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1.
6th International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication, ICCMC 2022 ; : 1654-1658, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1840249

ABSTRACT

Since the discovery of corona virus (nCOV-19), and its subsequent progression into a global pandemic, an enormous hurdle faced by hospitals and their healthcare staff has been to streamline, and look after the huge flow of cases. It has become increasingly difficult to consult a Covid specialist when the first wave occurred in rural and areas not connected as well to modern amenities. Thus, it has become obvious that an interactive Chatbot with efficient execution can help patients living in such areas by educating on the appropriate preventive measures, news on virus strains, reducing the psychological damage caused by the fear of the virus and mental effects of solitary isolation. This study displays and discusses the schematics of an artificial intelligence (AI) chatbot for the purpose of evaluation, diagnosis and recommending immediate preventive as well as safety measures for patients who have been exposed to nCOV-19, and doubles as a virtual assistant to aid in measuring the severity of the infection via symptom analysis and connects with the authorised medical facilities when it progresses to a serious stage. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-335576

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has left government institutions vulnerable to deteriorating circumstances and spurred governments worldwide to take various policy actions. The type and success of policy responses to the pandemic have varied considerably. This article focuses on wearing a mask during COVID-19 and its non-compliance as a crime and examines the UAE's policy. The research adopts a comparative research methodology and compares Middle East, Gulf, and the United States law against wearing a mask during the COVID-19 outbreak. The findings claim that the UAE legislator considers non-compliance with wearing a mask in violation of the preventive measures regarding maintaining health and safety to prevent the risks of the spread of COVID-19. It is stated in the text of Article 348 of the Penal Code that whoever deliberately commits an act that endangers the life of people at risk should be punished under the law. As for the Gulf countries, for example, Qatar and Kuwait, they included imaginary penalties of up to 3 years imprisonment and a fine of up to 55 thousand dollars. As for the European and American countries, they will not reach the prison sentence, and only that wearing a mask or a mask is mandatory in crowded places, and the matter varies from place to place. We conclude that there is a difference in punishment between Arab and Gulf legislation, but it deals with the issue seriously and strictly, unlike European countries and the United States of America, where they have some flexibility.

3.
12th International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics, ICCCI 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831789

ABSTRACT

The days when one used to engage with a service through keyboards are gone. Users nowadays interact with systems through Chatbots or voice assistants. They are most likely to benefit humans by providing intelligent and suitable answers. Chatbot's aim is to make a productive conversation between human and machine. Every time the chatbot receives user input, it saves the input and response, which aids Chatbots with some initial knowledge. The utilization of Chatbots for health has certainly been fruitful from aiding doctors with their schedules to helping the public with answering their tiny queries. We know how the global pandemic caused by corona virus has adversely affected everyone's lives. People need to be informed about various aspects. The goal of this particular paper is to discuss the implementation and model of a telegram based Chatbot system with respect to helping people with the facts, precautions, preventive measures, and various other aspects related to the corona virus. It also throws light on protecting one's mental health. © 2022 IEEE.

4.
12th International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics, ICCCI 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831782

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus cases were first reported on 2019 in Wuhan, following the outbreak of the same worldwide. India is the country with second largest population more than 1.34 billion and for such a country to manage this exponentially increasing deadly virus is a major challenge. In the initial period of this outbreak, we had no medicine/vaccine to put a full stop to this highly contagious and destructing virus. Rather the only armour that protects us is to wash our hands regularly, wear mask whenever we move out of our shelters and maintain social distance. At present though we have various vaccines introduced, it's our duty to follow the preventive measures. This paper aims to streamline the previous issues discussed by introducing a personal assistant that reminds the person on wearing mask while peeking out of shelters, to have sanitizer with them remotely, to restrict the amount of time they spend out and generate a final report with all the information about the places they visited and time spent out will be sent to the user on a monthly basis. © 2022 IEEE.

