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1.
Veterinary Times ; 52(37):10-10, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2167098
2.
CABI Reviews ; 17(052):1-24, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2186712

ABSTRACT

This review categorizes 62 zoonoses humans share with dogs based on their clinical, public health importance, and global distribution. Three categories were identified. Category 1 comprise the most widespread and public health important zoonoses and includes 13 zoonoses where dogs play an essential role in the maintenance and transmission of the infectious organisms. This category comprises Rabies lyssavirus, Leptospirosis, Leishmania, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei spp., Clonorchis sinsensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Paragonimus spp., Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia multiceps, Dracunculus medinensis, Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma spp., and Strongyloides stercoralis Category 2 includes 24 zoonoses of lesser public health importance in which human or dog behavior plays a major role in transmission. Category 2 includes,Microsporum spp Prevotella., Bacteroides spp., Porphyromonas spp., Bergeyella zoohelcum, Neisseria spp., Pasteurella spp., Capnocytophaga canimorsus, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Yersina pestis, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Dibothriocephalus latum, Spirometra spp., Schistosoma spp., Echinococcus canadensis, and Sarcoptes scabei var canis Category 3 includes human infection where the zoonotic infection link is rare but has occasionally implicated dogs. This category includes SARS-CoV-2,Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycobacterium spp., Corynebacterium spp., Coxiella burnetti, Helicobacter spp., Campylobacter spp., Brucella canis, Balantioides coli, Blastocystis hominis, Bacillus anthracis, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia spp., Trichuris vulpis, Gnathostoma spp., Thelazia spp., Dirofilaria spp., Onchocera lupi, Heterophyes heterophyes, Metagonimus spp., Fasciolopsis buski, Ctenocephalides felis, Cheyletiella spp., Otodectes cynotis, and Cochliomya homnivorax. Changes in human behavior and control of canine infection would reduce the public health importance of these zoonoses.

3.
Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift ; 133(1):22-26, 2021.
Article in Norwegian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2168930

ABSTRACT

The clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of outbreaks of Bovine respiratory syncytial virus and Bovine coronavirus causing respiratory disease outbreaks in beef cattle in Norway in January-February 2011 are described.

4.
Veterinary Ireland Journal ; 11(8):460-462, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2167975
5.
Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift ; 129(9):579-581, 2022.
Article in Norwegian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2167278

ABSTRACT

This article is the first in a series regarding the Norwegian Rogalands project's prevention and control of bovine coronavirus, Bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine coronavirus, digital dermatitis and other infectious diseases in cattle. Hygiene during transport and in the barn environment are emphasized.

6.
Norsk Veterinaertidsskrift ; 132(3):138-145, 2020.
Article in Norwegian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2167150

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak that began in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei province in central China, is a pandemic that spreads quickly and creates major challenges for global public health and the economy. It is unknown how big the consequences of the outbreak will be, but in the worst case they can be large in several countries. Infectious diseases have throughout history constituted an extensive burden for animals and humans globally, and new, serious infectious agents will continue to emerge and challenge public and animal health. The most significant infections in humans originated from animals, which shows that the health of animals and humans is closely linked. Society must therefore always have solid preparedness against serious infections in both animals and humans. Infection control includes measures to prevent and manage health threats related to infectious diseases. It is therefore crucial that professional environments, authorities, businesses and society in general give this area a high priority and know how to do it at all times act when this type of crisis occurs. In this article, a number of basic terms related to infection control are defined, and an overview of risk assessments of sources of infection is given. One section discusses infection control in a historical, sociological and political context, and an overview of infection control measures in veterinary medicine is also presented, as well as some assessments when choosing measures. Finally, the authors come up with some thoughts about the role of the veterinary professions in the future work on infection control.

