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1.
Computers & Security ; JOUR: 103008,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104679

ABSTRACT

Many researchers have studied non-expert users’ perspectives of cyber security and privacy aspects of computing devices at home, but their studies are mostly small-scale empirical studies based on online surveys and interviews and limited to one or a few specific types of devices, such as smart speakers. This paper reports our work on an online social media analysis of a large-scale Twitter dataset, covering cyber security and privacy aspects of many different types of computing devices discussed by non-expert users in the real world. We developed two new machine learning based classifiers to automatically create the Twitter dataset with 435,207 tweets posted by 337,604 non-expert users in January and February of 2019, 2020 and 2021. We analyzed the dataset using both quantitative (topic modeling and sentiment analysis) and qualitative analysis methods, leading to various previously unknown findings. For instance, we observed a sharp (more than doubled) increase of non-expert users’ tweets on cyber security and privacy during the pandemic in 2021, compare to in the pre-COVID years (2019 and 2020). Our analysis revealed a diverse range of topics discussed by non-expert users, including VPNs, Wi-Fi, smartphones, laptops, smart home devices, financial security, help-seeking, and roles of different stakeholders. Overall negative sentiment was observed across almost all topics in all the three years. Our results confirm the multi-faceted nature of non-expert users’ perspectives on cyber security and privacy and call for more holistic, comprehensive and nuanced research on their perspectives.

2.
31st IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, RO-MAN 2022 ; JOUR: 578-583,
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2097648

ABSTRACT

Adolescents isolated at home during the COVID19 pandemic lockdown are more likely to feel lonely and in need of social connection. Social robots may provide a much needed social interaction without the risk of contracting an infection. In this paper, we detail our co-design process used to engage adolescents in the design of a social robot prototype intended to broadly support their mental health. Data gathered from our four week design study of nine remote sessions and interviews with 16 adolescents suggested the following design requirements for a home robot: (1) be able to enact a set of roles including a coach, companion, and confidant;(2) amplify human-to-human connection by supporting peer relationships;(3) account for data privacy and device ownership. Design materials are available in open-access, contributing to best practices for the field of Human-Robot Interaction. © 2022 IEEE.

3.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 35: 101125, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095506

ABSTRACT

In the context of COVID-19 pandemic, the Moroccan Interior and Health Ministries have proposed to use the health pass with a QR code to identify vaccinated people. Additionally, the government suggested a mobile application to control the health passport authenticity. However, the key problem is the possibility of anyone scanning the QR code and figuring out citizens' private information, causing severe issues about individual privacy. In this work, the main contribution is integrating a private Blockchain-based digital health passport to ensure high protection of sensitive information, security and privacy among all the actors (Government, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Health, verifiers) that comply with the CNDP (National Commission for the Control of Personal Data Protection) and the Moroccan Law 09-08. In our proposed architectural framework solution, we identify two types of actors: authorized and unauthorized, to limit and control access to the citizens' personal information. Besides, to preserve individuals' privacy, we adopt on-chain and off-chain storage (Interplanetary File Systems IPFS). In our case, smart contracts improve security and privacy in the health passport verification process. Our system implementation describes the proposed solution to grant individual privacy. To verify and validate our approach, we used Remix-IDE and Ethereum Blockchain to build smart contracts.

4.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 300: 135-148, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089734

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To clarify the views of the general population of two countries (US and Japan), concerning handling of their medical records electronically, disclosure of the name of disease, secondary usage of information, compiling their records into a lifelong medical record, access to their medical records on the internet, questionnaire filling for delicate history, comprehensive consent for laboratory results, chart and genome profile, and AI use in diagnosis and explanation. METHODS: The authors contacted people nationwide in the United States at random via Random Digit Dialing (RDD) in 2008. Same questionnaire plus some new items were surveyed in 2022 by mail invited web entry. The authors had also surveyed people in Japan in 2007 and 2017 using same questionnaires sent by mail. RESULTS: In US, accessing own chart by internet became accepted (positive 52% to 61%) and popular in these 14 years. Japan showed small change, as regional medical record sharing is yet to come. About medical records in un-identifiable manner to be used for the purpose of medical error precautions, infectious disease measures and device/drug developments, in US, positive answers are constantly low, even for infectious disease prevention like CoVID-19. About preference to compile medical record into one file as a lifelong medical record, sharp contrast was observed. US people became favor of lifelong record (46% to 71%), while Japanese people decreased (76% to 57%). As for comprehensive consent, Japan positive answers are more than US for all situations, except if genome profile is included. US answers are almost same, even genome profile is included. About AI (artificial intelligence) application to healthcare, both US and Japan survey showed best preferred is "Doctor may use AI and everything, and explains in person". Japanese people largely prefer explanation in person, while US showed small preference.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19 , Humans , United States , Japan/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Attitude , Surveys and Questionnaires , Electronics
5.
Inf Sci (N Y) ; 617: 103-132, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086320

