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1.
J Med Ethics ; 48(9): 611-615, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242516

ABSTRACT

The success of digital COVID-19 contact tracing requires a strategy that successfully addresses the digital divide-inequitable access to technology such as smartphones. Lack of access both undermines the degree of social benefit achieved by the use of tracing apps, and exacerbates existing social and health inequities because those who lack access are likely to already be disadvantaged. Recently, Singapore has introduced portable tracing wearables (with the same functionality as a contact tracing app) to address the equity gap and promote public health. We argue that governments have an ethical obligation to ensure fair access to the protective benefits of contract tracing during the pandemic and that wearables are an effective way of addressing some important equity issues. The most contentious issues about contact tracing apps have been the potential infringements of privacy and individual liberty, especially where the use of apps or other technology (such as wearables or QR codes) is required for access to certain spaces. Here we argue that wearables, as opposed to apps alone, will make a digital contact tracing mandate more practical and explain some conditions under which such a mandate would be justified. We focus on Singapore as a case study that has recently deployed contact tracing wearables nationally, but also reference debate about wearables in Australia and New Zealand. Our analysis will be relevant to counties trialling similar portable tracing wearables.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Wearable Electronic Devices , Contact Tracing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Comput Secur ; 132: 103338, 2023 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236554

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is a pressing societal issue today. The German government promotes a contract tracing app named Corona-Warn-App (CWA), aiming to change citizens' health behaviors during the pandemic by raising awareness about potential infections and enable infection chain tracking. Technical implementations, citizens' perceptions, and public debates around apps differ between countries, e. g., in Germany there has been a huge discussion on potential privacy issues of the app. Thus, we analyze effects of privacy concerns regarding the CWA, perceived CWA benefits, and trust in the German healthcare system to answer why citizens use the CWA. In our initial conference publication at ICT Systems Security and Privacy Protection - 37th IFIP TC 11 International Conference, SEC 2022, we used a sample with 1752 actual users and non-users of the CWA and and support for the privacy calculus theory, i. e., individuals weigh privacy concerns and benefits in their use decision. Thus, citizens privacy perceptions about health technologies (e. g., shaped by public debates) are crucial as they can hinder adoption and negatively affect future fights against pandemics. In this special issue, we adapt our previous work by conducting a second survey 10 months after our initial study with the same pool of participants (830 participants from the first study participated in the second survey). The goal of this longitudinal study is to assess changes in the perceptions of users and non-users over time and to evaluate the influence of the significantly lower hospitalization and death rates on the use behavior which we could observe during the second survey. Our results show that the privacy calculus is relatively stable over time. The only relationship which significantly changes over time is the effect of privacy concerns on the use behavior which significantly decreases over time, i. e., privacy concerns have a lower negative effect one the CWA use indicating that it did not play such an important role in the use decision at a later point in time in the pandemic. We contribute to the literature by introducing one of the rare longitudinal analyses in the literature focusing on the privacy calculus and changes over time in the relevant constructs as well as the relationships between the calculus constructs and target variables (in our case use behavior of a contact tracing app). We can see that the explanatory power of the privacy calculus model is relatively stable over time even if strong externalities might affect individual perceptions related to the model.

3.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S247, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244376

