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1.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(11):1373-1378, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040499

ABSTRACT

In order to build a specific, sensitive and rapid detection method for PAstV3 detection, the PAstVB gene sequences in Genbank were used and the conserved region in ORFlb was selected to design specific primers and TaqMan probe. Clinical stool samples were collected and preliminary detected by this newly established real-time RT-PCR method after reaction systems and conditions optimization. This detection method established in this study has a good linear relationship with the standard curve, with R2 value up to 0.9971. The sensitivity is 100 times higher than conventional PCR method, The variation co-efficient of in-batch and inter-batch repeatability test is less than 2.0%, indicating good repeatability. The detection results of Clinical samples showed that the positive rate of this method is higher than conventional PCR method. The establishment of this method provides a rapid detection means for PAstV3 laboratory diagnosis and epidemiological investigation.

2.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(7):825-832, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1994655

ABSTRACT

In order to establish a method for rapid differential identification of Senecavirus A (SVA) and en-cephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), two pairs of corresponding specific primers were designed based on the highly conserved 3D genes of SVA and EMCV. And two different fluorescent labeled TaqMan probes were used to establish a dual TaqMan real-time PCR method for simultaneous detection of these two viruses, and we also optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the minimum detection of the method was 760 copies/ micro L and 98 copies/ micro L for SVA and EMCV. respectively, and it can specifically detect SVA and EMCV, and there was no cross reaction with CSFV, PRRSV and PEDV. The established standard curves showed good linear relationship. Repeated experimental group and inter-group coefficient of variation were less than 5%. The results indicated that the dual-quantitative PCR established in this study has the advantages of convenience, rapidity, good specificity. high sensitivity and good repeatability .and can be used for simultaneous detection of SVA and EMCV.

3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): e1005-e1014, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968197

ABSTRACT

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been one of the major health-related concerns in the swine production industry. Through its rapid transmission and mutation, the simultaneous circulation of multiple PRRSV strains can be a challenge in PRRSV diagnostic, control and surveillance. The objective of this longitudinal study was to describe the temporal detection of PRRSV in swine farms with different production types and PRRS management strategies. Tonsil scraping (n = 344) samples were collected from three breeding and two growing herds for approximately one year. In addition, processing fluids (n = 216) were obtained from piglet processing batches within the three breeding farms while pen-based oral fluids (n = 125) were collected in the two growing pig farms. Viral RNA extraction and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) were conducted for all samples. The sample positivity threshold was set at quantification cycle (Cq) of ≤ 37. Statistical analyses were performed using generalized linear modelling and post hoc pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni adjustments using R statistical software. The results suggested a higher probability of detection in processing fluids compared to tonsil scraping specimens [odds ratio (OR) = 3.86; p = .096] in breeding farms whereas oral fluids were outperformed by tonsil scrapings (OR = 0.26; p < .01) in growing pig farms. The results described herein may lead to an improvement in PRRSV diagnostic and surveillance by selecting proper specimens.


Subject(s)
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Demography , Longitudinal Studies , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/genetics , Saliva , Swine
4.
Journal of Swine Health and Production ; 30(3):145-148, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1970073

ABSTRACT

Using retrospective data from 6 breedto- wean herds over 4 years, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) statuses were assigned by week according to the 2021 American Association of Swine Veterinarians PRRSV classification. Productivity changes were characterized as herds transitioned through status categories. Overall, productivity improved as farm status improved.

5.
Bulletin des GTV ; 104:85-92, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957885

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses have a high evolutionary capacity which has led to their very large genetic diversity. Their prevalence in nature is very high and they can infect a wide spectrum of hosts including mammals (including humans) and birds. To date, six porcine coronaviruses have been identified. Two of which were responsible for severe epizootics in pigs with a major impact in the global swine industry in the 60's to 80's for porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus and since the 2010's in China and 2014 in North America for porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus. The latter has also become the third most important pathogen for pigs in China after the African swine fever virus and the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. This review summarizes the latest developments in scientific knowledge of these porcine coronaviruses.

