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1.
Migration Studies ; 10(4):582-607, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20233988

ABSTRACT

How do crises shape native attitudes towards migrants? A common threat could produce an empathy channel among natives, but the perception of competition for scarce economic resources could just as easily spark prejudice through a resentment channel. Totally, 3,400 Colombian citizens were surveyed and randomly primed to consider the economic consequences of COVID-19 before eliciting their attitudes towards Venezuelan migrants. The findings suggest that native attitudes towards migrants are substantially more suggestive of the resentment channel in the treatment group. However, respondents in the so-called impressionable years—ages 18–25—showed more altruism towards migrants after priming. Interestingly, both effects disappear in response to positive news. VC The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

2.
J Health Psychol ; : 13591053231176261, 2023 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240030

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the introduction of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions such as precautionary behaviours. The current study used affective priming to evaluate COVID-19 attitudes in vaccine-hesitant and pro-vaccine participants. Explicitly, both groups rated their overall perception of risk associated with contracting COVID-19 significantly lower compared to their perception of necessary precautions and overall adherence to public health measures. Pro-vaccine participants rated their perception of necessary precautions higher compared to vaccine-hesitant participants. During baseline measures, both groups classified COVID-19 affiliated words as unpleasant. Affective priming was observed for congruent prime-target pleasant and unpleasant word pairs but was not observed for COVID-19 related word pairs. Differences between groups in the perception of necessary public health precautions points to different underlying pathways for reduced perceived risk and lack of affective priming. These results refine previous findings indicating that implicit attitudes towards COVID-19 can be measured using the affective priming paradigm.

3.
Med Decis Making ; : 272989X231171139, 2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rates of advance directive (AD) completion in the United Kingdom are lower than in the United States and other western European countries, which is especially concerning in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. UK residents typically complete an advance decision to refuse care (ADRT), whereas US versions of ADs present a more neutral choice between comfort-oriented or life-prolonging care. The purpose of this study is to test whether this framing affects decision making for end-of-life care and if this is affected by exposure to information about the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In an online experiment, 801 UK-based respondents were randomly allocated to document their preferences for end-of-life care in a 2 (US AD or UK ADRT) by 2 (presence or absence of COVID-19 prime) between-subjects factorial design. RESULTS: Most (74.8%) of participants across all conditions chose comfort-oriented care. However, framing comfort care as a refusal of treatment made respondents significantly less likely to choose it (65.4% v. 84.1%, P < 0.001). This effect was exacerbated by priming participants to think about COVID-19: those completing an ADRT were significantly more likely to choose life-prolonging care when exposed to the COVID-19 prime (39.8% v. 29.6%, P = 0.032). Subgroup analyses revealed these effects differed by age, with older participants' choices influenced more by COVID-19 while younger participants were more affected by the AD framing. CONCLUSIONS: The UK ADRT significantly reduced the proportion of participants choosing comfort-oriented care, an effect that was heightened in the presence of information about COVID-19. This suggests the current way end-of-life care wishes are documented in the United Kingdom could affect people's choices in a way that does not align with their preferences, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. HIGHLIGHTS: Participants completing an AD framed as an advance decision to refuse treatment were significantly less likely to choose comfort-oriented care than participants completing an AD with a neutral choice between comfort-oriented and life-prolonging care.Exposure to a COVID-19 prime had an interactive effect on documented preferences in the refusal of treatment condition, with these participants even less likely to choose comfort-oriented care.Policy makers and organizations that design templates for advance care planning, particularly in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic, should be aware how the framing of these forms can influence decisions.