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Social determinants of health (SDoH) including income, education, employment, and housing are known to affect health outcomes;while use in real-world database studies are limited. This study assessed socioeconomic differences in burden of disease and utilization of COVID-19 specific medications in a large cohort of patients in the US. Method(s): A total of 17,682,111 patients having a COVID-19 diagnosis between 4/1/2020 and 4/30/2022 were identified in the IQVIA longitudinal medical and pharmacy claims databases of >277 million patients. For SDoH, a 3-digit zip code median Area Deprivation Index (ADI) (v2.0 University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health 2015) was calculated for each patient, maintaining patient privacy. The ADI is a validated tool ranking neighborhoods by socioeconomic disadvantage. Medical and pharmacy utilization was assessed and stratified by ADI pentiles, where 0-20 was the least disadvantaged, and 81-100 was the most disadvantaged. Result(s): The proportion of patients having a claim with COVID-19 diagnosis was higher in the most disadvantaged (7.75%) compared to the least disadvantaged group (5.94%) (US overall: 6.37%). Medical claims prior to COVID-19 diagnosis were highest in the least disadvantaged, while prior pharmacy utilization was highest in the most-disadvantaged group. There was sparse use of COVID-19 medications overall;the least disadvantaged patients had the lowest use of COVID-19 specific medications. Casirivimab/imdevimab use was highest in the 61-80 (2.01%) and 81-100 (1.79%) ADI groups, and remdesivir use was highest in the moderately disadvantaged (ADI 41-60 and 61-80) groups (both 2.33%). Utilization of hydroxychloroquine (unapproved for COVID-19) increased from 0.91% in the least to 2.13% in the most disadvantaged groups. Conclusion(s): This study shows unequal burden of COVID-19 prevalence by SDoH, with the most disadvantaged having a higher disease burden and utilization of certain approved and unapproved COVID-19 medications, highlighting the need for further study of the reasons for these disparities.Copyright © 2023

4.
Academy of Marketing Studies Journal ; 27(S4), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20243835

ABSTRACT

Covid pandemic brought a significant change in the way people learn, entertain, interact and conduct business. With people working and socializing remotely, social media usage skyrocketed and provided a fertile ground to cybercriminals to exploit the platforms and its users. This paper will explore the rising trend of cybercrime on social media, including specific types of cybercrime such as phishing scams, impersonation and misinformation. The paper will also discuss about the parties mostly affected by cybercrimes. Additionally, the paper will delve into the impact of increase in cybercrime on digital marketing, including the challenges faced by businesses. Overall the paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of cybercrime media during the covid pandemic and how it is impacting the overall society and digital markets all together.

5.
Security and Communication Networks ; 2023, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20243671

ABSTRACT

Electronic health records (EHRs) and medical data are classified as personal data in every privacy law, meaning that any related service that includes processing such data must come with full security, confidentiality, privacy, and accountability. Solutions for health data management, as in storing it, sharing and processing it, are emerging quickly and were significantly boosted by the COVID-19 pandemic that created a need to move things online. EHRs make a crucial part of digital identity data, and the same digital identity trends - as in self-sovereign identity powered by decentralized ledger technologies like blockchain, are being researched or implemented in contexts managing digital interactions between health facilities, patients, and health professionals. In this paper, we propose a blockchain-based solution enabling secure exchange of EHRs between different parties powered by a self-sovereign identity (SSI) wallet and decentralized identifiers. We also make use of a consortium IPFS network for off-chain storage and attribute-based encryption (ABE) to ensure data confidentiality and integrity. Through our solution, we grant users full control over their medical data and enable them to securely share it in total confidentiality over secure communication channels between user wallets using encryption. We also use DIDs for better user privacy and limit any possible correlations or identification by using pairwise DIDs. Overall, combining this set of technologies guarantees secure exchange of EHRs, secure storage, and management along with by-design features inherited from the technological stack. © 2023 Marie Tcholakian et al.

6.
Texas Law Review ; 101(6):1417-1455, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20243567

ABSTRACT

Children's engagement with the internet has exploded. From education to social media, companies have offered products and services that-far from being mere distractions for children-have increasingly become necessities. These necessities are most keenly felt in the EdTech world. As companies in the United States rely on the verifiable parental consent required by the Children 's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) to collect and use minors' data, reviewing boilerplate waivers of liability and consent forms for children's online activities has thus become part of parenting. This piece argues that under the common law tradition of protecting the best interests of the child, when it comes to protecting children's digital privacy, relying solely on parental consent is insufficient and ill-suited. This work compares parental consent forms for children's online activities to parental waivers for tort liability for physical injuries suffered by children. In the latter, courts have not reached a consensus on whether such contracts are enforceable or altogether void. However, most courts have struck down such waivers as against public policy in commercial settings. By relying on courts ' decisions regarding the role of parents in protecting the best interests of the child when faced with a child's physical injury, this piece argues that public policy should have to force to override parental consent as it pertains to the protection of a minor's digital privacy and their use of EdTech tools. It thus encourages lawmakers at the federal and state levels to move away from a parental consent apparatus and instead put forward new measures for the protection of children's digital privacy. It further illustrates that, despite COPPA, common law privacy torts are not fully preempted. Adopting the approach proposed in this work will also motivate companies to be more vigilant towards handling minors' data to avoid potential lawsuits. It will further encourage a market for competition between socially responsible companies that would prioritize children's privacy over an endless list of corporate interests.