ABSTRACT

Digital contact tracing (DCT) is one of the weapons to be used against the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in a post-lockdown phase, to prevent or block foci of infection. As DCT systems can handle highly private information about people, great care must be taken to prevent misuse of the system and actions detrimental to people's privacy, up to mass surveillance. This paper presents a new centralized DCT protocol, called ZE2-P3T (Zero Ephemeral Exchanging Privacy-Preserving Proximity Protocol), which relies on smartphone localization but does not give any information about the user's location and identity to the server. Importantly, the fact that no exchange of ephemeral identities among users is required is the basis of the strong security of the protocol, which is proven to be more secure than the state-of-the-art protocol DP-3T/GAEN.

6.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; JOUR(12-B):No Pagination Specified, 83.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2084154

ABSTRACT

The role of technology has undoubtedly evolved into amplifying attackers' ability to use the cyber space for the deceit and abuse of Internet users. This dissertation seeks to investigate these problems from the lens of deceptive and abusive content (e.g., phishing, social engineering, dis- or misinformation, intimate partner surveillance). Phishing is an extremely popular cyber-social engineering attack that come with great costs to society-at-large, and along with mis- and disinformation, has risen to society's collective consciousness after the 2016 and 2020 U.S. General Elections, as well as the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, research into crimes of abuse surrounding intimate partner violence (IPV), colloquially known as domestic abuse, is still in its infancy, yet IPS allows abusers to stalk, monitor, intimidate, and harass their victims as a form of further control. This thesis seeks to tackle these issues through a multi-methods approach, including natural language processing to detect the presence of influence cues in text, qualitative methods, and rigorous statistical analyses. I detail how cyber abuse is leveraged in social media, how expert advice can negative affect minorities, and investigate how subtle online toxicity can be automatically detected. I then investigate several different ways to mitigate the harms of online deception. The work detailed in this dissertation has resulted in novel and publicly available datasets that may pave the way for further novel mitigations and solutions within their fields and to the global problem of cyber deception and abuse. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

7.
Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering ; JOUR(12-B):No Pagination Specified, 83.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2083760

ABSTRACT

This qualitative case study was conducted to understand the experiences of Ten faculty participants at a private, not for profit, 4-year degree granting, high research institution located in the Northeast, who needed to change from in person instruction to remote teaching due to COVID-19 during Spring 2020, as they prepared to protect student privacy while teaching online. In addition, this study sought to better understand how faculty were protecting and sharing student data, PII, and other personal information during that time. Data for this study was collected through semi-structured interviews. Narrative methods informed my choice of interviewing because this method provided a vehicle for me to gather stories and rich descriptions that cannot be gathered through a survey. Using such an approach, I was able to use the guided questions to see how faculty were prepared, if at all, to change from teaching in person to teaching online and if this transition may have played a role as it relates to FERPA. Using a two-stage coding method process I analyzed the data, and summarizing each interview into a narrative, experiences and challenges participants shared were depicted.I highlight the findings of the study and discuss how these findings support the three Research Questions, and how the findings of this study provide a greater understanding of the faculty experience during Spring 2020, revealing the importance to inform future literature. The following themes emerged from this study: (a) control, (b) preparation, (c) time, (d) best practices, (e) yearning for more, (d) survival and (e) instinct. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

8.
Computer Standards & Interfaces ; JOUR: 103696,
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2083154

ABSTRACT

Smart Health, with its flexibility and efficiency, has been widely deployed, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, privacy protection mechanisms for Smart Health are not yet well established and still present a number of security issues. Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (CP-ABE), is identified as the furthest potential approach for constructing privacy-preserving Smart Health. However, traditional CP-ABE is facing some new challenges. On the one hand, access policy is not encrypted, and the identity information of the user could be exposed. On the other hand, Smart Health Records (SHRs) are outsourced to the Cloud Service Providers(CSP) and may be at risk of being tampered with. In this article, we have built a CP-ABE solution (PHCA) that supports policy-hiding and cloud auditing to ensure privacy security for smart health, in which the decryption cost is constant. To ensure data integrity, we securely introduce an effective third-party auditor. In addition, we design and implement safe and effective outsourcing decryption algorithms, which significantly low the decryption costs for users. Performance comparisons and security analysis demonstrate that our solutions function effectively.

