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1.
Pharmaceuticals ; 15(8):977, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023983

ABSTRACT

Through this structured review of the published literature, we aimed to provide an up-to-date description of strategies (human-related) and tools (mainly from the digital field) facilitating the appropriateness of drug use in older adults. The evidence of each strategy and tool’s effectiveness and sustainability largely derives from local and heterogeneous experiences, with contrasting results. As a general framework, three main steps should be considered in implementing measures to improve appropriateness: prescription, acceptance by the patient, and continuous monitoring of adherence and risk-benefit profile. Each step needs efforts from specific actors (physicians, patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals) and dedicated supporting tools. Moreover, how to support the appropriateness also strictly depends on the particular setting of care (hospital, ambulatory or primary care, nursing home, long-term care) and available economic resources. Therefore, it is urgent assigning to each approach proposed in the literature the following characteristics: level of effectiveness, strength of evidence, setting of implementation, needed resources, and issues for its sustainability.

2.
Health Affairs ; 41(9):1221, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2021992
3.
Health Affairs ; 41(9):1222-10, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2021988

ABSTRACT

The supply of psychiatrists in the United States is inadequate to address the unmet demand for mental health care. Psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNPs) may fill the widening gap between supply of and demand for mental health specialists with prescribing privileges. Using Medicare claims for a 100 percent sample of fee-forservice beneficiaries (average age, sixty-one years) who had an office visit for either a psychiatrist or a PMHNP during the period 2011-19, we examined how the supply and use of psychiatrists and PMHNPs changed over time, and we compared their practice patterns. Psychiatrists and PMHNPs treated roughly comparable patient populations with similar services and prescriptions. From 2011 to 2019 the number of PMHNPs treating Medicare beneficiaries grew 162 percent, compared with a 6 percent relative decrease in the number of psychiatrists doing so. During the same period, total annual mental health office visits per 100 beneficiaries decreased 11.5 percent from 27.4 to 24.2, the net result of a 29.0 percent drop in psychiatrist visits being offset by a 111.3 percent increase in PMHNP visits. The proportion of all mental health prescriber visits provided by PMHNPs increased from 12.5 percent to 29.8 percent during 2011-19, exceeding 50 percent in rural, full-scope-of-practice regions. PMHNPs are a rapidly growing workforce that may be instrumental in improving mental health care access.

4.
The New Zealand Medical Journal (Online) ; 135(1560):114-116, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1999112

ABSTRACT

According to Euromonitor (2020)1 the value of global retail sales of non-prescribed supplements increased by 105% between 2007 and 2021. [...]duration and dosage of supplementation was not assessed limiting assessment of harmful exposures. A strength of the study is that the participants have often been interviewed during adulthood, reporting on many sensitive and personal issues including medical conditions. [...]it is unlikely that reported prescribed and non-prescribed products will differ substantially from actual use. [...]clinicians should encourage patients to use diet to attain nutrition.

5.
The New England Journal of Medicine ; 387(7):654-655, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1991728

ABSTRACT

In practicing evidence-based medicine, physicians use the best evidence currently available on safety and efficacy in making decisions on treatment choices for their patients. During the Covid-19 pandemic, some of the early treatment trials were rushed, leading to studies that were badly conducted1 or had too few patients.2 As a result, initial evidence of the efficacy of some Covid-19 treatments could not be replicated,3,4 but these drugs were already in widespread use by then, and some clinicians have been reluctant to change to proven efficacious alternatives. Ivermectin and fluvoxamine, in particular, are still widely prescribed, even though evidence has been . . .