6.
Surveillance ; 48(4):10-24, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1887621

ABSTRACT

Exotic pest and disease investigations are managed and reported by the Ministry for Primary Industries' (MPI's) Diagnostic and Surveillance Directorate. This article presents a summary of investigations of suspect exotic and emerging pests and diseases in New Zealand during the period from July to September 2021.

7.
Trends Food Sci Technol ; 104: 219-234, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a common herb consumed worldwide as functional food and traditional remedy for the prevention of infectious diseases since ancient time. Garlic and its active organosulfur compounds (OSCs) have been reported to alleviate a number of viral infections in pre-clinical and clinical investigations. However, so far no systematic review on its antiviral effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms exists. SCOPE AND APPROACH: The aim of this review is to systematically summarize pre-clinical and clinical investigations on antiviral effects of garlic and its OSCs as well as to further analyse recent findings on the mechanisms that underpin these antiviral actions. PubMed, Cochrane library, Google Scholar and Science Direct databases were searched and articles up to June 2020 were included in this review. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Pre-clinical data demonstrated that garlic and its OSCs have potential antiviral activity against different human, animal and plant pathogenic viruses through blocking viral entry into host cells, inhibiting viral RNA polymerase, reverse transcriptase, DNA synthesis and immediate-early gene 1(IEG1) transcription, as well as through downregulating the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. The alleviation of viral infection was also shown to link with immunomodulatory effects of garlic and its OSCs. Clinical studies further demonstrated a prophylactic effect of garlic in the prevention of widespread viral infections in humans through enhancing the immune response. This review highlights that garlic possesses significant antiviral activity and can be used prophylactically in the prevention of viral infections.

8.
Vaccine ; 40(16): 2370-2378, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773835

ABSTRACT

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae, Mhp) are two of the most common pathogens involved in the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. Vaccination is the most effective approach to disease prevention. Since PRRSV and Mhp co-infections are very common, an efficient dual vaccine against these pathogens is required for the global swine industry. Compared with traditional vaccines, multi-epitope vaccines have several advantages, they are comparatively easy to produce and construct, are chemically stable, and do not have an infectious potential. In this study, to develop a safe and effective vaccine, B cell and T cell epitopes of PRRSV-GP5, PRRSV-M, Mhp-P46, and Mhp-P65 protein had been screened to construct a recombinant epitope protein rEP-PM that has good hydrophilicity, strong antigenicity, and high surface accessibility, and each epitope is independent and complete. After immunization in mice, rEP-PM could induce the production of high levels of antibodies, and it had good immunoreactivity with anti-rEP-PM, anti-PRRSV, and anti-Mhp antibodies. The anti-rEP-PM antibody specifically recognizes proteins from PRRSV and Mhp. Moreover, rEP-PM induced a Th1-dominant cellular immune response in mice. Our results showed that the rEP-PM protein could be a potential candidate for the development of a safe and effective multi-epitope peptide combined vaccine to control PRRSV and Mhp infections.


Subject(s)
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Mice , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/prevention & control , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Swine
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 355, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically devastating diseases affecting the swine industry globally. Evaluation of antibody responses and neutralizing antibody titers is the most effective method for vaccine evaluation. In this study, the B cell line epitopes of PRRSV M protein were predicted, and two peptide ELISA assays were established (M-A110-129 ELISA, M-A148-174 ELISA) to detect antibodies against PRRSV M protein. Field serum samples collected from pig farms were used to validate the peptide ELISA and compare it with an indirect immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of M-A110-129 ELISA and M-A148-174 ELISA were (111/125) 88.80%, (69/70) 98.57% and (122/125) 97.60%, (70/70) 100%, relative to indirect immunofluorescence assay. This peptide ELISA could detect antibodies against different genotypes of PRRSV including type 1 PRRSV, classical PRRSV, HP-PRRSV, and NADC30 like PRRSV, but not antibodies against other common swine viruses. The results of ROC analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of the M-A110-129 ELISA and M-A148-174 ELISA were 0.967 and 0.996, respectively. Compared the concordance of results using two peptide ELISA assays, the IDEXX PRRSV X3 Ab ELISA and a virus neutralization test, were assessed using a series of 147 sera from pigs vaccinated with the NADC30-like PRRSV inactivated vaccine. The M-A148-174 ELISA had the best consistency, with a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.8772. The concordance rates of the Hipra PRRSV ELISA kit, M-A110-129 ELISA and M-A148-174 ELISA in the field seropositive detection results were 91.08, 86.32 and 95.35%, relative to indirect immunofluorescence assay. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, compared with M-A110-129 ELISA, the PRRSV M-A148-174 ELISA is of value for detecting antibodies against PRRSV and the evaluation of the NADC30-like PRRSV inactivated vaccine, but the advantage is insufficient in serological early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/veterinary , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine
10.
Energy (Oxf) ; 244: 122709, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520890