7.
Virtual Management and the New Normal: New Perspectives on HRM and Leadership since the COVID-19 Pandemic ; : 291-311, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20243452

ABSTRACT

Security issues have always been central to workplaces. Increased work performed at home environments caused by COVID-19 pandemic has changed the security landscape of work radically. Security arrangements are no more at the domain of the employer, yet the risks remain, and responsibilities. In this chapter we discuss this new boom of distance work from the viewpoints of data privacy and security, physical safety and mental well-being. The issues are intertwined, and changes, risks and solutions in one of these cause implications for the other areas too. In data privacy and security, the home office environment causes several risks, and the mixed use of devices and facilities both in work and leisure use causes difficulties. Physical safety is compromised in several ways at home environment, which is partly confounding, as the very core of work at home and social distancing is the search for physical security from COVID viruses. Mental well-being problems are a key product of this social distancing, and they do not typically emerge immediately, but first after a long period. With the COVID-19 pandemic over two years, we first start to see the magnitude of the mental well-being problems it has caused. The COVID-19 pandemic is a very short period in history. For individuals living now, it can deeply affect life, especially in critical periods of life. On the positive side, the very special pressure COVID-19 has caused on working life has surely improved and speeded up academic and practical work in distance work development. © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023.

8.
2023 6th International Conference on Information Systems and Computer Networks, ISCON 2023 ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20242729

ABSTRACT

Customer shopping behaviour has changed and people are becoming used to accessing, using and adapting to online shopping rather than visiting stores physically due to COVID-19 restrictions. It is not known how long the trend will last but it can be observed that there will be changes in current and future models in almost every business around the world. According to the 'Motivation-need theory' (1943), every individual considers five (5) key elements to fulfil their needs. It includes physiological survival, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization. The big question is why consumers act differently during the global pandemic, which does not support Maslow's 'Motivation-need theory'. It might be the panic situation all over the world, frustration of losing jobs, mental stress while isolated and many other factors that are making consumers act differently while shopping from e-commerce or different social media platform. This research study aims to examine the factors affecting consumer behaviour toward online purchasing during COVID-19 in Bangladesh. . © 2023 IEEE.

9.
Iran Occupational Health ; 19(1):486-499, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20242318

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disease has shocked the lives of developed and developing societies and has affected various aspects of individual and social life of citizens by creating devastating and irreparable effects. While everyone was counting down the hours to get treatment for the disease, the unveiling of emergency-licensed vaccines sparked a variety of social and legal issues. In Iran, according to the decision of the National Corona Management Headquarters, government employees along with some other groups of people were obliged to be vaccinated, and absenteeism was the punishment of deniers. Consequently, legal validity of these enactments has also been discussed by scholars. Clarifying the position of domestic law and international human rights regarding mandatory vaccination can have an effect on persuading citizens and whether or not to do vaccination. Central issue of the following research is the evaluation of compulsory vaccination according to the provisions of Iranian law and the rules of international human rights. Based on the library resources and in a descriptive-analytical method, it was concluded that according to the laws and regulations of Iran, the obligation to vaccinate and in particular the provision of punishment is within the competence of the Parliament and according to the Charter of Patients' Rights, they were required to provide information about the vaccine and its effects, and to monitor the health status of individuals during and after the injection. In international law, it is also possible to make specific treatments mandatory, such as vaccinations under the right to health, in order to guarantee the right to life in the event of an epidemic. In addition, although this requirement conflicts with citizens' right to privacy, international law provides for restrictions on individual rights to ensure public health, subject to conditions such as appropriateness and necessity. © 2022 Iran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