4.
Front Plant Sci ; 14: 1177844, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318270

ABSTRACT

Micronutrient deficiencies caused by malnutrition and hidden hunger are a growing concern worldwide, exacerbated by climate change, COVID-19, and conflicts. A potentially sustainable way to mitigate such challenges is the production of nutrient-dense crops through agronomic biofortification techniques. Among several potential target crops, microgreens are considered suitable for mineral biofortification because of their short growth cycle, high content of nutrients, and low level of anti-nutritional factors. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of zinc (Zn) biofortification of pea and sunflower microgreens via seed nutri-priming, examining the effect of different Zn sources (Zn sulfate, Zn-EDTA, and Zn oxide nanoparticles) and concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm) on microgreen yield components; mineral content; phytochemical constituents such as total chlorophyll, carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanin, and total phenolic compounds; antioxidant activity; and antinutrient factors like phytic acid. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized factorial block design with three replications. Seed soaked in a 200 ppm ZnSO4 solution resulted in higher Zn accumulation in both peas (126.1%) and sunflower microgreens (229.8%). However, an antagonistic effect on the accumulation of other micronutrients (Fe, Mn, and Cu) was seen only in pea microgreens. Even at high concentrations, seed soaking in Zn-EDTA did not effectively accumulate Zn in both microgreens' species. ZnO increased the chlorophyll, total phenols, and antioxidant activities compared to Zn-EDTA. Seed soaking in ZnSO4 and ZnO solutions at higher concentrations resulted in a lower phytic acid/Zn molar ratio, suggesting the higher bioaccessibility of the biofortified Zn in both pea and sunflower microgreens. These results suggest that seed nutrient priming is feasible for enriching pea and sunflower microgreens with Zn. The most effective Zn source was ZnSO4, followed by ZnO. The optimal concentration of Zn fertilizer solution should be selected based on fertilizer source, target species, and desired Zn-enrichment level.

5.
Journal of Evidence - Based Psychotherapies ; 21(2):189-205, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2295279

ABSTRACT

Surveys that have recruited participants through social media and news websites have led researchers and clinicians to conclude that the COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated a parallel pandemic of nightmares that reflect pandemic-induced psychological distress. Many of these surveys were administered to participants who intentionally opted into research knowing that the investigators were soliciting pandemic dream reports. This investigation surveyed 193 college students who were blind to the purpose of the study to assess the prevalence of pandemic dreams and to determine if the wording of the questions could shape responses. Fewer than half could recall a dream. Reports were brief, susceptible to priming, and unrelated to personal SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 exposure. Although this sample was not truly random, it is probably more representative of the US population than those recruited through thematic websites. Clinicians should be aware of problems inherent in survey research and understand how their words can shape client responses.

6.
Transcriptomics in Health and Disease, Second Edition ; : 249-275, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2293585

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune diseases are a group of different inflammatory disorders characterized by systemic or localized inflammation, affecting approximately 0.1–1% of the general population. Several studies suggest that genetic risk loci are shared between different autoimmune diseases and pathogenic mechanisms may also be shared. The strategy of performing differential gene expression profiles in autoimmune disorders has unveiled new transcripts that may be shared among these disorders. Microarray technology and bioinformatics offer the most comprehensive molecular evaluations and it is widely used to understand the changes in gene expression in specific organs or in peripheral blood cells. The major goal of transcriptome studies is the identification of specific biomarkers for different diseases. It is believed that such knowledge will contribute to the development of new drugs, new strategies for early diagnosis, avoiding tissue autoimmune destruction, or even preventing the development of autoimmune disease. In this review, we primarily focused on the transcription profiles of three typical autoimmune disorders, including type 1 diabetes mellitus (destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells), systemic lupus erythematosus (immune complex systemic disorder affecting several organs and tissues), and multiple sclerosis (inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the nervous system). © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2014, 2022.

7.
European Management Review ; 20(1):97-112, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2249679

ABSTRACT

The COVID‐19 pandemic has accelerated trends of globalization and digitalization, making geographically dispersed teams a common practice in firms. Despite benefits derived from the members' diversity, such teams are also prone to trust deficiency. Advancing prior research, this study focuses on links between multiple referents of trust. We draw on halo and priming effects to suggest that employees' trust toward their organization could trickle‐down to trust in their co‐workers. Moreover, we highlight the moderating role of cultural dissimilarity and relationship length. Analyzing 317 relationships between Turkish employees and their co‐workers of Turkish and German cultural background, we present evidence for a trickle‐down effect of organizational trust on trust in co‐workers. We also find that the trickle‐down effect of trust is stronger when cultural dissimilarity is high than when it is low, suggesting that trust in the organizations may outweigh cultural barriers that could hamper trust between co‐workers.