ABSTRACT

The spread of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 affects the health of people and the economy worldwide. As air transmits the virus, heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings, enclosed spaces and public transport play a significant role in limiting the transmission of airborne pathogens at the expenses of increased energy consumption and possibly reduced thermal comfort. On the other hand, liquid desiccant technology could be adopted as an air scrubber to increase indoor air quality and inactivate pathogens through temperature and humidity control, making them less favourable to the growth, proliferation and infectivity of microorganisms. The objectives of this study are to review the role of HVAC in airborne viral transmission, estimate its energy penalty associated with the adoption of HVAC for transmission reduction and understand the potential of liquid desiccant technology. Factors affecting the inactivation of pathogens by liquid desiccant solutions and possible modifications to increase their heat and mass transfer and sanitising characteristics are also described, followed by an economic evaluation. It is concluded that the liquid desiccant technology could be beneficial in buildings (requiring humidity control or moisture removal in particular when viruses are likely to present) or in high-footfall enclosed spaces (during virus outbreaks).

11.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 2334-2344, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331775

ABSTRACT

To obtain more information of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) transmission via faeces in/between farms, 360 swine faecal samples were randomly collected from different farms in China from 2017 to 2019. Sixty-two ORF5 genes were amplified by PCR from 120 positive samples identified by real-time RT-PCR and further characterized by sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis based on the ORF5 gene revealed that these strains can be divided into four lineages: lineage 1 (NADC30-like), lineage 3 (QYYZ-like), lineage 5.1 (VR2332-like) and lineage 8.7 (JXA1-like), with 62.9% (39/62) NADC30-like virus, 21% (13/62) QYYZ-like virus, 1.6% (1/62) VR2332-like virus and 14.5% (9/62) for JAX1-like virus. In particular, 14 PRRSVs including lineage 1, 5.1 and 8.7 can be isolated from 120 positive faecal samples, which further suggests that faecal transmission may be an important factor in the spread of PRRSV in farms. Full-length genome sequencing analysis showed that 14 isolates share 83.1%-97.7% homology with each other and 82.3%-96.1% identity with NADC30, 83.2%-99.7% with VR2332, 79.6%-87.2% with QYYZ and 82.6%-98.9% with JXA1 and CH-1a, and only 60.1%-60.7% with LV. Recombination events were observed in the six out of 14 strains. Collectively, the data of this study are useful for understanding the spread of PRRSV via faeces. Additionally, the virus was isolated from positive faecal samples, suggesting that faecal transmission may be an important factor in the spread of PRRSV in farms.


Subject(s)
Feces/virology , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , China/epidemiology , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , Patient Discharge , Phylogeny , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
12.
Chem Eng J ; 420: 127575, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898556

ABSTRACT

Virus-induced infection such as SARS-CoV-2 is a serious threat to human health and the economic setback of the world. Continued advances in the development of technologies are required before the viruses undergo mutation. The low concentration of viruses in environmental samples makes the detection extremely challenging; simple, accurate and rapid detection methods are in urgent need. Of all the analytical techniques, electrochemical methods have the established capabilities to address the issues. Particularly, the integration of nanotechnology would allow miniature devices to be made available at the point-of-care. This review outlines the capabilities of electrochemical methods in conjunction with nanotechnology for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Future directions and challenges of the electrochemical biosensors for pathogen detection are covered including wearable and conformal biosensors, detection of plant pathogens, multiplexed detection, and reusable biosensors for on-site monitoring, thereby providing low-cost and disposable biosensors.