5.
International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Sustainable Engineering, AISE 2020 ; 837:367-379, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1826273

ABSTRACT

The deadliest COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) is expanding steadily and internationally due to which the nation economy almost come to a complete halt;citizens are locked up;activity is stagnant and this turn toward fear of government for the health predicament. Public healthcare organizations are mostly in despair need of decision-making emerging technologies to confront this virus and enable individuals to get quick and efficient feedback in real-time to prevent it from spreading. Therefore, it becomes necessary to establish auto-mechanisms as a preventative measure to protect humanity from SARS-CoV-2. Intelligence automation tools as well as techniques could indeed encourage educators and the medical community to understand dangerous COVID-19 and speed up treatment investigations by assessing huge amounts of research data quickly. The outcome of preventing approach has been used to help evaluate, measure, predict, and track current infected patients and potentially upcoming patients. In this work, we proposed two deep learning models to integrate and introduce the preventive sensible measures like face mask detection and image-based X-rays scanning for COVID-19 detection. Initially, face mask detection classifier is implemented using VGG19 which identifies those who did not wear a face mask in the whole crowd and obtained 99.26% accuracy with log loss score 0.04. Furthermore, COVID-19 detection technique is applied onto the X-ray images that used a Xception deep learning model which classifies whether such an individual is an ordinary patient or infected from COVID-19 and accomplished overall 91.83% accuracy with 0.00 log loss score. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

6.
Behav Sci (Basel) ; 12(4)2022 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792810

ABSTRACT

Existing studies have focused primarily on self-oriented anxiety (i.e., anxiety over one's infection) in the pandemic context, and the role of community risk is largely ignored. This study addressed these gaps by examining (a) self-oriented anxiety and two forms of others-oriented anxiety (i.e., anxiety concerning others' health and societal problems), (b) the associations between all these forms of anxiety and physical distancing practice during the COVID-19 pandemic, and (c) the hypothesized moderating role of community risk factors. The participants were 703 U.S. community-dwelling adults who completed an online survey. Geo-identifier data were extracted to identify the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases and four social vulnerability indexes for the county in which each participant resided. Both forms of others-oriented anxiety were positively associated with physical distancing adoption, and the association was stronger among the participants residing in lower-risk communities (i.e., fewer confirmed COVID-19 cases, higher socioeconomic status, and better housing conditions). The study's novel findings reveal the protective role of anxiety, particularly anxiety concerning others' well-being, in encouraging people to adopt physical distancing during a pandemic. However, the protective role of anxiety is contingent upon certain community risk factors. Anxiety is more beneficial to residents of low- rather than high-risk communities.

7.
19th Orissa Information Technology Society International Conference on Information Technology, OCIT 2021 ; : 319-324, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1788763

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a devastating impact all around the world. The social distancing protocol has become the compulsory preventive measures in many countries for the purpose of avoiding physical contacts with other persons. This paper presents a drone based surveillance approach that uses Computer Vision and Deep Learning based techniques to check if two persons are violating social distancing norms. The implementation has been done using a Raspberry Pi based Drone where the camera captures the video from a height and detects the persons who are in near proximity with the help of an object detection algorithm and computes the distance between two persons in order to check whether they lie near to each other. The Euclidean distance between the two persons is calculated which is then compared with the given margin distance. If the distance is found to be below the margin., local authorities or law enforcement agencies can be notified through an automatically generated email alert. © 2021 IEEE.

8.
Medical Science ; 26(120):7, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1786647

ABSTRACT

Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic has rapid inevitable effects on individuals' health and life, which need to heighten readiness to comply with preventive measures and adjust our health behaviors. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 risk perception on compliance with preventive measures among adult Egyptians. Materials & methods: A cross-sectional study conducted on 582 participants who met the inclusion criteria. An online, self-administered questionnaire sent to participants through different social media platforms;it consisted of three parts concerned with sociodemographic data, risk perception scale, and COVID-19 preventive measures scale. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 34.16 +/- 9.86, and 87.8% of them had high compliance with COVID-19 preventive measures. The results also showed high COVID-19 risk perception among participants with a weighted mean of 4.01 +/- 0.74. The results reported a positive relationship between compliance with preventive measures and COVID-19 risk perception (r = 0.183, P<0.001). Also reported that risk perception is the most important predictor of compliance with preventive measures [OR=3.100, p <0.001, 95% CI (1.715-4.975)], followed by educational level [OR=2.921, p <0.001, 95% CI (1.557-6172)]. Conclusion: Risk perception is the strongest predictor of compliance with protective measures, the findings of this study added to the rising literature suggesting that COVID-19 risk perception is an important factor in predicting compliance with preventive measures.