6.
Ethics & International Affairs ; 36(2):125-134, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1972489

ABSTRACT

The current debate over the global distribution of COVID-19 vaccines once again highlights the many shortcomings of the modern intellectual property (IP) system, especially when it comes to equitable access to medicines. This essay argues that the (unspoken) conceptual center of struggles over access to new pharmaceuticals rests in the IP system's colonial legacy, which perceives the world as uncharted territory that is ripe for discovery and ownership. This vision of the world as a blank canvas, or terra nullius, sets aside any other models of ownership and devalues other traditional modes of relating to territory and nature. Several examples show the long-lasting exclusionary effects of this hidden legacy of colonial conquest in the field of public health, ranging from the spiraling price of insulin to the distribution of COVID-19 vaccines to the negotiation of sharing mechanisms for virus samples. In all of these cases, the continuing marginalization of other interests by the IP system can lead to exploitation, without either the “sources” of materials, such as those from whom the samples were taken, or the recipients of the eventual product having any say in matters of price and access. This legacy of fundamental exclusion needs to be recognized and addressed in order to arrive at more equitable solutions to public health emergencies such as the current pandemic.

7.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(8):1110-1114, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958495

ABSTRACT

GOVERNMENT PATENT USE One way to facilitate public access to high-cost medications is through government patent use.1 Given sovereign immunity-a legal doctrine immunizing the government from being sued without its consent-the federal government and its agents, such as generic drug manufacturers, have the ability to make or use patented inventions without the permission of the patent holder;in other words, protected by sovereign immunity, the federal government could use inventors' US patents without legal consequence (US patent rights do not apply overseas). [...]nonpatent exclusivities generally prohibit the approval of competing products only if they rely on data generated by another manufacturer. [...]the government or any third party could submit full new drug applications with original data.1,2 This strategy would not be able to circumvent Orphan Drug Act exclusivity for rare disease drugs because that act blocks the FDA from approving the "same drug" for the same disease or condition if it is a generic;however, because full trials would be needed, it might be feasible to pursue approval of a chemically distinct but therapeutically identical drug. [...]many agency actions are judicially reviewable under the Administrative Procedure Act (1946, Pub L No. 79-404)-a statute that waives the federal government's sovereign immunity. Fourth, Congress could amend the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938, Pub L No. 75-717) and the Public Health Service Act (1944, Pub L No. 78-410) to carve out exceptions to existing nonpatent exclusivities for government use.1,8 Although an exception exists for biologics the Public Health Service prepares when the biologic is unavailable from the license holder,9 this kind of authority could be expanded in terms of both to whom and to what it applies as well as under what conditions.

8.
Review of Business ; 42(2):1-20, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1940129

ABSTRACT

Motivation: The COVED pandemic underscores the need for fair access to health care. The unequal access to needed but patented, expensive medicines will exacerbate existing disparities among disadvantaged populations. For example, cancer gene therapy costs range from $373,000 for a single dose of CAR-T therapy Yescarta to $2.1 million for Zolgensma. Premise: In this paper, we propose a peer-to-peer business model for drug discovery that democratizes the drug discovery process and reduces drug prices by cutting the intermediaries between biomedical researchers and future patients. Note that in this market microstructure, the underrepresented group can take advantage of medical advances by selling their data for research. Approach: We devise a market microstructure in which a group of project managers, who are usually "star" scientists or CEOs of biotech firms, will select individuals at disease risks and researchers, raise funds by selling non-fungible tokens (NFTs) based on their future patents, and control risks by the rating system, due diligence, and financial engineering. Employing a signaling game-theoretic mechanism, our analysis not only elucidates how the stakeholders strategically interact in this market using deception, adverse selection, and moral hazards, but also how to tame their interactions to improve the overall performance. In particular, we suggest and rigorously evaluate an embodiment built on a scalable implementation of NFTs. Results: Using extensive simulations, we show that in the NFT megafund, both senior and junior tranche investors get their principals fully repaid 99.9 percent of the time. Conclusion: This market micro-structure can help reduce health disparity in the following three ways. First, by participating in the drug discovery process, the underrepresented population can accelerate drug discovery for diseases unique to themselves. Historically, such diseases are understudied due to a lack of funding and resources. Second, cutting out the middleman can significantly reduce drug-development costs, which will increase access to medicine. Finally, retail investors can also benefit from investing in drug discovery because the risk associated with the NFT is managed down to the level of debt. Consistency: As a disruptive technology, blockchain has created a lot of challenges and uncertainties for the economy and society alike. This research provides a framework to realize the potential of blockchain and non-fungible tokens to democratize the drug discovery process and reduce health disparity, while controlling their risks using rating system, due diligence, and financial engineering, which is consistent with the purpose of this journal.