7.
Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja ; 144(9):527-542, 2022.
Article in Hungarian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2207236

ABSTRACT

The authors summarize the current knowledge about FIP (feline infectious peritonitis) using the latest scientific literature and their own experiences. The feline coronaviruses, both the feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the FIP virus (FIPV) belong to the same Alphacoronovirus 1 species, in the Alphocoronovirus genus within the Coronoviridoe family, and infect wild and domestic felids. FIPV is the mutated form of the ubiquitous and contagious feline enteric coronavirus. which, in contrast, causes a fatal and non -infectious illness. The letha, disease cevelops in only a subset of infected cats as a result of complex immunopatho-logical processes. The clinical manifestation of the disease is very diverse, the effusive form ("wet form") has a more rapid course than the non-effusive form ("dry form"). However, these two main manifestations are rather the endpoints of a continuum of diseases. Macroscopically the wet form is characterized by effusions in the serosal cavities, and the dry form by perivascular (pyo)granulomas in the organs. The most characteristic histological lesions are granulo-matous to necrotizing vasculitis in the wet form, and vas-acentric pyogranulomatous inflammation in the dry form. Ante-mortem diagnosis of the disease is challenging yet extremely important, partially because of recent successes in therapy. The most reliable diagnosis is likely to be made only post-mortem, but a properly constructed diagnostic workflow can be similarly effective. Although the active substances of previous successful therapies are relatively easily available, they are not approved for veterinary use. In the absence of an effective vaccine, prevention is based mainly on epidemiological considerations and the reduction of stressors that unnecessarily affect the cats. Presenting the example of FIP and COVID-19, it is perfectly understandable why the experience of different drugs in the treatment of animal curonaviral infections can be of tremendous value in preparing their use in human experiments.

8.
Journal of Tropical Resources and Sustainable Science ; 9(2):93-102, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2206596

ABSTRACT

Most of the coronaviruses are known because they are pathogens of veterinary and economic importance or of social importance. The current knowledge on the origin, diversity, evolution of coronaviruses, as well as treatment and prevention strategies, and their impact on animal industries are discussed in this paper. The contribution factors for the outbreak of pathogenic coronaviruses and the potential of spill over of zoonotic coronaviruses to humans are also highlighted in this review paper.

9.
Journal of Zoonotic Diseases ; 6(3):113-121, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2204997

ABSTRACT

In late 2019, covid-19 was initiated in Wuhan (Hubei province, China) due to a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 or (SARS-CoV-2). Covid-19 not only has claimed four million lives and influenced millions of people but also has confined the movement of the population in most of the world. Until now, covid-19 is the leading challenge in terms of economic, health, and humanitarian in the 21 century. Various animal infections of SARS-CoV-2 have been reported (dog, cat, tiger, lion, and mink) along with the significant covid-19 cases, deaths, and hospitalizations in humans. Therefore, this increased the concern of pet keepers. Furthermore, further explanation is required for the disease dynamics, mainly regarding the human-animal transmission of the virus and vice versa. Thus, this study's is to collect data from reported cases of covid-19 transmission in animals by reviewing published articles. Despite the numerous SARS-CoV-2 transmission instances, further and cautious studies are essential for avoiding the maltreatment incidence in animals. Hence, a better comprehension is obtained of the disease dynamics in the environment, animals, and humans. This article lists corona reports in various animals. More studies on the animal-human interface can be effective in formulating and implementing preventive measures for combating the further covid-19 transmission.

10.
Acta Microbiologica Sinica ; 12(10), 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2203850

ABSTRACT

Objective: To learn the prevalence and genotypic diversity of canine coronavirus(CCoV)in healthy and diarrhea dogs in Shandong Province.