8.
Journal of Location Based Services ; 17(1):26-47, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2261734

ABSTRACT

Many governments use mass surveillance to fight COVID-19. Surveillance technologies can help in controlling the spread of the virus, but they may also raise privacy concerns among citizens. This research aims to explore the behavioural mechanisms underlying the acceptance of mass surveillance during COVID-19 and public health emergencies in the future. According to regulatory focus theory, goal-directed behaviour is regulated by two motivational systems – promotion and prevention. Promotion-focused individuals are motivated by growth and prefer to use eager strategies to achieve their goals. Prevention-focused individuals are motivated by safety and prefer to use vigilant strategies. Based on the theory, it is proposed that there is a relationship between regulatory focus and acceptance of mass surveillance. Study 1 tested this proposal with a questionnaire that measured chronic regulatory focus. Study 2 tested this proposal with an experimental priming technique. For both, chronic and experimentally manipulated regulatory focus, these studies showed that surveillance acceptance was associated with regulatory focus. In Study 1, surveillance acceptance was positively associated with prevention focus. Privacy concerns mediated this relationship. The higher the prevention focus, the lower were the concerns about privacy, and thus, the higher was the willingness to accept mass surveillance. Moreover, promotion focus moderated the relationship between privacy concerns and surveillance acceptance. The higher the concerns about privacy, the lower was the willingness to accept mass surveillance, and the higher the promotion focus, the stronger was the effect. Study 2 found that a situationally induced regulatory focus moderated the relationship between privacy concerns and surveillance acceptance. The higher the concerns over privacy, the lower was the willingness to accept mass surveillance, and the effect was stronger for an induced promotion (vs. prevention) focus. Models of surveillance acceptance are presented. Implications for public health and health communication are discussed.

9.
Brain Commun ; 5(2): fcad073, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259070

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence indicates that coronavirus disease 2019 is a major cause of delirium. Given the global dimension of the current pandemic and the fact that delirium is a strong predictor of cognitive decline for critically ill patients, this raises concerns regarding the neurological cost of coronavirus disease 2019. Currently, there is a major knowledge gap related to the covert yet potentially incapacitating higher-order cognitive impairment underpinning coronavirus disease 2019 related delirium. The aim of the current study was to analyse the electrophysiological signatures of language processing in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with delirium by using a specifically designed multidimensional auditory event-related potential battery to probe hierarchical cognitive processes, including self-processing (P300) and semantic/lexical priming (N400). Clinical variables and electrophysiological data were prospectively collected in controls subjects (n = 14) and in critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients with (n = 19) and without (n = 22) delirium. The time from intensive care unit admission to first clinical sign of delirium was of 8 (3.5-20) days, and the delirium lasted for 7 (4.5-9.5) days. Overall, we have specifically identified in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with delirium, both a preservation of low-level central auditory processing (N100 and P200) and a coherent ensemble of covert higher-order cognitive dysfunctions encompassing self-related processing (P300) and sematic/lexical language priming (N400) (spatial-temporal clustering, P-cluster ≤ 0.05). We suggest that our results shed new light on the neuropsychological underpinnings of coronavirus disease 2019 related delirium, and may constitute a valuable method for patient's bedside diagnosis and monitoring in this clinically challenging setting.

10.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1140630, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251789

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Sepsis, a global health burden, is often complicated by viral infections leading to increased long-term morbidity and mortality. Interleukin-3 (IL-3) has been identified as an important mediator amplifying acute inflammation in sepsis; however, its function in the host response to viral infections during sepsis remains elusive. Objectives: To investigate the role of IL-3 during viral pneumonia in sepsis. Methods: We included septic patients from two different cohorts and used in vitro and in vivo assays. The obtained data were substantiated using a second model (SARS-CoV-2 infections). Measurements and main results: Low plasma IL-3 levels were associated with increased herpes simplex virus (HSV) airway infections in septic patients, resulting in reduced overall survival. Likewise, Il-3-deficient septic mice were more susceptible to pulmonary HSV-1 infection and exhibited higher pulmonary inflammation than control mice. Mechanistically, IL-3 increases innate antiviral immunity by promoting the recruitment of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) into the airways and by enhancing pDC-mediated T cell activation upon viral stimulation. Interestingly, the ability of IL-3 to improve adaptive immunity was confirmed in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections. Conclusion: Our study identifies IL-3 as a predictive disease marker for viral reactivation in sepsis and reveals that IL-3 improves antiviral immunity by enhancing the recruitment and the function of pDCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Animals , Mice , Antiviral Agents , Dendritic Cells , Interleukin-3 , Lung , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes
11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116115