13.
J Virol ; 94(15)2020 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-831394

ABSTRACT

Currently, an effective therapeutic treatment for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remains elusive. PRRSV helicase nsp10 is an important component of the replication transcription complex that plays a crucial role in viral replication, making nsp10 an important target for drug development. Here, we report the first crystal structure of full-length nsp10 from the arterivirus PRRSV, which has multiple domains: an N-terminal zinc-binding domain (ZBD), a 1B domain, and helicase core domains 1A and 2A. Importantly, our structural analyses indicate that the conformation of the 1B domain from arterivirus nsp10 undergoes a dynamic transition. The polynucleotide substrate channel formed by domains 1A and 1B adopts an open state, which may create enough space to accommodate and bind double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) during unwinding. Moreover, we report a unique C-terminal domain structure that participates in stabilizing the overall helicase structure. Our biochemical experiments also showed that deletion of the 1B domain and C-terminal domain significantly reduced the helicase activity of nsp10, indicating that the four domains must cooperate to contribute to helicase function. In addition, our results indicate that nidoviruses contain a conserved helicase core domain and key amino acid sites affecting helicase function, which share a common mechanism of helicase translocation and unwinding activity. These findings will help to further our understanding of the mechanism of helicase function and provide new targets for the development of antiviral drugs.IMPORTANCE Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major respiratory disease agent in pigs that causes enormous economic losses to the global swine industry. PRRSV helicase nsp10 is a multifunctional protein with translocation and unwinding activities and plays a vital role in viral RNA synthesis. Here, we report the first structure of full-length nsp10 from the arterivirus PRRSV at 3.0-Å resolution. Our results show that the 1B domain of PRRSV nsp10 adopts a novel open state and has a unique C-terminal domain structure, which plays a crucial role in nsp10 helicase activity. Furthermore, mutagenesis and structural analysis revealed conservation of the helicase catalytic domain across the order Nidovirales (families Arteriviridae and Coronaviridae). Importantly, our results will provide a structural basis for further understanding the function of helicases in the order Nidovirales.


Subject(s)
Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/enzymology , RNA Helicases/chemistry , RNA, Double-Stranded/chemistry , RNA, Viral/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/genetics , Protein Domains , RNA Helicases/genetics , RNA, Double-Stranded/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
14.
J Virol ; 94(6)2020 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824860

ABSTRACT

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an important pathogen that affects the pig industry, is a highly genetically diverse RNA virus. However, the phylogenetic and genomic recombination properties of this virus have not been completely elucidated. In this study, comparative analyses of all available genomic sequences of North American (NA)-type PRRSVs (n = 355, including 138 PRRSV genomes sequenced in this study) in China and the United States during 2014-2018 revealed a high frequency of interlineage recombination hot spots in nonstructural protein 9 (NSP9) and the GP2 to GP3 regions. Lineage 1 (L1) PRRSV was found to be susceptible to recombination among PRRSVs both in China and the United States. The recombinant major parent between the 1991-2013 data and the 2014-2018 data showed a trend from complex to simple. The major recombination pattern changed from an L8 to L1 backbone during 2014-2018 for Chinese PRRSVs, whereas L1 was always the major backbone for US PRRSVs. Intralineage recombination hot spots were not as concentrated as interlineage recombination hot spots. In the two main clades with differential diversity in L1, NADC30-like PRRSVs are undergoing a decrease in population genetic diversity, NADC34-like PRRSVs have been relatively stable in population genetic diversity for years. Systematic analyses of insertion and deletion (indel) polymorphisms of NSP2 divided PRRSVs into 25 patterns, which could generate novel references for the classification of PRRSVs. The results of this study contribute to a deeper understanding of the recombination of PRRSVs and indicate the need for coordinated epidemiological investigations among countries.IMPORTANCE Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant swine diseases. However, the phylogenetic and genomic recombination properties of the PRRS virus (PRRSV) have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we systematically compared differences in the lineage distribution, recombination, NSP2 polymorphisms, and evolutionary dynamics between North American (NA)-type PRRSVs in China and in the United States. Strikingly, we found high frequency of interlineage recombination hot spots in nonstructural protein 9 (NSP9) and in the GP2 to GP3 region. Also, intralineage recombination hot spots were scattered across the genome between Chinese and US strains. Furthermore, we proposed novel methods based on NSP2 indel patterns for the classification of PRRSVs. Evolutionary dynamics analysis revealed that NADC30-like PRRSVs are undergoing a decrease in population genetic diversity, suggesting that a dominant population may occur and cause an outbreak. Our findings offer important insights into the recombination of PRRSVs and suggest the need for coordinated international epidemiological investigations.