9.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 9(4): e41499, 2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the upsurge of COVID-19, nations are increasingly adopting telemedicine programs in anticipation of similar crises. Similar to all nations worldwide, Jordan is implementing efforts to adopt such technologies, yet it is far from complete. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of Jordanians toward telemedicine, to identify key factors predisposing individuals to its use or acting as barriers to its implementation. METHODS: We implemented a cross-sectional design using an online, self-administered questionnaire executed in Google Forms and distributed through social media. Differences in knowledge and attitude scores were examined using independent sample t tests and ANOVA. A multivariate linear regression model was computed to assess predictors of awareness toward telemedicine. RESULTS: A total of 1201 participants fully completed the questionnaire. Participants were characterized by a mean age of 36.3 (SD 14.4) years and a male-to-female ratio of nearly 1:1. About 50% (619/1201, 51.5%) of our studied population were aware of telemedicine, while nearly 25% (299/1201, 24.9%) declared they had observed it in action. Approximatively 68% (814/1201, 67.8%) of respondents were willing to use telemedicine. The majority of the sample portrayed favorable and positive views toward telemedicine. Higher educational degrees, living in urban districts, and having a higher perception of electronic usage ability were associated with higher knowledge and better attitudes toward telemedicine (all P<.05). The multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that perceived ability to use electronics was associated with positive attitudes (ß=0.394; 95% CI 0.224 to 0.563), while living in Southern Jordan predicted poor attitudes toward telemedicine (ß=-2.896; 95% CI -4.873 to -0.919). CONCLUSIONS: Jordanians portray favorable perceptions of telemedicine. Nonetheless, concerns with regards to privacy, medical errors, and capacity for accurate diagnoses are prevalent. Furthermore, Jordanians believe that integrating telemedicine within the health care system is not applicable due to limited resources.

10.
Journal of Architecture and Planning -King Saud University ; 34(3):295-331, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072472

ABSTRACT

After the outbreak of COVID-19 epidemic and its massive global spread as a pandemic, most countries used personal distancing as one of the most effective ways to limit public interaction and consequently minimize further spread of the pandemic. Since personal distancing is a manifestation of personal space, this study reviews the personal space concept and how relevant spatial behavior changed during COVID-19, using qualitative approach. Numerous behavioral changes were developed, most remarkably is the increased size of the personal space and the use of body language to maintain it in addition to wearing a facial mask and gloves became a mechanism to preserve one's personal space. Accordingly, hiding one's identity by wearing a mask functioned as a mechanism to maintain an individual's personal space, contrary to the commonly held view that personal space is a mechanism to achieve privacy. The study observed that salient patterns of human daily behavior during COVID-19, and found that there are three types of changes: 1) personal, 2) environmental of spatial, and 3) interactive between humans and their surrounding environment. The study concludes by analyzing the changes of users' behavior pertinent to personal space in mosques, shopping centers, restaurants and coffee shops. It also looks into doors, elevators, chairs and sitting areas and waiting lines. Moreover, it gives short-term emergency recommendations and guidelines to improve building design and operation.

11.
Ieee Access ; 10:103806-103818, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070268

ABSTRACT

Throughout the various containment phases of a pandemic, such as Covid-19, digital tools and services have proven to be essential measures to counteract the ensuing disrupting effects in social and working interactions. In such scenarios, Nausica@DApp, the comprehensive solution proposed in this paper, eases compatibility of the in-presence activities of a campus-based corporation with the organizational constraints posed by the virus during the pandemic, or at a later endemic stage. This is accomplished throughout several intervention areas, such as personnel contact tracing, crowd gathering surveillance, and epidemiological monitoring. These operational requirements, in particular indirect contact tracing and overcrowd monitoring, call for the adoption of an absolute device localization paradigm, which, in the proposed solution, has been devised on top of the campus WiFi infrastructure, proving to be encouragingly accurate in most cases. Absolute localization, on the other hand, entails a certain amount of server-based centralized operations, which might affect the preservation of user data privacy. The novelty of the proposed solution consists in maximizing confidentiality and integrity in the handling of sensitive personal information, in spite of the centralized aspects of the localization system. This is accomplished by decentralizing contact tracing matching operations, which are entirely carried out locally, by apps running on the users' mobile devices. Contact data are pseudonymized and their authenticity is guaranteed by a blockchain. Furthermore, the proposed novel solution improves privacy preservation by eschewing recourse to the Bluetooth app-to-app channel for user data exchange, in fact a typical choice of most current contract tracing solutions. Thanks to a sensible use of the blockchain features, integrated into Nausica@DApp's microservice-based back-end, a higher degree of operation transparency can be relied upon, thus boosting the user's level of trust and enhancing the availability and reliability of data about people gathering within the campus premises. Moreover, contact tracing only requires the mobile device WiFi interface to be on, so that users are neither forced to adopt new habits, nor to grant additional device access permissions to contact tracing apps (potentially undermining their own privacy). The overall system has been analysed in terms of performance and costs, and the experiments have shown that its adoption is viable and effective.