10.
ACM Transactions on Computing for Healthcare ; 2(2) (no pagination), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20241862

ABSTRACT

To combat the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, many new ways have been proposed on how to automate the process of finding infected people, also called contact tracing. A special focus was put on preserving the privacy of users. Bluetooth Low Energy as base technology has the most promising properties, so this survey focuses on automated contact tracing techniques using Bluetooth Low Energy. We define multiple classes of methods and identify two major groups: systems that rely on a server for finding new infections and systems that distribute this process. Existing approaches are systematically classified regarding security and privacy criteria.Copyright © 2021 ACM.

11.
Communication Studies ; : No Pagination Specified, 2023.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-20241283

ABSTRACT

The current study analyzed 212 college students' decisions to express or suppress negative feelings about the extent to which others enact recommended COVID-19 precaution behaviors. Using a phronetic iterative analysis, participant experiences were examined in terms of (a) choices to express or suppress their negative feelings and (b) the reasons underlying their disclosure decisions. Significant themes emerged with both response categories. The themes and study findings are discussed in relation to privacy management, subjective norms, and bystander intervention work. Further implications of these findings are also discussed in their extension of and relevance to existing work on compliance-centered interventions and disclosure decisions in health-related contexts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved)

12.
Telehealth and Medicine Today ; 8(3), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20240988

ABSTRACT

Objective: With the explosion in the use of telehealth technologies, it is essential to address the challenges in global telehealth inequity in order to create a path to healthcare equality. To this end, this research paper focuses on investigating telehealth as it relates to the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on healthcare inequality, telehealth inequity, and the continued vulnerabilities with increased demand in implementation. Study Design: A set of voluntary questions were e-mailed to active members of the IEEE-SA (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association) Transforming the Telehealth Paradigm: Sustainable Connectivity, Accessibility, Privacy, and Security for all. The interview answers were analyzed via deductive thematic analysis organized into higher themes and theme-specific codes. Setting: The country of residence varied among individuals who are the IEEE-SA Telehealth program members. These continents included: North America, South America, Africa, Asia, and Europe. Participants: Global healthcare leaders who are active members of the IEEE-SA Transforming the Telehealth Paradigm: Sustainable Connectivity, Accessibility, Privacy, and Security for all participated. The occupations of these individuals ranged from a variety of areas within the healthcare domain, such as physicians, scientists, and public health experts. Main outcome measure: Qualitative data obtained voluntarily from global healthcare leaders participating in the IEEE-SA Transforming the Telehealth Paradigm: Sustainable Connectivity, Accessibility, Privacy, and Security for all. Results: The major themes that emerged from the participants' responses included: telehealth infrastructure and access, digital literacy and user interface, government regulations, and telehealth legislation. Conclusions: Telehealth has the power to decrease healthcare disparities, thus getting closer to achieving health equity. However, there are three significant common global barriers to the implementation of telehealth: infrastructure, digital literacy, and government regulations. Because the results were based on interviewer responses, the conclusions acknowledged how the background of respondents, including career and education, influenced their experiences and, thus, the responses. Suggestions for change in reducing barriers to telehealth accessibility are detailed in this research. These suggestions were derived from respondents and focused on the global barriers to implementation. To reduce these barriers, changes in political health policy, patient health education, health provider telemedicine support, and in regulation for telemedicine are suggested. Limitations in our research project included a small sample size and the ensuing lack of representation from more geographical regions.