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy is characterized by immunological alterations in pregnant women that permit the growth of a semi-allogenic fetus, resulting in greater susceptibility of childbearing women to infections. Furthermore, due to the immaturity of the immune system of neonates, a protection gap is present in early life, leaving neonates and infants vulnerable to infectious diseases with increased morbidity and mortality. Maternal immunization against influenza, pertussis, and, in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 has been implemented in several countries, with beneficial effects on both the mother and the offspring. The main protective mechanism of vaccination during pregnancy is transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies. However, recent evidence has implied that the fetal immune system may be influenced beyond passive immunity. This review sheds light on the current status of the routinely administered vaccinations during pregnancy, focusing on the impact of maternal immunization on the priming of the fetal immune system and suggesting future perspectives for the optimization of vaccination strategies.

12.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 11(10): e12269, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084354

ABSTRACT

Small Extracellular Vesicles (sEVs) are 50-200 nm in diameter vesicles delimited by a lipid bilayer, formed within the endosomal network or derived from the plasma membrane. They are secreted in various biological fluids, including airway nasal mucus. The goal of this work was to understand the role of sEVs present in the mucus (mu-sEVs) produced by human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We show that uninfected HNECs produce mu-sEVs containing SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 and activated protease TMPRSS2. mu-sEVs cleave prefusion viral Spike proteins at the S1/S2 boundary, resulting in higher proportions of prefusion S proteins exposing their receptor binding domain in an 'open' conformation, thereby facilitating receptor binding at the cell surface. We show that the role of nasal mu-sEVs is to complete prefusion Spike priming performed by intracellular furin during viral egress from infected cells. This effect is mediated by vesicular TMPRSS2 activity, rendering SARS-CoV-2 virions prone to entry into target cells using the 'early', TMPRSS2-dependent pathway instead of the 'late', cathepsin-dependent route. These results indicate that prefusion Spike priming by mu-sEVs in the nasal cavity plays a role in viral tropism. They also show that nasal mucus does not protect from SARS-CoV-2 infection, but instead facilitates it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Furin , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , Proviruses/metabolism , Lipid Bilayers , Virus Internalization , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Cathepsins
13.
Linguistics Vanguard ; 0(0), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082644

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has massively limited how linguists can collect data, and out of necessity, researchers across several disciplines have moved data collection online. Here we argue that the rising popularity of remote web-based experiments also provides an opportunity for widening the context of linguistic research by facilitating data collection from understudied populations. We discuss collecting production data from adult native speakers of Tagalog using an unsupervised web-based experiment. Compared to equivalent lab experiments, data collection went quicker, and the sample was more diverse, without compromising data quality. However, there were also technical and human issues that come with this method. We discuss these challenges and provide suggestions on how to overcome them.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082186

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to severe consequences for people's mental health. The pandemic has also influenced our language use, shaping our word formation habits. The overuse of new metaphorical meanings has received particular attention from the media. Here, we wanted to investigate whether these metaphors have led to the formation of new semantic associations in memory. A sample of 120 university students was asked to decide whether a target word was or was not related to a prime stimulus. Responses for pandemic pairs in which the target referred to the newly acquired metaphorical meaning of the prime (i.e., "trench"-"hospital") were compared to pre-existing semantically related pairs (i.e., "trench"-"soldier") and neutral pairs (i.e., "trench"-"response"). Results revealed greater accuracy and faster response times for pandemic pairs than for semantic pairs and for semantic pairs compared to neutral ones. These findings suggest that the newly learned pandemic associations have created stronger semantic links in our memory compared to the pre-existing ones. Thus, this work confirms the adaptive nature of human language, and it underlines how the overuse of metaphors evoking dramatic images has been, in part, responsible for many psychological disorders still reported among people nowadays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Language , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Semantics , Reaction Time/physiology
15.
Migration Studies ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070150