11.
Journal of Southern Agriculture ; 53(8):2077-2087, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2201259

ABSTRACT

Object: To explore genetic evolution relationship of variant porcine epidemic diarrhea virus(PEDV)and antigenic differential sites among variant strain subtypes,so as to lay a foundation for the development of novel vaccines and diagnostic kits. Method: Three PEDV-positive porcine intestinal samples were inoculated on to confluent Vero cells to isolate PEDV. Virus identification was performed by indirect fluorescence assay(IFA), Western blotting,RT-PCR and whole genome sequencing and electron microscopic observation;virus titer was determined by TCID50and the in vitvo proliferation dynamin curve of the virus was drawn. The genome of the isolated strain was divided into 33 segments for RT-PCR amplification, and the SeqMan of Lasergene was used to splice sequences. Then the genetic evolution analysis was performed with MEGA 7.0, and the antigenicity analysis was performed with Jameson-Wolf algorithm in Protean. Result: Typical cytopathic effect appeared in one PEDV-positive porcine intestinal sample in Vero cells when it was blindly passaged to the 6thgeneration and the sample was designated as CH-HK-2021. IFA and Western blotting results showed that the strain CH-HK-2021 could react with PEDV N monoclonal antibody and expected reads were obtained through RT-PCR amplification, which demonstrated this virus was PEDV. Diameter of strain CH-HK-2021 was 80-120 nm and the surface of the virus particles were in spike-like shape, indicating it was coronavirus. The strain could be stably propagated in Vero cells, and it has been passaged to 100thgeneration. After 24 h of infecting the Vero cells, virus titer of strain CH-HK-2021 reached the highest,105.6TCID50/mL. The size whole genome of strain CH-HK-2021 not including poly(A)tail was 28034 bp, with a similarity of 96.0%-98.9% with nucleotide sequence of the PEDV reference strain and a similarity of 93.1%-99.0% with S-base nucleotide sequence of the reference strain. The strain had the highest similarity with nucleotide sequence of variant strain CH/JX/01(KX058031)and the lowest similarity with nucleotide sequence of classical strain AVCT12(LC053455). Strain CH-HK-2021 was a subtype of G2a and it is spreading in China. Strain G2a and variant strain G2b had 42 nucleotide differential sites in S gene and 6 antigenic differential sites;and main differential sites located in subunit S2.

12.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 51(11):1355-1360, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2155897

ABSTRACT

To develop a real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR method for rapid, accurate, sensitive and quantitative detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), according to the highly conserved nucleotide sequence of S gene reported by GenBank, a pair of PEDV S gene specific primers were designed, and a fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR detection method using SYBR Green I as the dye was established. The clinical samples suspected of PEDV infection were tested and compared with the results of ordinary RT-PCR. The results showed that the established standard curve of the SYBR Green I fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR method had a good linear relationship. The linear correlation coefficient R2=1, its amplification efficiency E=2.03, and the melting curve was a sharp single peak. The amplification of transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine parvovirus, classical swine fever virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine deltacoronavirus and porcine rotavirus was negative and had strong specificity. The lowest detection concentration of 1 x 101 copies/L was 100 times more sensitive than that of the ordinary RT-PCR method. The coefficient of variation of intra- and inter-assay repeatability test were both less than 2%, with good repeatability and stability. Comparing the test results of 36 clinical samples, the total coincidence rate with ordinary RT-PCR was 88.89%. The results show that the established real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR detection method has strong specificity, good reproducibility, and high sensitivity, which is of great significance for the rapid and quantitative detection of PEDV.

13.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 51(11):1433-1437, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2155896

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a positive-strand RNA virus with the largest genome among all RNA viruses and can affect a wide range of vertebrate in connection, as well as human. Host cell cytoskeletons have been reported to involved in the process of virus entry, intracellular replication transport, assembly and egress of coronavirus, although many detailed mechanisms are still unclear. This article provides a brief overview of the function of the most prominent coronavirus-induced or -hijacked cytoskeletal structures including actin, microtubu1es and intermediate filaments. This article will provide evidence for future research on the interaction between the coronavirus and the host cytoskeleton.

14.
Ptitsevodstvo ; 9:65-69, 2022.
Article in Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2148190

ABSTRACT

The successful experiment in large-scale commercial conditions is described with new vaccination program for broiler parental flock involving vaccination at 130 days of age (at the transfer of pullets to poultry houses for adult broiler breeders) with 4-valent vaccine PROVAC 4 against chicken infectious bronchitis, Newcastle and Gumboro diseases, and reoviral infection, together with additional vaccination against rhinotracheitis. Control treatment was vaccinated according to a standard scheme previously used in the farm, with separate vaccines against the aforementioned diseases;certain vaccines contained several antigens of a single disease. It was found that productive performance in the parental flocks and in broilers from these flocks was similar and consistently high with both vaccination schemes;the antibody titers at different ages of parental flocks were also similar. However, the cost of the experimental vaccination scheme was lower by 16% as compared to the standard one;on 4 batches of parental flock (120,000 hens each) it saved over 1 mio. rubles to the farm. The conclusion was made that vaccine PROVAC 4 can provide prolonged and effective protection of broiler parental flock and its progeny against viral diseases at low financial expenses.

