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1.
Journal of Marketing Management ; JOUR(11-12):1043-1071, 38.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2096967
2.
Journal of Energy Storage ; JOUR:105882, 56.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2083170

ABSTRACT

Our response to the current ecological crisis assesses the human future. COVID-19 pandemic clearly shows how critical the energy access is for health care services. This deliberately is pushing the world to develop practical and sustainable energy systems. To this end, solid-state supercapacitors (SS-SCs) meet the requisite metrics for the power-provisioning internet-of-things (IoTs) technology. Interestingly, recent reports have shown promising functional laboratory-designed devices that encourage their wide-reaching industrial scaling. In this article, an overview of the state-of-the-art SS-SCs is demonstrated. In particular, electrolyte-based redox-active, stretchable, recoverable, high/ low temperature tolerance, electrochromic, and re-stickable SS-SCs are discussed. Moreover, the innovative approaches for alleviating/eliminating the external power supply for frequent charging SS-SCs are outlined. In this regard, integrated self-powered emerging units including piezoelectric, triboelectric, photo, thermal, batteries, and miscellaneous hybrid strategies are utterly highlighted with a brief insight into the mechanisms involved. Most importantly, the challenges and key opportunities toward the implementation of sustainable and multifunctional next-generation reliable devices are elaborated.

3.
Journal of Social Policy ; JOUR: 1-19,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082842

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 was one of the rare events that shocked almost every world government simultaneously, thus creating an unusual opportunity to understand how political institutions shape policy decisions. There have been many analyses of what governments did. We focus instead on what they could do, focusing on the institutional politics of agency - how institutions empower rather than how they constrain, and how they affect public policy decisions. We examine public health measures in the first wave (March-September 2020) in Brazil, India, and the U.S. to understand how the interplay of institutions in a complex federal context shaped COVID-19 policy-responses. We find similar patterns of concentrated federal executive agency with limited constraints. In each case, when federal leadership failed public health policy responses, federated, subnational states were left to compensate for these inefficiencies without necessary resources.

4.
International Migration ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082459

ABSTRACT

The reception of migrants, refugees and asylum seekers in camps has become a common phenomenon in Europe, discursively linked to the historical 'crisis' of mass movements towards the region. Camps and irregularity are two key issues in understanding the special impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has had on migrants and refugees. This article explores connections between the 'campization' of migrant and refugee reception and the current debates for and against migrant regularization in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Southern Europe (Spain and Italy). The analysis uses qualitative methodology based on multi-site ethnographic fieldwork (pre-COVID-19 pandemic);informal remote interviews with migrants and refugees;and analysis of political, media and legislative discourses.

5.
Chaos Solitons Fractals ; 165: 112790, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2083115

ABSTRACT

It is well established that COVID-19 incidence data follows some power law growth pattern. Therefore, it is natural to believe that the COVID-19 transmission process follows some power law. However, we found no existing model on COVID-19 with a power law effect only in the disease transmission process. Inevitably, it is not clear how this power law effect in disease transmission can influence multiple COVID-19 waves in a location. In this context, we developed a completely new COVID-19 model where a force of infection function in disease transmission follows some power law. Furthermore, different realistic epidemiological scenarios like imperfect social distancing among home-quarantined individuals, disease awareness, vaccination, treatment, and possible reinfection of the recovered population are also considered in the model. Applying some recent techniques, we showed that the proposed system converted to a COVID-19 model with fractional order disease transmission, where order of the fractional derivative ( α ) in the force of infection function represents the memory effect in disease transmission. We studied some mathematical properties of this newly formulated model and determined the basic reproduction number ( R 0 ). Furthermore, we estimated several epidemiological parameters of the newly developed fractional order model (including memory index α ) by fitting the model to the daily reported COVID-19 cases from Russia, South Africa, UK, and USA, respectively, for the time period March 01, 2020, till December 01, 2021. Variance-based Sobol's global sensitivity analysis technique is used to measure the effect of different important model parameters (including α ) on the number of COVID-19 waves in a location ( W C ). Our findings suggest that α along with the average transmission rate of the undetected (symptomatic and asymptomatic) cases in the community ( ß 1 ) are mainly influencing multiple COVID-19 waves in those four locations. Numerically, we identified the regions in the parameter space of α and ß 1 for which multiple COVID-19 waves are occurring in those four locations. Furthermore, our findings suggested that increasing memory effect in disease transmission ( α → 0) may decrease the possibility of multiple COVID-19 waves and as well as reduce the severity of disease transmission in those four locations. Based on all the results, we try to identify a few non-pharmaceutical control strategies that may reduce the risk of further SARS-CoV-2 waves in Russia, South Africa, UK, and USA, respectively.