13.
Virtual Management and the New Normal: New Perspectives on HRM and Leadership since the COVID-19 Pandemic ; : 313-332, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20240791

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed and accelerated two trends that are now fully part of the "new normal” of work. First, the erosion of boundaries between work and life has become very salient with the normalization of work from home. Second, the quantification of organizational control, which was already present in monitoring devices and algorithmic management, has reached news levels with electronic monitoring of employees through "bossware” and Internet of Behaviours devices. This essay chapter analyses these trends and argues that active regulation of technology and its implications at work and outside of work is now an integral part of work for workers in many occupations. Specifically, the new normal of work routinely includes devising and adapting rules and behaviours around three major challenges: (a) constant connectivity (when and where workers are connected and available to work);(b) self-presentation (disclosures on video conferences, social media, and other online spaces);and (c) privacy (protecting personal information despite monitoring software, trackers, and algorithmic work). Colliding worlds and quantified algorithmic control are deep-rooted trends that must be addressed by workers, employers, unions, public policy makers, and scholars, if we are to build a new normal sustainable workplace. © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023.

14.
Value in Health ; 26(6 Supplement):S203, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20239044

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic catalyzed innovation in infection control measures, including widespread deployment of digital contact tracing systems. However, these technologies were not well understood by the general public and were complex for the public health community to implement, hampering adoption. Objective(s): To provide an overview of existing digital contact tracing systems, creating a framework for understanding design elements that impact their effectiveness as public health tools and offering a rubric for decision-makers to evaluate different systems for selection and implementation. Method(s): Scientific literature and publicly available information from relevant health authorities and other stakeholders was reviewed. Information was synthesized to develop a conceptual framework explaining how key design elements impact effectiveness of digital contact tracing systems and highlighting opportunities for future improvement. Result(s): A range of digital contact tracing interventions were deployed by governments worldwide and several professional sports leagues. Key design elements of the systems include: (1) data architecture (i.e., centralized versus decentralized systems, impacting privacy guarantees and data availability);(2) proximity detection technology (e.g., type of device signaling);(3) alert logic and timing (e.g., time- and distance-based criteria affecting sensitivity and specificity of alerts;real-time proximity alerts and/or bidirectional contact tracing, determining scope of infection prevention);(4) population (eligibility and availability);and (5) the structural and public health context of intervention (e.g., availability and timeliness of testing). Several systems demonstrated effectiveness in preventing transmission during COVID-19, though numerous limitations have also been documented in the literature. Conclusion(s): Digital contact tracing systems have the potential to mitigate the economic and public health impact of future infectious disease outbreaks, reducing community transmission and detecting potential cases earlier in the disease course. Lessons learned from solutions deployed during the COVID-19 pandemic provide an opportunity to improve multiple aspects of these systems, enhancing preparedness for future outbreaks.Copyright © 2023

15.
New Media & Society ; 25(6):1432-1450, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-20237954

ABSTRACT

This article critically examines South Korea and China's COVID-19 tracking apps by bridging surveillance studies with feminist technoscience's understanding of the "politics of care". Conducting critical readings of the apps and textual analysis of discursive materials, we demonstrate how the ideological, relational, and material practices of the apps strategically deployed "care" to normalize a particular form of pandemic technogovernance in these two countries. In the ideological dimension, media and state discourse utilized a combination of vilifying and nationalist rhetoric that framed one's acquiescence to surveillance as a demonstration of national belonging. Meanwhile, the apps also performed ambivalent roles in facilitating essential care services and mobilizing self-tracking activities, which contributed to the manufacturing of pseudonormality in these societies. In the end, we argue that the Chinese and South Korean governments managed to frame their aggressive surveillance infrastructure during COVID-19 as a form of paternalistic care by finessing the blurred boundaries between care and control. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of New Media & Society is the property of Sage Publications, Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

16.
Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance ; 25(4):385-401, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20237843