9.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(6)2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911147

ABSTRACT

It has been suggested that the COVID-19 pandemic led to an increase in self-medication practices across the world. Yet, there is no up-to-date synthesized evidence on the prevalence of self-medication that is attributable to the pandemic. This study aimed to conduct a systematic literature review on the prevalence and correlates of self-medication for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 globally. The review was registered with the PROSPERO database. Searches were conducted following PRISMA guidelines, and relevant articles published between 1 April 2020 and 31 March 2022 were included. Pooled prevalence rate was conducted using the Meta package in R. A total of 14 studies from 14 countries, which represented 15,154 participants, were included. The prevalence of COVID-19-related self-medication ranged from 3.4-96%. The pooled prevalence of self-medication for this purpose was 44.9% (95% CI: 23.8%, 68.1%). Medications reported by studies for self-medication were antibiotics (79%), vitamins (64%), antimalarials (50%), herbal and natural products (50%), analgesics and antipyretics (43%), minerals and supplements (43%), cold and allergy preparations (29%), corticosteroids (14%), and antivirals (7%). The prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics is concerning. More public health education about responsible self-medication amidst the COVID-19 pandemic and future pandemics is required to mitigate the rising threat of antimicrobial resistance.

10.
Age and Ageing ; 51, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1901100

ABSTRACT

Introduction Innovative models of service delivery are required to provide Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment for older patients presenting to the Emergency Department with frailty syndromes. Method In 2018, the Older Person’s Assessment Service began a liaison service to the ED, taking referrals from the medical and ED teams for patients who presented with frailty syndromes (falls, cognitive impairment, care dependence, polypharmacy). The service saw 437 patients April–August 2018. 76% of the patients assessed were discharged by utilising available community services, rapid access outpatient follow up and inpatient reablement off the acute site. The service was estimated to avoid 50–80 admissions per month to medicine (saving 17–23 beds a year) and was commissioned as a permanent service. Phase 2 In 2020, a dedicated unit within ED was allocated to OPAS, enabling the acceptance of patients directly from triage and from the Ambulance Service by direct referral. This provided rapid access to specialist assessment, continued access to Elderly Care services, avoided exposure to coronavirus related admissions and the risks of nosocomial infection associated with admission. The service operates from 8 am-4 pm on weekdays. Results Between June 2020 and October 2021, the service saw 1,173 new patients. 988 patients (84.5%) were discharged off the acute site on the day of assessment. 68 (5.79%) patients were admitted to other facilities run by the Health Board (e.g Inpatient Reablement). The average age of an OPAS patient was 83 yrs and had a CFS > 5. Readmission rate at 14 days was 4% (47).Of the 253 patients who were admitted to an inpatient setting, 13.5% (35) contracted nosocomial covid-19. Conclusion The service has been supported and funded to expand into extended weekday hours as a result of this success and there are plans for future 7 day working.

11.
Asian American Policy Review ; 31:30-33,91, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1887666

ABSTRACT

Chin asserts that before the COVID-19 pandemic, over 40,000 Chinese restaurants were operating across America. That's more than all the McDonalds, KFC's, Wendy's and Pizza Huts combined. Located in nearly every community and corner of the country, these ubiquitous establishments, big and small, are as American as apple pie, and, of course, more delicious. The $15 billion Chinese restaurant industry, which includes many independently owned family businesses, was amongst the first to be hit, and hit hard, by the economic crisis wrought by the coronavirus. The first Chinese restaurant in America, the Canton Restaurant, opened in San Francisco in 1849. Thousands of Chinese men had left Southern China to mine for treasures on Gold Mountain. These bachelors needed a place to eat. By 1850, there were five such establishments. However, the growing wave of anti-Asian immigration policies, including the Chinese Exclusion Act, kept the community small and limited the number of Chinese restaurants to a dozen or so.

