which were obtained from World Development Indicators (WDI). Time series analysis tests like augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF), Bounds co-integration and autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) were used to determine the stationarity conditions of the variables, co-integration presence among the variables and to determine the short-run and long-run relationships between the endogenous and exogenous variables. Findings The study shows that the variables are stationary at different orders i.e. I (0) and I (1) and the presence of co-integration among the variables. There exists a positive relationship between GDP/capita and mortality rate on the short-run which means increase in GDP/capita does not reduce the mortality rate in the country, there is also a positive short-run relationship between inflation and mortality rate but there are no long-run relationships among the variables. Originality/value The paper clearly examines the impact of GDP/capita, inflation and population growth on mortality rate in Nigeria.

19.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099294

ABSTRACT

There are growing concerns that the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may change antibiotic use patterns and accelerate antibiotic resistance, but evidence from the community level is lacking. This study aims to estimate the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the antibiotic use patterns among a community population in Eastern China. A self-administered medicine diary was used to collect information on antibiotic use from July 2019 to June 2021 among a rural community in Eastern China. We analyzed the changes in antibiotic use patterns over five months from August to December 2019 and the corresponding months in 2020. The risk of antibiotic use and its changes were measured with the incidence rate (IR) and relative risk (RR). In total, 1111 participants were eligible for the final analysis (440 in 2019 and 671 in 2020). After the COVID-19 outbreak, antibiotic use increased by 137% (5.43 per 100 person months in the 2019 vs. 12.89 per 100 person months in the 2020), and after the adjustment of covariates, the adjusted RR was 1.72 (95% CI: 1.10~2.34). It was higher among those who were women (RR = 2.62), aged 35-59 years old (RR = 2.72), non-farmers (RR = 2.75), had less than six years of education (RR = 2.61), had an annual household income over CNY 100,000 (USD 14,940) (RR = 2.60), and had no history of chronic diseases (RR = 2.61) (all p < 0.05). The proportion of cephalosporins consumed increased from 54.29% in 2019 to 64.92% in 2020 (p = 0.011). Among those aged 35 years and older, the proportion of antibiotics obtained from medical facilities increased, while the proportion obtained from retail pharmacies, homes, and other sources decreased (all p < 0.05). The COVID-19 outbreak changed antibiotic use patterns in this study population (Eastern China) significantly. More efforts to monitor and enhance antibiotic stewardship activities at the community level are needed in future.

20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 993035, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099269

ABSTRACT

Background: The physical activity (PA) of the youth and adult population underwent changes during the last 2 years due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, and all for the purpose of maintaining the health of the population. The purpose of this study was to estimate the levels of PA in the youth population and the adult population (young and old) during the COVID-19 pandemic in the territory of Vojvodina, Serbia, and to determine the differences between them, as well as to compare these results with the results before the pandemic. Methods: A total of 1,117 subjects (age 36.27 ± 15.08 years) from the territory of Vojvodina, Serbia, participated in the study. Subjects were recruited and assigned to one of the three groups according to their age: youth group (N = 395; age 18-24 years), young adults group (N = 347; from 25 to 44 years), and old adults group (N = 375; age 45-65 years). All participants in this study completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short-Form between July and November 2021, during the fourth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Vojvodina, Serbia. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn multiple comparison post-hoc method were used for statistical analyses. Results: The youth showed the highest result in total weekly energy expenditure (3,893.72 ± 2,010.01 MET-min/week) compared to young adults (2,528.20 ± 1,804.11 MET-min/week) and old adults (2,369.07 ± 2,084.95 MET-min/week) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Vojvodina, Serbia. In addition, adults (young and old) spent more time sitting than youth during the same period. Furthermore, the youth achieved greater results in levels of PA during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the situation before the COVID-19 pandemic. However, adult populations achieved lower results during the COVID-19 pandemic than before the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the youth from Vojovida, Serbia, achieved greater results in PA levels than the adult populations. Based on that, we recommend that it is necessary to take steps toward increasing PA in the adult population, especially old adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Serbia/epidemiology , Young Adult , Yugoslavia
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