ABSTRACT

PurposeCitizens often perceive surveillance by government authorities as oppressive and, hence, demonstrate reluctance in value co-creation from such services. This study aims to investigate the challenges and benefits of citizen empowerment through technology-driven surveillance or "smart surveillance.”Design/methodology/approachGuided by Dynamic Capability theory, the authors conduct in-depth interviews with officers in-charge of surveillance in smart cities. Given the contemporary advancements, this approach allows a retrospective and real-time understanding of interviewees' experiences with smart surveillance.FindingsThe authors develop five propositions for citizen empowerment through smart surveillance to summarize the findings of this study.Research limitations/implicationsThis study advances the relevance of Dynamic Capability in public administration.Practical implicationsSmart city authorities and policymakers may leverage the insights provided in this study to design appropriate policies for smart surveillance.Originality/valueThe authors find that factors such as digital technology and infrastructure, information management, skill divide and perceived return on investment may influence citizen empowerment through smart surveillance.

17.
Urban Studies (Sage Publications, Ltd) ; 60(8):1497-1508, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-20237025

ABSTRACT

The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has allowed mechanisms of power and authority to enter new urban realms – especially the very relationships lived between friends and lovers in bedrooms and parks. All of a sudden, everyone has a right to know who we are close to, when and how, all for the sake of public health and safety, to ensure the further functioning of our established public health system. The new policies transform Western ideas of public and private spheres: our bedrooms have turned into the space of self-representation and workplaces at the same time. On the other hand, what had been known as public space before has turned into the space to be private in: a walk through the city alone or with an intimate person. Yet all of these tendencies come with increased surveillance, not only by our peers, but also through technologies such as tracing apps. The very possibility of privacy and 'active' publicity is being questioned, and, through this, the realm of the political. This paper traces the observed shifts in the nature of the private and public spheres through examples in German cities, tracing power via embodied experiences. Those traces are reorganised into three argumentative strands: re/constructing privacies, public space as non-place and the proliferation of the data body. Based on these observations the paper searches for emancipatory perspectives within the shifted spheres of urban social life. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] 新冠疫情的蔓延使权力和权威机制进入了新的城市领域—尤其是朋友和恋人们之间在卧室和公园里的关系。突然之间,每个人都有权知道我们与谁、何时以及如何亲密接触,这一切都是以公共卫生和安全的名义,为了确保我们既定的公共卫生系统的进一步运作。新政策改变了西方对公共和私人领域的看法:我们的卧室同时变成了自我展示的空间和工作场所。另一方面,以前被称为公共空间的地方已经变成了私密的空间:独自或与亲密的人一起在城市中漫步。然而,所有这些趋势都伴随着越来越多的监控,不仅来自我们身边的人,还通过追踪应用程序等技术。隐私和"主动"曝光的可能性,进而政治领域正受到质疑。本文通过德国城市的例子(通过具身体验追踪权力)追踪观察到的私人和公共领域性质的变化。这些追踪被重组为三股争论:重新/构建隐私、作为非场所的公共空间和数据体的扩散。基于这些观察,本文在城市社会生活的变化范围内寻找解放性的视角。 (Chinese) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Urban Studies (Sage Publications, Ltd.) is the property of Sage Publications, Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

18.
European Journal of Housing Policy ; 23(2):313-337, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20236914

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 policy responses have intensified the use of housing as a spatial and material defence against community spread of infection. In so doing, they have focussed attention upon pre-existing inequalities and the effects of socio-economic management of COVID-19. This paper draws upon individual households' accounts to explore these effects on housing inequalities, and then adapts a critical resilience framework from disaster response in order to examine the implications for policymaking. The empirical work centres upon a case study of lived experiences of COVID-19-constrained conditions, based on a longitudinal-style study combining semi-structured interviews with 40 households, photographs and household tours at two datapoints (before/during COVID-19) in Victoria, Australia. The study reveals how these households were impacted across four domains: (1) employment, finances, services, and mobilities;(2) homemaking including comfort and energy bills, food and provisioning, and home-schooling/working from home;(3) relationships, care and privacy, and;(4) social, physical and mental health. The interviews also indicate how households coped and experienced relief payments and other related support policies during COVID-19. Drawing upon literature on disaster response, we highlight the centrality of vulnerability and resilience in recognising household exposure and sensitivity to COVID-19, and capabilities in coping. From this analysis, gaps in COVID-19 housing and welfare policy are exposed and guide a discussion for future housing policy interventions and pandemic planning.