15.
Point Veterinaire ; 52(424):10-12, 2021.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2147520

ABSTRACT

This article describes the regulatory, health and environmental aspects of defaunation, including its effects on biodiversity, the status of COVID-19 and other zoonoses, wildlife conservation and One Health.

16.
Veterinary Times ; 52(24):10-10, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2147257

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has focused many minds in respect of infection control, biosecurity, zoonosis and nosocomial infections, which is certainly a good thing. If anything positive can come from the pandemic, perhaps it might act as a "light bulb moment" just as cleanliness was to Florence Nightingale so many years ago, as well as in teaching us all' some important and uncomfortable home truths. COVID-19 was not the first, nor will it be the last, global pandemic. AM of us in health care sectors have a duty of care to patients, staff and populations alike to undertake basic infection control procedures. As references demonstrate, we cannot rely on human cleaning and disinfection in busy clinical settings. We must use procedures and techniques that can run simultaneously with "on-going clinical activities", and are proven to be safe (for patients, staff and the environment), and effective (to national or international standards) to match the requirements of that specific clinical setting. We must test and measure outcomes, we must record and investigate nosocomial and zoonotic incidents. We must continue to learn and improve.

17.
Veterinary Times ; 52(30):6-8, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2147103
18.
Point Veterinaire ; 53(429):20-26, 2022.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2156621

ABSTRACT

Since the appearance of COVID-19 in humans, there have been numerous reports of dogs and cats being infected with SARS-CoV-2, with cats appearing to be particularly susceptible. The portal of entry of the virus into the body's cells is a membrane receptor called ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) belonging to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The ACE2 receptor is expressed in airway epithelial cells, myocardium, venous and arterial endothelial cells, kidney, liver, oral cavity, intestine and also adipose tissue, explaining the diversity of clinical expression of the disease, with respiratory manifestations predominating. SARS-CoV-2 causes an imbalance in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In addition, the virus has a direct action combined with an immune reaction, that is sometimes intense, causing a cascade of lesions, mainly in the lungs but also in the heart. The clinical expression of SARS-CoV-2 infection remains rare in dogs and cats and mainly includes fever, depression, anorexia, digestive, respiratory or ocular disorders. As in humans, various cardiovascular clinical signs are less frequently seen. Several cases of myocarditis, correlated with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test (PCR or serology), have been identified in England and at least one in France. In the latter case, further investigation led to a strong suspicion of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy complicated by myocarditis. It is highly likely that obesity (with significant fat deposition in the pleural and pericardial spaces, tissues with high expression of the ACE2 receptor) may have favoured these complications. SARS-CoV-2 infection should therefore now be included in the differential diagnosis of agents causing myocarditis and pneumonia in both cats and dogs.

19.
Point Veterinaire ; 53(429):53-59, 2022.
Article in French | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2156583

ABSTRACT

Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) are widespread in some cat populations. Animals are asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic carriers in the majority of cases. In 5 to 10% of cases, cats will develop a severe clinical form, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), which is almost always fatal. FIP is caused by mutations, which have not yet been identified with certainty, of the low pathogenic feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). This article presents recent data on the management of infected cats. Diagnosis remains complicated as there is no test to differentiate FECV from its pathogenic variant, feline coronavirus causing FIP (FIPV). There is currently no vaccine that has shown sufficient efficacy in the field to prevent the occurrence of FIP. However, in various preliminary studies, several therapeutic strategies have been shown to have a promising level of efficacy. Trial confirmation is required before a marketing authorisation can be issued and these drugs can be used for the treatment of FIP.

20.
Journal of Economic Animal ; 25(2):63-67, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2145390

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the development trend and current situation of fur-bearing animal breeding industry in China in last decade were summarized. The effect of the sudden break out of Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on fur-bearing animal breeding in China was analyzed. Meanwhile, the future development of China's fur-bearing animal husbandry was prospected, and the suggestions to perfect fur-bearing animal husbandry in our country were also put forward.

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