ABSTRACT

How do crises shape native attitudes towards migrants? A common threat could produce an empathy channel among natives, but the perception of competition for scarce economic resources could just as easily spark prejudice through a resentment channel. Totally, 3,400 Colombian citizens were surveyed and randomly primed to consider the economic consequences of COVID-19 before eliciting their attitudes towards Venezuelan migrants. The findings suggest that native attitudes towards migrants are substantially more suggestive of the resentment channel in the treatment group. However, respondents in the so-called impressionable years-ages 18-25-showed more altruism towards migrants after priming. Interestingly, both effects disappear in response to positive news.

16.
Biogeosciences ; 19(17):4089-4105, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2025103

ABSTRACT

Contrary to most soils, permafrost soils have the atypical feature of being almost entirely deprived of soil fauna. Abiotic constraints on the fate of permafrost carbon after thawing are increasingly understood, but biotic constraints remain scarcely investigated. Incubation studies, essential to estimate effects of permafrost thaw on carbon cycling, typically measure the consequences of permafrost thaw in isolation from the topsoil and thus do not account for the effects of altered biotic interactions because of e.g. colonization by soil fauna. Microarthropods facilitate the dispersal of microorganisms in soil, both on their cuticle (ectozoochory) and through their digestive tract (endozoochory), which may be particularly important in permafrost soils, considering that microbial community composition can strongly constrain permafrost biogeochemical processes.Here we tested how a model species of microarthropod (the CollembolaFolsomia candida) affected aerobic CO2 production of permafrost soil over a 25 d incubation. By using Collembola stock cultures grown on permafrost soil or on an arctic topsoil, we aimed to assess the potential for endo- and ectozoochory of soil bacteria, while cultures grown on gypsum and sprayed with soil suspensions would allow the observation of only ectozoochory.The presence of Collembola introduced bacterial amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) absent in the no-Collembola control, regardless of their microbiome manipulation, when considering presence–absence metrics (unweighted UniFrac metrics), which resulted in increased species richness. However, these introduced ASVs did not induce changes in bacterial community composition as a whole (accounting for relative abundances, weighted UniFrac), which might only become detectable in the longer term.CO2 production was increased by 25.85 % in the presence of Collembola, about half of which could be attributed to Collembola respiration based on respiration rates measured in the absence of soil. We argue that the rest of the CO2 being respired can be considered a priming effect of the presence of Collembola, i.e. a stimulation of permafrost CO2 production in the presence of active microarthropod decomposers. Overall, our findings underline the importance of biotic interactions in permafrost biogeochemical processes and the need to explore the additive or interactive effects of other soil food web groups of which permafrost soils are deprived.

17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 958581, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022744

ABSTRACT

In addition to vaccines, there is an urgent need for supplemental antiviral therapeutics to dampen the persistent COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), that is responsible for proteolytic priming of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, appears as a rational therapeutic target. Accordingly, selective inhibitors of TMPRSS2 represent potential tools for prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Previously, we identified the human milk glycoprotein lactoferrin as a natural inhibitor of plasminogen conversion to plasmin, a serine protease homologous to TMPRSS2. Here, we tested whether lactoferrin and lactoferricin, a biologically active natural peptide produced by pepsin-mediated digestion of lactoferrin, together with synthetic peptides derived from lactoferrin, were able to block TMPRSS2 and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Particularly, we revealed that both lactoferricin and the N-terminal synthetic peptide pLF1 significantly inhibited: i) proteolytic activity of TMPRSS2 and plasmin, ii) proteolytic processing of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and iii) SARS-CoV-2 infection of SARS-CoV-2-permissive cells. Thus, natural and synthetic peptides derived from lactoferrin represent feasible candidates for supporting prevention and treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Lactoferrin , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors , Fibrinolysin , Humans , Lactoferrin/pharmacology , Pandemics , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
18.
Built Environment Project and Asset Management ; 12(5):701-703, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1985240

