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1.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 51(1):119-125, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2081138

ABSTRACT

For exploring the histopathological changes of intestinal tissues and the mechanism of porcine deltacoronavirus(PDCo V) replication and leading to inflammatory lesions of piglets intestine which induced by PDCo V infection, 10-day-old piglets were infected by PDCo V strain TJ1 which isolated from Tianjin through oral route in this study. The piglets were necropsied at 4 days post-infection. Through histopathological observation, the main lesions of jejunum, ileum, colon and cecum were investigated. The diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration was found in mesenchyme, lamina propria and submucosa of intestinal mucosa, and the mucosal villi atrophy occurred in response to local tissues. The m RNA expression level of PDCo V M gene, innate immune genes including IFN-a, IFN-beta, DDX58 and STAT2 as well as the inflammatory cytoines including TNF-a and IL-6 in intestinal tissues were examined. The results showed that PDCo V replication was achieved by inhibiting host cell innate immune response, and the occurrence of inflammatory lesions in jejunum, ileum and colon were promoted through the enhancement of TNF-a and IL-6 expression. This study can provide a theoretical basis for the pathogenic mechanism study of porcine deltacoronavirus.

2.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(1):10-19, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056573

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to establish an indirect ELISA technique for detecting the SIgA antibody against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) to evaluate its mucosal immunity. Firstly, the S1D gene (534-789 aa) of PEDV was cloned into the pET-28a(+) vector, and induced in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) by IPTG, the product of which was in the form of inclusion bodies. According to Western-blot, the target protein S1D with antigenic activity was 32 ku in molecular weight and could be well detected. Then, the S1D protein was denatured by 8 mol/L urea, purified and gradient as the coating antigen to establish an indirect ELISA for detecting the PEDV specific SIgA antibody in nasal or oral mucus by optimizing conditions. And the optimal antigen coating concentration of ELISA was 2 micro g mL, the working concentrations of nasal mucus was 1:1 and the optimal blocking solution was 50 g/L skimmed milk, while the working concentrations and optimal blocking solution were 1:2 and 30 g/L BSA in oral mucus, the working concentrations of the enzyme-labeled antibody was 1:2 000 in nasal and oral mucus. Finally, 84 samples of oral and nasal mucus from immunized pigs were detected by S1D of ELISA, and the coincidence rate could reach 95.2% compared with purified PEDV of ELISA. In conclusion, the indirect ELISA established in this study provided a quick, simple, sensitive, and specific method to detect PEDV specific SigA for evaluating the level of PEDV mucosal immunity.

3.
Companion ; : 17-19, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2046845
4.
International Hatchery Practice ; 35(4):27-28, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2045268
5.
Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ; 49(3):195-212, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040729

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the agricultural value chains in Nigeria to economic uncertainties with the livestock sector at the receiving end of the impact of the accompanying effects. The present study assessed the extent of the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on livestockfarmers. Aweb-based cross-sectional online questionnaire survey was conducted in randomly selected 12 States in Nigeria. Data gathered through the questionnaire included;respondents' demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitude regarding COVID-19 pandemic, extent of impact of the pandemic, farm activities severely affected and mitigation efforts made by the affected livestock farmers. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics, including frequency count, percentage, mean and confidence interval set at p<0.05. This study revealed that majority (73%) of the livestock farmers were aware of COVID-19 pandemic, 66% practiced intensive farming system while 62% were into poultry production. Knowledge and attitude of livestock farmers regarding COVID-19 revealed that 86% of the respondents believed that COVID-19 did not have a specific drug for treatment, 97% agreed with the principle of hand washing, 70% had hand washing stations on their farms while 59% believed that animals could be infected with the disease. Of the extent of the impact of COVID-19, 42% claimed to have had high blood pressure, 80% lacked funds to run their farms while 27% witnessed the loss of loved ones, 86% of the farmers were severely affected in marketing of their products and services;72%, 52% and 72% were affected in restocking, farm cleaning and transportation, respectively. As a result of the pandemic, 39% sought for loans and reduced labour, 24% stopped payment of salaries while 23% reduced the quantity and quality of feeds given to their animals. The present study highlighted the devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the livestock industry in Nigeria. Therefore, concerted efforts to ensure the survival of the livestock industry must be put in place by individuals and the government at large to salvage current situation and emergency preparedness protocol should be put in place in case of future occurrence.