6.
Arab World English Journal ; : 314-329, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072423

ABSTRACT

This paper displays a Systemic Functional Linguistic and Critical Discourse Analysis of Boris Johnson's first public speech on COVID-19. Covid-19 is a very dangerous infectious disease caused by the last discovered virus of the Coronavirus strain. This virus began in Wuhan's Chinese city in December 2019. COVID-19 has spread from Wuhan to the rest of the world. It has now turned into a pandemic affecting the whole world. Halliday's (2004) model of systemic functional linguistics (meta-functions), relying on interpersonal and ideational metafunctions, and Van Dijk's ideology and discourse (2000) model depending on the argumentation categories, are the adopted models of analysis. The paper's main objectives are to analyze the speech of Prime Minister Boris critically to uncover the used ideologies to advise, persuade and control the people's beliefs and actions. In addition, this paper aims to identify the interpersonal and ideational meta-functions in the selected speeches of the chosen figure stating their frequencies, then finding out how these features uncover the ideological strategies used to affect all people;Finding the argumentation categories that are used by the prime minister to support the ideas and actions presented. The paper presents a theoretical background of discourse, Critical discourse analysis, dominant, and ideology. Explains the adopted models;Analyzes the speech critically.

7.
Stata Journal ; 22(3):664-678, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070657

ABSTRACT

In this article, we introduce a new community-contributed command called xtbunitroot, which implements the panel-data unit-root tests developed by Karavias and Tzavalis (2014, Computational Statistics and Data Analysis 76: 391-407). These tests allow for one or two structural breaks in deterministic components of the series and can be seen as panel-data counterparts of the tests by Zivot and Andrews (1992, Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 10: 251-270) and Lumsdaine and Papell (1997, Review of Economics and Statistics 79: 212-218). The dates of the breaks can be known or unknown. The tests allow for intercepts and linear trends, nonnormal errors, and cross-section heteroskedasticity and dependence. They have power against homogeneous and heterogeneous alternatives and can be applied to panels with small or large time-series dimensions.

8.
Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070240

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study aims to explore business strategies adopted by small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK's grocery-retail industry to cope with supply chain (SC) disruptions caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach The study adopted two phases of research methods. In Phase 1, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten SMEs from England. Whilst abiding by national guidelines on the travel restrictions imposed by the government, in Phase 2 email-based interviews were conducted with 22 SMEs across the UK's grocery-retail industry. The thematic analysis technique was adopted to analyse the data. Findings This study reveals that SMEs need clearer avenues of communication with the government and better resources for learning and training. SMEs also need to expand their implementation of information technology to improve SC collaboration. In the meantime, they need to improve their power positions in SCs and reduce dependence on SC partners. Originality/value SMEs in the grocery-retailer industry have been increasingly under pressure to compete with bigger grocery retailers. During the pandemic they have faced great challenges and been looking for strategies to improve their performance. While a major proportion of participants in the grocery-retailer industry are fragmented SMEs, the majority of studies have focussed on larger retailers and end consumers. With the help of the social exchange theory, this research reveals new insights into business strategies to cope with SC disruptions, and offer the foundation for a new line of research on preparation for future disruptions.

9.
International Studies Review ; 24(4), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070123

ABSTRACT

Scholarship drawing from a wide array of perspectives including field theoretical and functional differentiation approaches has shed increasing light on the sectoral dimensions of world politics. In contrast to dominant approaches emphasizing hierarchy and power in relations between global fields, this article offers a novel interpretive framework for understanding how diverse fields, systems, or sectors may interact and facilitate change in world politics beyond the operation of established hierarchies and power dynamics. Taking forward the previously underutilized concept of symbolically generalized media of communication, this article elucidates two processes of international political change by which different fields, systems, or sectors may transform world politics. The first process, lateral retreat, is illustrated with reference to the case study of the Protestant Reformation, in which internal changes in the religious field facilitated the development of an increasingly autonomous political domain. The second process, lateral penetration, is illustrated with reference to the international political response to the climate change and Covid-19 crises, in which the scientific sector contributed toward transformed political priorities and associated hierarchies, at least in the short term. These diverse cases are used to indicate the broad potential scope of application of the concept of symbolically generalized media of communication to enrich relational theorizing in the study of international relations, and to improve understanding of diverse dynamics of international political change missed in traditional power- (and anarchy-) centric accounts.