Subject(s)
Polymorphism, Genetic , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Viral Proteins/genetics , Animals , China/epidemiology , Phylogeography , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Swine , United States/epidemiology
15.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 3(8): 4809-4819, 2020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833523

ABSTRACT

Despite the good biocompatibility and antibacterial activity of zinc sulfide nanoparticles (ZnS NPs), whether they possess antiviral activity is still unclear. Here, GSH-modified ZnS NPs (GSH-ZnS NPs) were synthesized and their significant antiviral activity was demonstrated using the Arteriviridae family RNA virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), as a model. Mechanistically, GSH-ZnS NPs were shown to reduce PRRSV-induced ROS production to prevent PRRSV multiplication, with no activating effect on the interferon (IFN) signal pathway, the first defense line against virus infection. Furthermore, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic analysis of GSH-ZnS NP-treated cells revealed the involvement of numerous crucial proteins in virus proliferation, with vitronectin (VTN) being confirmed as an efficient PRRSV antagonist here. Furthermore, GSH-ZnS NPs were found to have potent antiviral effects on the Herpesviridae family DNA virus, pseudorabies virus (PRV), the Coronaviridae family positive-sense RNA virus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and the Rhabdoviridae family negative-stranded RNA virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), indicating their broad-spectrum antiviral activity against viruses from different families with various genome types. Overall, GSH-ZnS NP is a prospective candidate for the development of antiviral nanomaterials and may serve as a model for investigation of potential host restriction factors in combination with proteomics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Glutathione/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Sulfides/chemistry , Viruses/drug effects , Zinc Compounds/chemistry , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Viruses/classification
16.
Small ; 16(13): e1906206, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479

ABSTRACT

With the gradual usage of carbon dots (CDs) in the area of antiviral research, attempts have been stepped up to develop new antiviral CDs with high biocompatibility and antiviral effects. In this study, a kind of highly biocompatible CDs (Gly-CDs) is synthesized from active ingredient (glycyrrhizic acid) of Chinese herbal medicine by a hydrothermal method. Using the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) as a model, it is found that the Gly-CDs inhibit PRRSV proliferation by up to 5 orders of viral titers. Detailed investigations reveal that Gly-CDs can inhibit PRRSV invasion and replication, stimulate antiviral innate immune responses, and inhibit the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by PRRSV infection. Proteomics analysis demonstrates that Gly-CDs can stimulate cells to regulate the expression of some host restriction factors, including DDX53 and NOS3, which are directly related to PRRSV proliferation. Moreover, it is found that Gly-CDs also remarkably suppress the propagation of other viruses, such as pseudorabies virus (PRV) and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), suggesting the broad antiviral activity of Gly-CDs. The integrated results demonstrate that Gly-CDs possess extraordinary antiviral activity with multisite inhibition mechanisms, providing a promising candidate for alternative therapy for PRRSV infection.


Subject(s)
Carbon/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Microbial Viability , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/drug effects , Swine , Virus Replication/drug effects
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