6.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(12):1500-1508, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040500

ABSTRACT

Based on the M gene sequence of TGEV and PEDV and VP2 gene sequence of PoRV, the optimal reaction system and amplification procedure were established by optimizing primer, probe concentration and annealing temperature, and the Quantitative PCR method of TaqMan probes for three viruses is successfully established. On this basis, after further optimization of conditions, a triple real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR method for detecting TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV was established. The detection sensitivity of this method for TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV were 2.49 copies/ L, 4.36 copies/ L, and 4.96 copies/ L respectively. The maximum value of CV in repeated trials detected by TGEV, PEDV and PoRV were 2.5%, 3.8%, 4.3%, and the maximum value of CV in repeated trials between groups were 3.7%, 3.4%, 3.2%, which are no more than 5%.indicating that the established method has good reproducibility. Using this method to detect PRV, PCV1, and PRRSV virus samples, there is no cross-reaction, indicating that the method is specific. Using the established method to detect 40 clinical diseases, the samples were tested, and the positive rates of TGEV, PEDV, and PoRV were 5%, 30%, and 12.5%respectively. The mixed infection rate of TGEV and PEDV was 2.5%, the mixed infection rate of PEDV and PoRV was 5%. The results of the multiple fluorescence quantitative PCR method are consistent with those of the detection of a single fluorescent RT-PCR method, indicating that the established method has good clinical application value.

7.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(11):1373-1378, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040499

ABSTRACT

In order to build a specific, sensitive and rapid detection method for PAstV3 detection, the PAstVB gene sequences in Genbank were used and the conserved region in ORFlb was selected to design specific primers and TaqMan probe. Clinical stool samples were collected and preliminary detected by this newly established real-time RT-PCR method after reaction systems and conditions optimization. This detection method established in this study has a good linear relationship with the standard curve, with R2 value up to 0.9971. The sensitivity is 100 times higher than conventional PCR method, The variation co-efficient of in-batch and inter-batch repeatability test is less than 2.0%, indicating good repeatability. The detection results of Clinical samples showed that the positive rate of this method is higher than conventional PCR method. The establishment of this method provides a rapid detection means for PAstV3 laboratory diagnosis and epidemiological investigation.

8.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(11):1421-1427, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040498

ABSTRACT

Recently, the variation and isolation of porcine epidemic diarrhea Virus (PEDV) has been a focus of industry research. Whether porcine aminopeptidase (pAPN) is a functional receptor of PEDV infection is still controversial. Therefore, this article aims to review the latest progress on pAPN as a receptor of PEDV and its role during infection, to clarify whether pAPN is a functional receptor and to provide a reference for isolation and subsequent study of PEDV.

9.
Chinese Veterinary Science / Zhongguo Shouyi Kexue ; 50(11):1341-1347, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040497

ABSTRACT

The recombinant expression plasmid pIRES-S1 was constructed according to the gene sequence of PEDV S1 in NCBI (GenBank:JQ517274). The plasmid pIRES-S1 was transfected into ST cells by electrotransfer. After G418 pressurization screening, western-blot detection and suspension domestication, a stable transduction cell pool expressing S1 protein was obtained. The results of Western-blot showed that S1 protein have good reactivity. An indirect ELISA was established by using S1 protein as coating antigen, and the ELISA was used to detect PEDV clinical serum and PEDV negative serum of imported breeder pigs. Take the serum neutralization test as the standard, the results showed that the sensitivity of the ELISA was 96.3% and the specificity was 97.7%.It was significantly consistent with the serum neutralization test (kappa value=0.882, P < 0.05). The ELISA was used to detect the tracking serum of PEDV back-feeding pigs. The results showed that it could accurately evaluate the growth and decline of PEDV Ig G antibody level in infected pigs. Our results suggested that the ELISA based on S1 protein established in this study has high sensitivity and specificity. It could be used to detect PEDV antibody in clinical serum samples and provide an effective basis for immune evaluation of PEDV in pigs.