12.
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. Science and Practice ; 29(Suppl 1):A90-A91, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1874589

ABSTRACT

Background and importanceA reference panel of antimicrobial consumption indicators was published in 2019 by a committee from the Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH) and the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC).Aim and objectivesTo calculate 2020 hospital antimicrobial consumption indicators and carry out a comparative analysis of these consumption indicators with those observed in the previous 2 years.Material and methodsBased on the panel, 10 antimicrobial consumption indicators were selected. The unit of measurement for the consumption was the number of defined daily doses per 100 stays (DDD/100e).ResultsAntibacterials overall consumption (OC) 1.5% (86.5 to 85.2) decrease in 2019;and 4.7% increase in 2020 compared to 2019 (89.2).Antifungals OC 3% decrease in 2019 (7.05 to 6.84);26% increase in 2020 compared to 2019 (8.65).Carbapenems: in 2019, consumption decreased by 4.2% (10.17 to 9.74);in 2020 it increased by 2% compared to 2019 (9.94).Fluoroquinolones: maintained overall 37.4% decrease (13.01 in 2018, 10.83 in 2019 and 8.14 in 2020).Fosfomycin: maintained overall increase of 27.6% (0.49 in 2018, 0.65 in 2019 and 0.62 in 2020).Aminoglycosides: maintained overall decrease of 40.7% (3.27 in 2018, 2.32 in 2019 and 1.94 in 2020).Colistin: 12.8% decrease in 2019 (1.09 to 0.95), and an 8.4% increase in 2020 compared to 2019 (1.03).Anti-pseudomonal cephalosporins: maintained overall increase of 19% (2.11 in 2018, 2.47 in 2019 and 2.51 in 2020).Amoxicillin-clavulanate/piperacillin-tazobactam ratio: maintained decrease of 47% compared to 2018 (4.34 in 2018, 3.54 in 2019 and 2.26 in 2020).Fluconazole/equinocandins ratio: 24% rise in 2019 (4.14 to 5.45);in 2020 it decreased by 16% (4.57).Conclusion and relevanceDuring 2020, a change in trend has been perceived in a series of antimicrobial consumption indicators, with higher antibacterials and antifungals OC, carbapenems and colistin consumption, and a decreased fluconazole/equinocandins ratio. This change in trend could be related to the increase of multiresistant bacterial and fungal infections associated with COVID-19.The downward trend in the consumption of fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides and the upward trend in anti-pseudomonal cephalosporins and fosfomycin was maintained. Interventions carried out through the antimicrobial stewardship programme aimed at optimising and/or de-escalating empirical antimicrobial treatment may be behind this trend.The amoxicillin-clavulanate/piperacillin-tazobactam ratio may have been influenced by frequent piperacillin-tazobactam stock-outs in the years studied.References and/or acknowledgements1. Gutiérrez-Urbón JM.Indicadores del uso hospitalario de antimicrobianos basados en el consumo. Farm Hosp 2019;43(3):94–100.Conflict of interestNo conflict of interest

13.
The Journal for Nurse Practitioners ; 18(6):649-652, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1873216

ABSTRACT

Prescription opioids were identified as being responsible for 14,000 deaths in 2019, with 9.3 million people admitting to misuse in 2020. This quality improvement project implemented the Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI) guideline on pain management in acute care to decrease opioid prescriptions >90 morphine milliequivalents for acute-on-chronic pain. The change to current practice included completion of comprehensive functional assessments and opioid risk screening tools to guide a goal-directed shared decision-making discussion with patients. There was a statistically significant decrease in morphine milliequivalents per prescription (t43 = 2.579, P = .013).

14.
Generations Journal ; 45(2):1-12, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871952

ABSTRACT

Under Medicare, older Americans have access to government-subsidized health insurance to protect them from catastrophic healthcare costs and ensure access to needed care. And yet, one in ten Medicare beneficiaries report delaying care due to cost, and 6 percent report having problems paying medical bills. The health and economic impacts of the coronavirus pandemic have exacerbated issues of healthcare affordability for older adults, particularly those with low incomes. This article reviews the financial impact of gaps in the Medicare program, and proposals designed to meet Medicare beneficiaries' evolving needs.