10.
Journalism Practice ; : 1-19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070035

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented rise of misinformation and its sociopolitical consequences are increasingly setting the research agenda for social science scholarship. Through examining the effectiveness of data journalism in debunking misinformation, the present study engages with the burgeoning discussions on how to develop countermeasures to mitigate the negative influences of misleading information dissemination. By selecting a widely held political misinformation case from the Chinese context-the "Military World Games and the origin of Covid-19"-and conducting online experiment (N=317) the results of this study prove the perceived objectivity and credibility of data journalism, and its persuasive power to rebut misinformation, particularly for those with moderate-level prior misinformation beliefs. Building on these insights, this study contributes to an investigation of data journalism's democratic potential to correct problematic information-an urgent task in the face of the "infodemic" threat worldwide.

11.
COURTS AND JUDICIAL ACTIVISM UNDER CRISIS CONDITIONS: Policy Making in a Time of Illiberalism and Emergency Constitutionalism ; : 194-212, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068027
12.
Tydskrif vir Geesteswetenskappe ; 62(3):543-567, 2022.
Article in Afrikaans | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2067402

ABSTRACT

In this contribution, China's unprecedented economic achievements and great power ambitions are considered;in particular, what the implications of this epoch-making development on the world-stage could be for the continent of Africa. China's seeking to be reckoned as a great power is normally explained by way of either realism or idealism (and less commonly, constructivism), but with the gap in the extant knowledge, I attempt to identify and address the uncanny role that history has also had in influencing this. Put differently, the question posed is: what is the role of a historical consciousness in terms of China's feverish striving for great power status? In this regard, I take Orville Schell and John Delury's important text Wealth and power: China's long march to the twenty-first century (2014), as my point of departure. I also employ a poststructuralist methodology within a historical theoretical framework in order to take advantage of both nuanced and contradictory approaches. The so-called“Chinese Dream” of fuqiang (wealth and power) is fed by the rhetoric of the “hundred years of humiliation” (1842-1949), which is considered to span the years between the conclusion of the First Opium War in 1842 and the declaration of the Peoples' Republic of China in 1949. But this line of thought is not the only factor which brought about an iron cast of historical consciousness in the Chinese psyche. The role of language within the Chinese family of languages, education and the general tendency of the Chinese state to veer towards autocracy are also examined. The motives which drive the Chinese Dream originate in the Chinese twentieth century (humiliation, Marxism, industrial development, wealth and power, among others) and these concerns are accordingly ongoing. After concluding that the Chinese Dream is likely to end in considerable disappointment for the West in that the Chinese are bound to reject Western values and priorities in favour of their own thinking (such as autocracy, reverence for authority and the importance of history in shaping their destiny), I move on to consider Allison's review of the Thucydides trap scenario within the context of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE). Despite criticism which has been levelled at this academic model, it remains valuable to analyse China's possible economic and great power trajectory into the 21st century. In the context of the Chinese Dream, I also make reference to Xi Jinping's Maoist embrace of hero worship, his renewed friendship with Putin's Russia and Xi's emphasis on the role of the Chinese Communist Party in pursuing the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) since its inception in 2013. Biden's recent visit to Asia in May 2022 in order to promote his Asia-Pacific Economic Framework to the United States' remaining friends and allies in the area (such as Japan and India), as a counter to China's increasing economic influence in Asia and the Pacific Islands, is also considered. Russia's ongoing war in the Ukraine is an example of the complexity of international relations at a time when world power is transitioning from a system of unipolarity (where the United States is a sole superpower) to that of multipolarity (where power is shared between the US, China and Russia). China's idiosyncratic approach to so-called “zero-Covid” and its impact on employment and immigration vis-à-vis Africa is also briefly highlighted. Against this background, I finally turn to a consideration of the possible implications of China's twentieth-century scramble for Africa continuing into the 21st century. A number of recent Chinese development projects are discussed as well as the narrative of the so-called debt trap diplomacy within the context of Africans' generally positive views regarding Chinese engagement. I conclude that China's role in Africa's economic prosperity in the 21st century is indeed nuanced. Not only are there a number of role-players vying for influence in Africa (notably Russia and the United States), but, from a Chinese perspective, Africa ranks very low on ts list of priorities. On the whole, the Chinese influence on the African continent has been received positively, but caution must be advised as to what impact the Chinese tendency towards autocratic governance might have on the Chinese developmental trajectory in the 21st century. © 2022 by the Author(s).