10.
Acta Microbiologica Sinica ; 8:3152-3165, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040441

ABSTRACT

Objective: To identify the key host protein that can regulate the replication of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV).

11.
Journal of South China Agricultural University ; 41(5):27-35, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040361

ABSTRACT

Objective: To prepare monoclonal antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) N protein, and develop an indirect immuno-fluorescence assay method used for detecting PEDV. Method: The expressed recombinantly PEDV N protein was used as an immunogen and 8-week-old female BALB/c mice were immunized. Then their spleen cells with high antibody titer were isolated and fused with SP2/0 cells. The hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies against PEDV N protein were screened. In Vero cells infected with PEDV, monoclonal antibody of anti-PEDV N protein was used as the primary antibody and FITC-goat-anti-mouse IgG was used as the secondary antibody to develop indirect immuno-fluorescence assay method used for detecting PEDV. Result: The prepared hybridoma cell lines could stably secrete anti-PEDV N protein antibodies, ELISA antibody titer in cell supernatant was above 1:3 200, and in mouse ascites above 1:1 000 000. While monoclonal antibodies were applied in established indirect immuno-fluorescence assay, the optimal conditions were that cells were fixed with 80% () acetone at -20 degrees C for 30 min;The primary antibody was diluted 1 000 times by PBS buffer solution and incubated at 4 degrees C overnight;The secondary antibody was diluted 100 times by PBS buffer solution and incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine reproductive virus (PRV), porcine enteric a corone virus (PEAV), porcine rotavirus (PoRV) and PEDV were detected by established indirect immuno-fluorescence assay method, only PEDV showed positive, all the else viruses showed negative.

12.
Journal of Camel Practice and Research ; 27(2):207-208, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2040330

ABSTRACT

MERS-CoV was isolated from nasal swabs for 10 days from an adult female camel which displayed clear nasal discharge from both nostrils. When MERS-CoV ELISA antibodies appeared in the camel's blood, the virus was no longer present in its nasal cavities.

13.
Veterinarski Glasnik ; 74(1):1-17, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2039613

ABSTRACT

Background. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been recognized in veterinary virology for a long time and comprise a large group of RNA viruses responsible for enteric, respiratory, hepatic, and neurologic diseases in a variety of animal species and humans. These viruses are very adaptable considering their highly error-prone replication process and recombination ability, resulting in remarkable mutability and efficient expansion of their host range and tissue tropism. Scope and Approach. In the recent past, after the outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV in 2002 and MERS-CoV in 2012, CoVs became a research focus in the scientific community. Moreover, the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic raised more questions concerning the threats posed by these viruses. Several significant examples of coronaviruses jumping the species barrier and changing their tropism have been reported in the past, and novel viruses of both animals and humans have appeared as a consequence. This paper reviews some of the examples of CoV mutability and the most notable animal coronaviruses of veterinary relevance. Key Findings and Conclusions. There is still no proof that the novel virus SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted to humans from domestic animals, and its recent cross-species jump is currently being intensively researched. Intensified and diverse human activities that lead to the disruption of ecosystems contribute to the increased risk of contact with animals that might represent virus reservoirs. The need for constant surveillance of CoVs and expanded studies of their virological traits, mutation mechanisms, diversity, prophylactic and therapeutic measures highlight the key role of both veterinarians and medical doctors in order to preserve the health of the human population.