15.
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology ; 14(11):6089-6094, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871734

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Patients with psychiatric disorders receives multiple medications associated with their comorbid conditions and mental illness increasing the risk of drug related problems leading to frequent hospitalization, healthcare expenditure and reduced quality of life. Aim/Objective: To assess and evaluate the Drug Related Problems (DRPs) encountered in patients with psychiatric disorders in a Secondary Care Hospital in Ras Al-Khaimah. Methodology: A prospective observational study was carried out for a period of six months in the department of psychiatry of a secondary care teaching hospital. All the necessary details including the demographics, drug therapy and laboratory parameters were collected from the patient case records. The patient medication orders were reviewed and screened for any DRPs. The identified DRPs were documented and later evaluated to identify the types, frequency, class of drugs involved and for the level of clinical significance by using the descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 61 DRPs were identified from 50 patients. Male predominance was noted over females. DRPs were commonly seen in patients aged between 21-40 years of age. Schizophrenia (42%) was the most common psychiatric illness identified in the study. The most common DRPs was found to be drug-drug interaction (36.06%) followed by adverse drug reaction (27.86%) and medication non-adherence (24.59%). The level of significance of DRPs was found to be 'minor' significance in the grade. Conclusion: The study identifies the DRPs in patients with psychiatric illness and necessitates the need for a regular medication review which will help to rationalize the drug therapy, achieve better therapeutic outcomes and improved quality of patient care.

16.
JMIR Diabetes ; 7(2), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871420

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of digital technology to assess patients remotely can reduce clinical study costs. In the European Union, the 2D matrix code on prescription drug packaging serves as a unique identifier of a given package of medication, and thus, also of the patient receiving that medication. Scanning of the 2D matrix code may therefore allow remote patient authentication in clinical studies. Objective: The aim of the DePRO study was to assess the feasibility of a fully digital data-capture workflow, the authentication of participants via drug packaging 2D matrix codes, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who use metformin. The primary objective was to describe the self-care activities of these patients. Secondary objectives were to evaluate (1) the self-reported health status of these patients, (2) the association of self-care activities with demographics and disease characteristics, and (3) the usability of the my ePRO app. Methods: DePRO was an observational, multicenter, cross-sectional, digital, and patient-driven study conducted in Germany from June to December 2020. Adult patients prescribed metformin were invited to participate via their pharmacist or a medication tracker app. Participants downloaded the my ePRO app onto their own mobile device, scanned the 2D matrix code on their metformin package for registration and authentication, and provided informed consent via an electronic form. They were then able to complete a study-specific questionnaire on demographics and clinical characteristics, the German version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities measure (SDSCA-G), the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ), and the EQ-5D-5L. The patients conducted the study without support from a health care professional. Statistical analyses were exploratory and descriptive. Results: In total, 3219 patients were invited to participate. The proportion of patients giving consent was greater among those invited by pharmacists (19/217, 8.8%) than among those invited via the medication tracker app (13/3002, 0.4%). Of the 29 patients eligible for analysis, 28 (97%) completed all study questionnaires. Most of the patients (23/29, 79%) were aged <60 years, and 59% (17/29) were male. The patients spent a mean total of 3.5 (SD 1.3) days out of 7 days on self-care activities (SDSCA-G). Most patients (24/29, 83%) were satisfied to extremely satisfied with their current treatment (DTSQ). Events of perceived hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia were reported by 20 of 29 (69%) patients. The best possible health status (EQ-5D-5L) was reported by 18 of 28 (64%) patients. Age was positively correlated with time spent on general and specific diet (Spearman coefficient 0.390 and 0.434, respectively). Conclusions: The DePRO study demonstrates the feasibility of fully digital authentication (via 2D matrix codes on drug packaging) and data capture in patients with T2DM. Personal invitations yielded higher recruitment rates than remote invitations via the medication tracker app. A high questionnaire completion rate was realized, based on completion by 28 out of 29 patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04383041;https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04383041 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/21727