13.
Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; 17(4), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067098

ABSTRACT

Background: The application of methylprednisolone in ARDS patients has led to a sustained reduction in inflammatory plasma cytokines and chemokines and has recently been used in the treatment of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Objectives: In this study, the effect of methylprednisolone on clinical symptoms and antioxidant changes of patients with COVID-19 has been investigated. Methods: In the present study, patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 who required hospitalization were entered into the study phase. Then, in addition to standard treatment, patients received methylprednisolone at a dose of 250 mg intravenously over three days. Necessary evaluations include analysis of arterial blood gases, pulse oximetry, monitoring of patient clinical signs, examination of inflammatory biomarkers, and also receiving 10 cc of peripheral blood samples to check for antioxidant changes, at the beginning of the study, after 24 hours, and 72 hours after receiving methylprednisolone was on the agenda. Results: Changes in fever, superoxide dismutase (SOD, Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST, the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP, malondialdehyde (MDA, Nitric oxide, Ferritin, and TNF-α before treatment and 72 hours after treatment were significantly different between the two stages (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The use of methylprednisolone improves the balance of antioxidants and immunological factors in patients with COVID-19 and thus improves some clinical indicators in these patients.

14.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(19):13183-13200, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067020

ABSTRACT

Emission inventories are essential for modelling studies and pollution control, but traditional emission inventories are usually updated after a few years based on the statistics of “bottom-up” approach from the energy consumption in provinces, cities, and counties. The latest emission inventories of multi-resolution emission inventory in China (MEIC) was compiled from the statistics for the year 2016 (MEIC_2016). However, the real emissions have varied yearly, due to national pollution control policies and accidental special events, such as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. In this study, a four-dimensional variational assimilation (4DVAR) system based on the “top-down” approach was developed to optimise sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by assimilating the data of SO2 concentrations from surface observational stations. The 4DVAR system was then applied to obtain the SO2 emissions during the early period of COVID-19 pandemic (from 17 January to 7 February 2020), and the same period in 2019 over China. The results showed that the average MEIC_2016, 2019, and 2020 emissions were42.2×106, 40.1×106, and 36.4×106 kg d-1. The emissions in 2020 decreased by 9.2 % in relation to the COVID-19 lockdown compared with those in 2019. For central China, where the lockdown measures were quite strict, the mean 2020 emission decreased by 21.0 % compared with 2019 emissions. Three forecast experiments were conducted using the emissions of MEIC_2016, 2019, and 2020 to demonstrate the effects of optimised emissions. The root mean square error (RMSE) in the experiments using 2019 and 2020 emissions decreased by 28.1 % and 50.7 %, and the correlation coefficient increased by 89.5 % and 205.9 % compared with the experiment using MEIC_2016. For central China, the average RMSE in the experiments with 2019 and 2020 emissions decreased by 48.8 % and 77.0 %, and the average correlation coefficient increased by 44.3 % and 238.7 %, compared with the experiment using MEIC_2016 emissions. The results demonstrated that the 4DVAR system effectively optimised emissions to describe the actual changes in SO2 emissions related to the COVID lockdown, and it can thus be used to improve the accuracy of forecasts.

15.
Remote Sensing ; 14(19):4793, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066344

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the Ukrainian-Russian conflict on 24 February 2022, Ukraine’s economy, society, and cities have been devastated and struck on multiple fronts, with large numbers of refugees fleeing to neighboring countries. The lighting systems in Ukrainian cities have been severely restricted due to Russian missile bombing and curfew policies. The power shortages adversely affected the livelihoods of the Ukrainian residents dramatically. For a timely assessment of the power shortages’ extent and the affected population in Ukraine, this study tracked the dynamics of nighttime light emissions in Ukraine based on the newly developed daily Black Marble product (VNP46A2) from NASA. The results show that the average light radiance in Ukrainian urban areas has decreased by about 37% since the eruption of the war, with Kiev city being the most dramatic region, having a post-conflict decrease of about 51%. In addition, by introducing near-real-time population data, we have implemented a survey of the affected population in Ukraine suffering from war-induced power shortages. Estimates show that about 17.3 million Ukrainian residents were affected by power shortages. In more detail, the number of children under 10 years old was about 2.35 million (about 5.24% of the total population), while the number of elderly people over 60 years old was about 3.53 million (about 7.86% of the total population). Generally, the results of this study could contribute positively to the timely assessment of the impact of the conflict and the implementation of humanitarian relief.