ABSTRACT

[...]this special issue contributes to priming the construction industry for the next normal by re-examining the emerging needs for reengineering or developing novel and more relevant key performance indicators (KPIs) to better measure the performance of construction projects, online teaching-learning and research following vast digital and other transformations triggered, if not accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic. [...]virtual FAT (vFAT) became a popular substitute for physical FAT. The paper showed construction digitisation such as VR, augmented reality (AR) and building information modelling (BIM) is highly cooperative as it can easily be made available for online learning. [...]the findings support construction educators to use online-based VR learning to promote efficient teaching of design buildability to students. The research papers cover findings related to a wide range of countries such as India, Malaysia, New Zealand, South Africa, Sri Lanka and USA, and the authors of the papers also represent several different institutions within or across countries. [...]this special issue provides a snapshot of various KPIs and metrics proposed for the next normal in construction, considering different contextual factors experienced by various different geographical regions across the world.

19.
Semin Immunol ; : 101644, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956344

ABSTRACT

Hyperactivated local tissue is a cardinal feature of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases of various organs such as the joints, the gut, the skin, or the lungs. Tissue-resident structural and stromal cells, which get primed during repeated or long-lasting bouts of inflammation form the basis of this sensitization of the tissue. During priming, cells change their metabolism to make them fit for the heightened energy demands that occur during persistent inflammation. Epigenetic changes and, curiously, an activation of intracellularly expressed parts of the complement system drive this metabolic invigoration and enable tissue-resident cells and infiltrating immune cells to employ an arsenal of inflammatory functions, including activation of inflammasomes. Here we provide a current overview on complement activation and inflammatory transformation in tissue-occupying cells, focusing on fibroblasts during arthritis, and illustrate ways how therapeutics directed at complement C3 could potentially target the complosome to unprime cells in the tissue and induce long-lasting abatement of inflammation.

20.
Pravention und Gesundheitsförderung ; 17(3):257-265, 2022.
Article in German | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1930530

ABSTRACT

ZusammenfassungHintergrundSeit dem Beginn der SARS-CoV-2-Pandemie wurde in Deutschland noch nie eine konkrete Strategie formuliert. Einzelne Themen verselbstständigen sich immerfort und die Begründungen für den Lockdown, nämlich die Reduktion der Mortalität bei den vulnerablen Personen- und Altersgruppen und die Gefahr einer erhöhten Letalität bei Überlastung des Gesundheitswesens, allen voran der Intensivstationen, geraten aus den Fokus.MethodeAuf der Basis von Erkenntnissen, die bereits vor dieser Pandemie vorlagen und solchen, die bisher akkumuliert wurden, wird eine Refokussierung vorgenommen und eine Exitstrategie für Deutschland entwickelt.ErgebnisseDas eigentliche Ziel in der Pandemie ist, die Erstinfektion der Bevölkerung mittels Wildvirusinfektion oder Impfung möglichst schnell zu überwinden und die Herdenimmunitätsschwelle zu erreichen. Nur so kann dem Virus sein Gefahrenpotenzial genommen und eine neujustierte endemische Lage erreicht werden. Die Russische Grippepandemie 1889–1892 durch CoV-OC43, heute eine pandemische Narbe von damals, ist dazu das Modell. Die aktuell erfolgreiche Impfstoffentwicklung in nie dagewesener Geschwindigkeit ist eine historische Gnade.SchlussfolgerungenDie Russische Grippepandemie war die zuletzt größte Coronaviruspandemie. Nach einem Impfangebot an die vulnerablen Gruppen („Targetpopulation“) ist der Lockdown schnellst möglich aufzuheben, das Impfangebot für Erwachsene ohne etablierte Risikofaktoren fortzusetzen und parallel dazu der Rest der Bevölkerung schnellst möglich durchseuchen zu lassen. Trotz erfolgreicher Impfstoffentwicklung drängt die Zeit, um weiteren Verwerfungen vorzubeugen.

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