19.
Applied Clinical Trials ; 29(6):20-22, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20236741

ABSTRACT

While the substantial majority of clinical trials still take place in countries classified by the World Bank as high income, a review of clinical trial registrations on the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and clinicaltrials.gov shows that a significant and growing number are being conducted in LMICs, with major centers in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Brazil, China, India, and South Africa. COVID-19 will likely have a longlasting effect on global supply chains.11 The U.S. and more than 50 other countries are restricting or considering restrictions on exports of supplies that are needed to mitigate the effects of COVID-19 locally.12 Internationally, the World Trade Organization and the World Customs Organization issued a joint statement noting the disruptive impact of the virus on global supply chains and pledged to cooperate to facilitate trade in essential goods.13 LMICs are struggling to obtain limited hospital supplies in the global market in competition with the U.S., the European Union, Japan, and similar high-income buyers, as recent reporting about the COVID-19 outbreak in Nigeria shows.14 Clinical trial sites in LMICs that cannot obtain needed supplies in-country could obtain them from a study sponsor, assuming the products can be legally imported and shipments to that country are not cost-prohibitive in light of global freight and logistic disruptions. [...]informed consent forms and study institutional review board (IRB) and independent ethics committee (IEC) approvals may need to be revisited in light of local conditions. Clint D. Hermes is an attorney at Bass, Berry & Sims References 1. https://main.icmr.nic.in/sites/default/files/guidelines/EC_Guidance_ COVID19_06_05_2020.pdf 2. http://www.sahpra.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/SAHPRACommunication_COVID_19-Final-25032020.pdf 3. https://pharmacyboardkenya.org/files/?file=Clinical_Trials_During_ COVID-19_Pandemic.pdf 4. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/219201/4340788/SEI_ ANVISA+-+0989653+-+Nota+Técnica14.pdf/6b48273f-550f-47618ba1-4e731a87b526 5. https://www.gob.mx/cofepris/articulos/medidas-extraordinarias-enrelacion-a-estudios-clinicos-ante-la-pandemia-de-covid-19 6. https://ensayosclinicos-repec.ins.gob.pe/images/Nueva_actualización_12.12.19/Actualización_2020/Comunicado_N_002-2020.pdf 7. https://www.imf.org/en/Topics/imf-and-covid19/Policy-Responsesto-COVID-19 8. https://www.bsg.ox.ac.uk/research/research-projects/coronavirusgovernment-response-tracker 9. https://covidtracker.bsg.ox.ac.uk/stringency-map 10.https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/immunitypassports-in-the-context-of-covid-19 11. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/04/supply-chains-leadership-business-economics-trade-coronavirus-covid19/ 12. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/03/covid-19-coronaviruslessons-past-supply-chain-disruptions/ 13.http://www.wcoomd.org/en/media/newsroom/2020/april/wco-wtojoint-statement-on-covid-19-related-trade-measures.aspx 14.https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/17/world/africa/coronaviruskano-nigeria-hotspot.html 15. https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/amB7fBxLw8KSR9DcUsbTWg

20.
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20236560

ABSTRACT

The release of COVID-19 contact tracing apps was accompanied by a heated public debate with much focus on privacy concerns, e.g., possible government surveillance. Many papers studied people's intended behavior to research potential features and uptake of the apps. Studies in Germany conducted before the app's release, such as that by Häring et al., showed that privacy was an important factor in the intention to install the app. We conducted a follow-up study two months post-release to investigate the intention-behavior-gap, see how attitudes changed after the release, and capture reported behavior. Analyzing a quota sample (n=837) for Germany, we found that fewer participants mentioned privacy concerns post-release, whereas utility now plays a greater role. We provide further evidence that the results of intention-based studies should be handled with care when used for prediction purposes. © 2023 ACM.

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