16.
Energies ; 15(19):7374, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2065784

ABSTRACT

With rising electricity demand, heavy reliance on imports, and recent economic downturns due to the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, supply chain bottlenecks, and the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Thailand is suffering severely from energy resilience risks. The government has therefore set a goal of decentralizing energy production through small-scale distributed renewable energy systems. To support their design and the planning process, we simulate multiple scenarios with wind turbines, photovoltaic systems, and battery storage for a model community in rural Nakhon Phanom, Thailand. Using the software NESSI4D, we evaluate and discuss their impact on energy resilience by considering environmental sustainability, economic attractiveness, and independence from the central power grid. To fill the gap of missing data on energy demand, we synthesize high-resolution load profiles from the Thailand Vietnam Socio-Economic Panel. We conclude that distributed photovoltaic systems with additional battery storage are only suitable to promote energy resilience if the government provides appropriate financial incentives. Considering temporal variations and local conditions, as well as a participatory decision-making process, are crucial for the long-term success of energy projects. Our advice to decision-makers is to design policies and regulatory support that are aligned with the preferences and needs of target communities.

17.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064347

ABSTRACT

The exponentiated generalized Gull alpha power exponential distribution is an extension of the exponential distribution that can model data characterized by various shapes of the hazard function. However, change point problem has not been studied for this distribution. In this study, the change point detection of the parameters of the exponentiated generalized Gull alpha power exponential distribution is studied using the modified information criterion. In addition, the binary segmentation procedure is used to identify multiple change point locations. The assumption is that all the parameters of the EGGAPE distributions are considered changeable. Simulation study is conducted to illustrate the power of the modified information criterion in detecting change point in the parameters with different sample sizes. Three applications related to COVID-19 data are used to demonstrate the applicability of the MIC in detecting change point in real life scenario.

18.
2022 IEEE International Conference on Electrical, Computer, and Energy Technologies, ICECET 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2063235

ABSTRACT

Remote learning has become increasingly prevalent in the past decade. The current covid climate has provided an exponential boost for concurrent usage with video conferencing, specifically remote learning. For a good learning experience, the system needs to provide consistent performance and responsiveness of all applications in the concurrent use case while also delivering a good battery life to keep students engaged. Additionally, the education PC segment is typically budget conscious and fan-less, with a thermal design power of 6 Watts. Customers prefer to reuse existing chassis, thermal solutions and avoid high-cost bill of material, which comes with power-saving features. In this paper, we present the approach to optimizing video conferencing use case within the constraints of the education PC segment, which comes with the challenge of maintaining perf/watt. We also present pursued optimizations and associated learnings for design, software, and system tuning to enhance performance and battery life and provide a good user experience for video conferencing and concurrent use cases. © 2022 IEEE.

19.
Electronic Commerce Research and Applications ; : 101205, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2061094

ABSTRACT

With the outbreak of COVID-19 and some environmental problems in recent years, consumers prefer to shop online and purchase green products. Considering the benefit of the e-commerce platform, offline retailers face the challenge of whether to enter e-commerce platforms. Moreover, different power structures may affect retailer encroachment in the platform economy. Thus, we develop theoretical models considering retailer channel selections, different power structures between a retailer and a manufacturer, and cap-and-trade policy. The main results show that the optimal channel selection of the retailer is affected by the annual service fee, the power structure and the carbon trading price. An interesting result is that the retailer entering the platform has a good chance to reduce the total carbon emissions. In the extensions, we consider online reviews, consumers’ channel preferences, the carbon emission of the logistics, and the shipping cost, and find that the robustness of the main results still holds.

20.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 147: 11-20, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061466

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Year-to-year variation in respiratory viruses may result in lower attack rates than expected. We aimed to illustrate the impact of year-to-year variation in attack rates on the likelihood of demonstrating vaccine efficacy (VE). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We considered an individually randomized maternal vaccine trial against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated hospitalizations. For 10 RSV-associated hospitalizations per 1,000 infants, sample size to have 80% power for true VE of 50% and 70% was 9,846 and 4,424 participants. We reported power to show VE for varying attack rates, selected to reflect realistic year-to-year variation using observational studies. Eight scenarios including varying number of countries and seasons were developed to assess the influence of these trial parameters. RESULTS: Including up to three seasons decreased the width of the interquartile range for power. Including more seasons concentrated statistical power closer to 80%. Least powered trials had higher statistical power with more seasons. In all scenarios, at least half of the trials had <80% power. For three-season trials, increasing the sample size by 10% reduced the percentage of underpowered trials to less than one-quarter of trials. CONCLUSION: Year-to-year variation in RSV attack rates should be accounted for during trial design. Mitigation strategies include recruiting over more seasons, or adaptive trial designs.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Research Design , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Seasons , Vaccine Efficacy
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