17.
Chemosensors ; 10(5):180, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1870853

ABSTRACT

This paper reports the results obtained from the determination of ascorbic acid with platinum-based voltammetric sensors modified with potassium hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole. The preparation of the modified electrodes was carried out by electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole from aqueous solutions, using chronoamperometry. Polypyrrole films were deposited on the surface of the platinum electrode, by applying a constant potential of 0.8 V for 30 s. The thickness of the polymer film was calculated from the chronoamperometric data, and the value was 0.163 μm. Cyclic voltammetry was the method used for the Pt/PPy-FeCN electrode electrochemical characterization in several types of solution, including KCl, potassium ferrocyanide, and ascorbic acid. The thin doped polymer layer showed excellent sensitivity for ascorbic acid detection. From the voltammetric studies carried out in solutions of different concentrations of ascorbic acid, ranging from 1 to 100 × 10−6 M, a detection limit of 2.5 × 10−7 M was obtained. Validation of the analyses was performed using pharmaceutical products with different concentrations of ascorbic acid, from different manufacturers and presented in various pharmaceutical forms, i.e., intravascular administration ampoules, chewable tablets, and powder for oral suspension.

18.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):5480, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837148

ABSTRACT

In 2021, over 100,000 people died prematurely from opioid overdoses. Neuropsychiatric and cognitive impairments are underreported comorbidities of reward dysregulation due to genetic antecedents and epigenetic insults. Recent genome-wide association studies involving millions of subjects revealed frequent comorbidity with substance use disorder (SUD) in a sizeable meta-analysis of depression. It found significant associations with the expression of NEGR1 in the hypothalamus and DRD2 in the nucleus accumbens, among others. However, despite the rise in SUD and neuropsychiatric illness, there are currently no standard objective brain assessments being performed on a routine basis. The rationale for encouraging a standard objective Brain Health Check (BHC) is to have extensive data available to treat clinical syndromes in psychiatric patients. The BHC would consist of a group of reliable, accurate, cost-effective, objective assessments involving the following domains: Memory, Attention, Neuropsychiatry, and Neurological Imaging. Utilizing primarily PUBMED, over 36 years of virtually all the computerized and written-based assessments of Memory, Attention, Psychiatric, and Neurological imaging were reviewed, and the following assessments are recommended for use in the BHC: Central Nervous System Vital Signs (Memory), Test of Variables of Attention (Attention), Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III (Neuropsychiatric), and Quantitative Electroencephalogram/P300/Evoked Potential (Neurological Imaging). Finally, we suggest continuing research into incorporating a new standard BHC coupled with qEEG/P300/Evoked Potentials and genetically guided precision induction of “dopamine homeostasis” to diagnose and treat reward dysregulation to prevent the consequences of dopamine dysregulation from being epigenetically passed on to generations of our children.

19.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(14): 1123-1124, 2022 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831005
20.
National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology ; 12(4):472-476, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1789609

ABSTRACT

India currently holds the single-day record for the largest increase in cases, set on September 17, with an additional 97,894.pi Pandemic saw multiple of advisories being released by various governments in rapid succession The Coronavirus Treatment Acceleration Program, special emergency program for possible coronavirus therapies was launched by FDA, for accelerated development of treatment option for combating COVID-19 infection. [4] Various drug treatment protocols using drugs such as Vitamin C, hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Tocilizumab, Favipiravir, and Interferons were recommended by governments across globe. [...]the present study aims to assess Drug Prescribing Pattern and Clinical Outcomes in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a Dedicated COVID Hospital. DISCUSSION The pandemic COVID-19 continues to be a significant problem worldwide. [...]the significant differences in clinical pattern coupled with coinciding chronological sequence poses agiant task for clinicians to choose appropriate treatment for optimal outcomes.

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