9.
Frontiers in Communication ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1785319

ABSTRACT

This article describes the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) preventive measures on the undocumented migrant domestic workers in the Netherlands. Undocumented migrants (UDMs) are likely to experience inequalities due to the COVID-19 pandemic. They rely on the informal market for work and housing and are usually not entitled to a healthcare insurance. However, they are not represented in the COVID-19 registrations or surveys. In order to advise the policymakers and healthcare professionals on how to tailor the preventive activities in handling a pandemic, including vaccination strategy, to the needs of this group, an insight into their experiences is needed. In our qualitative study, two focus group discussions were held with 14 UDMs, recruited through a snowball technique. The UDMs perceived the COVID-19 as a threat. Their precarious position affected their perceived vulnerability, which motivated them to seek information on and comply with preventive measures and testing. However, structural barriers decreased their self-efficacy and opportunity to comply. The COVID-19 measures impacted the lives of UDMs on essential domains, resulting in job, food, and housing insecurity, and increased barriers in access to healthcare. An intersectoral approach addressing health communication, access to healthcare, and social support, as well as legal rights for safe employment, is needed to alleviate the impact of the measures on UDMs. Copyright © 2022 van den Muijsenbergh, Torensma, Skowronek, de Lange and Stronks.

10.
Atomization and Sprays ; 31(11):1-12, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1785240

ABSTRACT

With COVID-19 having spread so rapidly across the world, detailed physics of transmission of com- municable diseases must be understood to recommend effective preventive measures. Computational fluid dynamics can provide insights into the physics of transport of droplets. Droplets are not only emitted during sneezing and coughing, but also during normal activities such as breathing, speak- ing, and singing. In this paper, different breathing patterns and their effect on the spread of droplets of 1 micron size are studied. It has been found that long steady exhalations, as well as sinusoidal exhalations can cause the droplets to travel greater distances. Also, some observations of the effects of the inhalation cycle and its small region of influence are included in this work. © 2021 by Begell House, Inc.

11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 831456, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776033

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination together with good compliance with personal preventive measures may help eradicate the ongoing pandemic. This observational prospective cohort study investigated the changes in compliance with personal preventive measures, depressive symptoms, and sleep quality among factory workers within a 3-month follow-up period. A total of 663 workers were recruited by a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling in March 2020, and all of them completed a follow-up survey three months later. Multilevel logistic and linear regression models (level 1: factories; level 2: individual participants) were fitted. A significant decline was observed in consistent facemask wearing in workplace (from 98.0 to 90.3%, P < 0.001) and in other public spaces (from 97.1 to 94.4%, P = 0.02), sanitizing hands (from 70.9 to 48.0%, P < 0.001), household disinfection (from 47.7 to 37.9%, P < 0.001) and probable depression (from 14.9 to 1.5%, P < 0.001) over the follow-up period. A significant improvement in avoiding crowded places (from 69.8 to 77.4%, P = 0.002) and sleep quality (proportion of participants reporting poor sleep quality dropped from 3.9 to 1.2%, P = 0.002) was also observed. Efforts are needed to maintain compliance with personal preventive measures during the pandemic. Mental health problems were uncommon and likely to be one-off among Chinese factory workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Health Status , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies
12.
J Clin Med ; 11(7)2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776260

ABSTRACT

As of 27 March 2022, the ß-coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected more than 487 million individuals worldwide, causing more than 6.14 million deaths. SARS-CoV-2 spreads through close contact, causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); thus, emergency lockdowns have been implemented worldwide to avoid its spread. COVID-19 is not the first infectious disease that humankind has had to face during its history. Indeed, humans have recurrently been threatened by several emerging pathogens that killed a substantial fraction of the population. Historical sources document that as early as between the 10th and the 6th centuries BCE, the authorities prescribed physical-social isolation, physical distancing, and quarantine of the infected subjects until the end of the disease, measures that strongly resemble containment measures taken nowadays. In this review, we show a historical and literary overview of different epidemic diseases and how the recommendations in the pre-vaccine era were, and still are, effective in containing the contagion.

13.
J Egypt Public Health Assoc ; 97(1): 8, 2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures is essential for disease control especially given the lack of effective treatment at the time of data collection. Medical students' adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures is highly important because they are at a higher risk of infection as they spend considerable time at hospitals for training. In addition, they will be responsible for disease fighting in the future. This study aimed to identify the adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures among the studied male students of Al-Azhar Faculty of Medicine, Egypt. METHODS: An online survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 537 male medical students of Al-Azhar University at the Cairo branch between March 2 and April 15, 2021, using an Arabic questionnaire constructed by Google form with link sharing to students' groups on WhatsApp and face book applications. RESULTS: A total of 537 students voluntarily submitted their responses. Most of these students were aged between 18 and 20 years (62.4%), rural residents (62.9%), having family income of 5000 LE or less/month (64.2%), studying at the first, second, and sixth years (79.2%). The prevalence of adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures among studied students was 28.1% without significant difference in the students' adherence status regarding age, residence, family income, studying year, or academic score. Wearing a face mask outside the house was practiced by 58% of students, avoiding hugging or kissing others (41.3%), and keeping a distance from others (20.7%). CONCLUSION: Students showed a low level of adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures among students. Also, there is no significant difference between students' adherence status in relation to their socio-economic or academic variables. This unhealthy behavior increases the risk of infection among students. Also, students become a source of infection for their vulnerable contacts. More studies are needed to identify the real cause of this low level of adherence.