14.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(3):345-345, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034497

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the new crown pneumonia, the new coronavirus (SARSCoV-2) has been mutating continuously, and it has now become prevalent in more than 200 countries. The cumulative number of confirmed cases in the world has exceeded 460 million, and the number of deaths has exceeded 6 million. The rapid mutation of SARS-CoV-2 highlights the importance of preventive and therapeutic drugs, however, effective therapeutic drugs for new coronary pneumonia are still very scarce. It is still the common goal of scientists from all over the world to develop a safe and effective drug for the treatment of new coronary pneumonia that can inhibit the infection of multiple SARS-CoV-2 mutant strains.

15.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(3):346-346, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034493

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is raging around the world, infecting more than 460 million people and killing more than 6 million people, posing a serious threat to human health. Analyzing the pathogenic mechanism of the virus and discovering new drug targets are the keys to the development of antiviral drugs. Similar to the envelope proteins of many important viruses such as Ebola virus and Marburg virus, the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 relies on the cleavage and processing of cellular furin to mature during infection, and then make the virus infective, so furin is an important potential target for antiviral therapy. However, the regulation mechanism of furin enzyme activity in cells under physiological and infection conditions is not yet very clear.

16.
Veterinary Ireland Journal ; 10(11):614-615, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034344
17.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 96(1):15-23, 2021.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034286

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the betacoronavirus that causes COVID-19, has spread rapidly around the world since December 2019. It was suspected from the beginning that the primary outbreak in China, was of a zoonotic origin, but the SARS- CoV-2 animal reservoir(s) has not been definitively identified yet. So far, it has been confirmed that numerous animal species are susceptible to infection and that experimentally infected cats, shrews, hamsters and ferrets can also shed the virus. The SARS-CoV-2 was also detected in farmed mink (Neovison vison), in which it caused both, the clinical and subclinical disease, with respiratory symptoms and increased mortality. In April 2020, the first SARS-CoV-2 cases were detected in minks in the Netherlands, and to date (November 2020), further outbreaks have been confirmed in Denmark, Italy, Spain, Sweden, the United States, Greece, France and Poland. It has also been shown that the transmission of infection from humans to minks and from minks to humans may occur. The OIE is working on the inclusion of mink in the WAHIS database and encouraging the Members to provide appropriate data for this species to improve the monitoring of the epidemiological situation worldwide and prevent the establishment of a possible new reservoir for SARS-CoV-2.

18.
Revista de Politica Agricola ; 31(1):105-122, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034170

ABSTRACT

The relationship between international trade and animal health is particularly important in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) of the World Trade Organization - WTO. Supported by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), SPS measures are scientifically justified and play an important role in placing epidemiology at the center of decisions related to health and animal trade. The objective of this study was to discuss the interactions between the international meat trade and the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases of viral origin, in a debate on how the current Covid-19 pandemic could change the consumer behavior related to health and hygiene issues, and how the meat sector was affected by SPS measures, highlighting the relevance of Brazil in this context.

19.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(2):235-235, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034139

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (CoV) is a single-stranded, positive-stranded RNA enveloped virus that infects humans and animals. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS) occurred in 2012. The new coronavirus that occurred in 2019 up to the present (Coronavirus disease-19, COVID-19) is caused by a new zoonotic coronavirus infection that negatively affects human life and social and economic development. Severely ill patients with SARS, MERS and COVID-19 are often complicated by the so-called "cytokine release syndrome", which produces a large amount of uncontrollable pro-inflammatory factors, leading to life-threatening multiple organ failure.

20.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(1):108-108, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034138

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the acute and highly contagious upper respiratory tract infectious diseases in poultry caused by the Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), which significantly affects the health and development of world poultry farming industry. IBV RNA polymerase lacks a complete correctional function and is prone to gene mutation and RNA-RNA recombination during the replication process, resulting in the emergence of new serotypes, genotypes and mutant strains. The continuous generation of recombinant strains through homologous recombination between strains also complicates the prevention and control of IB. Therefore, monitoring the genetic evolutionary characteristics of circulating strains and evaluating the protective effect of commonly used vaccines against local circulating strains of IBV are the keys to preventing and controlling this disease.

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