14.
4th International Conference on Innovative Computing, ICIC 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1769624

ABSTRACT

Facemask detection is a need of time as we are suffering in a pandemic situation of COVID-19, and facemask is considered the best preventive measure to stop the rapid spread. The vast majority of the world population is still unvaccinated, especially young and kids. Moreover, despite the vaccination, people are still getting Covid positive, and the majority are due to the Delta variant. So, we still need to have strict SOP implementation. The best way is to have some autonomous system to monitor SOP compliance and alert the authority to take countermeasures. Many people wear the mask, but the mask is usually on the chin and does not serve the purpose because the facemask must cover the mouth and nose to stop the spread. This study has proposed the improved version of the YOLOv4 model for the robust detection of face masks and checks whether the mask is worn in the recommended way. 2D convolutions of Yolov4 are replaced with the spatially separable convolutional in YOLOv4 to reduce the parameters so that the model can work in real-time. We have achieved an accuracy of 86.61% in terms of proper mask-wearing. Unlike other proposed approaches, our model is not only detecting the mask but also determines that whether the mask is worn in the recommended manner.Data Availability: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1M0Bw1vxJhqx0KtiX5hKAAojZHkx0PbCS?usp=sharing © 2021 IEEE.

15.
Canadian Public Policy-Analyse De Politiques ; 48(1):20, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1765647

ABSTRACT

The unequal burden of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis (e.g., in terms of infection and death rates) across Canadian provinces is important and puzzling. Some have speculated that differences in levels of citizen compliance with public health preventive measures are central to understanding cross-provincial differences in pandemic-related health outcomes. However, no systematic empirical test of this hypothesis has been conducted. In this research, we make use of an exceptionally large dataset that includes 23 survey waves (N = 22,610) fielded in Canada across 12 months (April 2020-April 2021) to answer the question "Is there evidence of substantial cross-provincial differences in citizen compliance with basic public health measures designed to prevent the spread of infection?" We find that regional differences in self-reported behaviour are few and very modest, suggesting that interprovincial differences in COVID-19-related health outcomes have little to do with differences in citizen compliance, at least in the first year of the pandemic. These results have important implications. Although it is crucial that we continue to study regional variations related to the COVID-19 burden, public health agency officials, pundits, and politicians should be cautious when musing about the role of citizen compliance as the primary explanation of interprovincial pandemic health outcomes.

16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760597

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers have been and still are at the forefront of COVID-19 patient care. Their infection had direct implications and caused important challenges for healthcare performance. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of non-pharmacological preventive measures against COVID-19 among healthcare workers. This study is based on a dynamic cohort of healthcare workers (n = 5543) who had been hired by a Spanish hospital for at least one week during 2020. Negative binomial regression models were used to estimate the incidence rate and the rate ratio (RR) between the two waves (defined from 15 March to 21 June and from 22 June to 31 December), considering natural immunity during the first wave and contextual variables. All models were stratified by socio-occupational variables. The average COVID-19 incidence rate per 1000 worker-days showed a significant reduction between the two waves, dropping from 0.82 (CI95%: 0.73-0.91) to 0.39 (0.35-0.44). The adjusted RR was 0.54 (0.48-0.87) when natural immunity was acquired during the first wave, and contextual variables were considered. The significant reduction of the COVID-19 incidence rate could be explained mainly by improvement in the non-pharmacological preventive interventions. It is needed to identify which measures were more effective. Young workers and those with a replacement contract were identified as vulnerable groups that need greater preventive efforts. Future preparedness plans would benefit from these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Models, Statistical , Vaccination
17.
Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1752312

ABSTRACT

Purpose: During the COVID-19 pandemic, government risk communication to the public was among the critical works, as the governments had to fight two enemies at once: the pandemic itself and the infodemic surrounding the COVID-19. Government risk communication could provide the public with prompt and accurate information as well as eliminate fake news, rumors and misinformation, thereby raising the public’s knowledge and risk perception and, thus, shaping their compliance with the government’s advices and directives. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of government risk communication through mass media on the public’s knowledge, risk perception and compliance with safety measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach: The ordinary least square and probit regression models were used for analyzing data collected from citizens living in Vietnam during the COVID-19 social distancing. Findings: The results of this paper show that government risk communication enhances the public’s knowledge of the COVID-19 and raises their risk perception of the virus. In addition, government risk communication is found to shape the public’s compliance with most safety measures. Practical implications: This paper offers practical implications for containing a pandemic (especially in the context that vaccines are unavailable or insufficient) by emphasizing the role of government risk communication. Originality/value: This paper is among the first attempts that examine the role of government risk communication through mass media in enhancing the public’s knowledge, their risk perception and their compliance with safety measures during a pandemic. © 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited.

18.
Infection ; 2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748390

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vaccination is the key element for protection against COVID-19. Increased vaccination breakthroughs raise the question of whether additional prevention is necessary in case of individual risk factors for a severe course with hospitalization or death despite vaccination. METHODS: Since July 13, 2021, there is an extended reporting requirement by German law. We analyzed our hospitalized patients with vaccine breakthrough infection during the first 8 weeks. RESULTS: Nine of 67 patients (13.4%) hospitalized for COVID-19 (median age 75 years) were fully vaccinated. Five of these patients received intensive care; two patients died. All had received two doses of BNT162b2 vaccines (Pfizer-BioNTech). There was a median of 99 days between complete immunization and symptom onset. All patients suffered from ≥ three comorbidities. Six patients (66.7%) showed a negative Anti-SARS-CoV-2-N titer at the time of vaccine breakthrough, five of these also had Anti-SARS-CoV-2-S titers < 100 U/ml. All determinable cases were Delta variant B.1.617.2. CONCLUSION: Advanced age, underlying cardiorespiratory disease, and the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 were associated with hospitalization of our patients, suffering from vaccine breakthrough infection. Avoidance of face masks, lack of immunization of close contacts, and travel to high-risk areas have been observed as modifiable behavioural circumstances. Consistent personal protective measures, vaccination of close caregivers, and increased awareness might be effective measures in addition to COVID-19 booster vaccination for patients at a high risk to suffer a severe course of infection.

19.
4th ISEA International Conference on Security and Privacy, ISEA-ISAP 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1746052

ABSTRACT

The lifestyle of people in this century will be categorized as Pre-COVID and Post-COVID lifestyle in the future. The pandemic has influenced every nation and every sector. The Internet of Things has helped the humankind to progress even during the pandemic time. Internet of Things has grown drastically with the industry switching their offices to homes. This has also increased the threat landscape and the attacks are also on rise. Several cyber-attacks are possible with Internet of Things devices. However, Supply chain attacks remain the largest threat as reactive measures to mitigate them are extremely difficult. In addition to that, supply chain attacks are difficult to detect in a network. In most of the cases, they remain unnoticed and they are used to launch espionage and ransom ware attacks. The impact of supply chain attacks is also extremely large compared to other attacks. The number of Internet of Things devices are going to grow by leaps and bounds, and it is necessary to take proactive steps in the network to mitigate such attacks. In this article, the elements of Internet of Things supply chain, motivation behind these attacks, vulnerabilities in the supply chain, and recent attacks are discussed in detail. In order to mitigate the supply chain attacks in Internet of Things environment, preventive measures that can be adopted at various levels are also suggested. These measures can be applied as best practices in any smart network environment against supply chain attacks. © 2021 IEEE.

20.
Plasma Medicine ; 11(3):1-18, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1745247

ABSTRACT

Wearing a mask population-wide is an important preventive measure in address-ing COVID-19 and potential future pandemics. We showed how a household microwave oven, a coat-hanger, and a coffee cup can generate plasma that can be used to decontaminate N95 respirators in less than 1 minute. We proved that microwave-generated plasma can reduce infectivity of the Tulane virus and the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) on N95 respirators by > 3-log10. We further studied the Tulane virus by molecular assays to understand inactivation mech-anisms, and we found that the plasma damages both viral proteins and genomes. Spectroscopy of the plasma revealed OH and C-containing radicals as the most prevalent active species expected to cause virus inactivation. The respirators still maintained filtration and fit even after 10 cycles of the plasma treatment. We believe that microwave-generated plasma is an easily accessible respirator decontamination technique that everyone could use for safe respirator reuse. © 2021 by Begell House, Inc.

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