12.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(9):4767-4776, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067295

ABSTRACT

AI has the potential to be a highly effective weapon in combating the COVID-19 virus. Since the outbreak began, many individuals have expressed a desire to employ AI, and they want it done as soon as possible. This article provides an early, and inevitably biased, look at how artificial intelligence may aid in the battle against COVID-19, as well as the existing limitations. AI might be effective in the battle against COVID-19 in a variety of ways, including early warnings and alarms, monitoring and prediction, data dashboards, diagnosis and prognosis, medicines and cures, and social control. AI might also be utilized in the following six ways: COVID-19 has yet to be affected by AI. Its use is constrained by both a scarcity of data and an abundance of data. To overcome these constraints, it will be necessary to strike a balance between data privacy and public health, as well as engage in extensive human-AI interaction. These issues will not be resolved in time for the present pandemic to be alleviated. Meanwhile, a large amount of data regarding who is infectious will need to be collected in order to save lives, train AI, and protect companies from losing money. Copyright © 2022, Anka Publishers. All rights reserved.

13.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(9):4491-4503, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067293

ABSTRACT

Over the last decade, India has witnessed an exponential rise in the sales through e-commerce platforms. With the pandemic-related lockdowns and social distancing norms being the new normal, individuals are forced to shop online, for their day-to-day requirements. The trend has become increasingly pronounced in the last year. One such domain that has come to the fore in our fight against the epidemic is e-Pharmacy. Increasing internet penetration, e-commerce adoption, and changing consumer preferences are some of the growth drivers of e-pharmacy and the market is expected to grow at a compounded rate of 44 per cent to reach $ 4.5B by 2025 in India. However, the sector also faces several challenges like lack of trust, privacy issues, legal concerns and limited geographical presence. In the context of the lack of studies examining consumer attitude towards e-pharmacy in India, this study investigates the effects of risk perception, perceived usefulness and subjective norms on customers’ online purchase intention towards e-pharmacy. The data is collected from 490 customers across different parts of India through online and offline data collection modes, out of which 423 was the final sample size, after deleted the incomplete questionnaires. Purposive sampling was employed to select the sample respondents, and data analysis have done using statistical tool IBM SPSS. The study revealed the significant relation between risk perception and perceived usefulness towards online purchase intention while the influence of subjective norms on online purchase intention is found insignificant. Online pharmacies have shown a lot of promise in terms of enhancing pharma retail. Their continued expansion would improve the digital healthcare ecosystem and help the government to achieve its goals of providing efficient and cheap health coverage. The insights gained from this study will significantly help health marketing professionals and other stakeholders to formulate their strategies more effectively.

14.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences ; 38(8):1-6, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067240

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To determine the impact of online mentoring sessions on the students during the pandemic time. Methods: The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at Bahria University Medical and Dental College, Karachi. The total study duration was 5 months from March 2021 to July 2021. Quantitative research design was used. Categorical data was scored on a three point Likert scale (1= ‘Disagree’, 2= ‘Neutral’ and 3= ‘Agree’). Frequencies and percentages were calculated to determine the impact of online mentoring. Results: Sixty two percent of 2nd year MBBS students were of the opinion that online mentoring was helpful as compared to 58% 1st year and 50% 3rd year students. Students were anxious while sharing their issues online. A total of 61.66% were eager to have classes on campus as compared to online as learning difficulties were felt in 70%, 77% and 81% of 1st, 2nd and 3rd year classes respectively. Of the 1st year 39%, 2nd year 46% and 3rd year 32% showed relief after the mentoring session but were in favor of face to face sessions. Technical issues were faced by 54% 1st year, 66% 2nd year and 64% 3rd year students. Conclusion: The study suggested that students were overall satisfied with the online mentoring sessions. They do have certain apprehensions like privacy and confidentiality issues but on the whole, they considered this medium as being a powerful one in times of the pandemic.

15.
Electronics ; 11(19):3081, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2065772

ABSTRACT

With the development of telecare medical information system (TMIS), doctors and patients are able to access useful medical services via 5G wireless communications without visiting the hospital in person. Unfortunately, TMIS should have the essential security properties, such as anonymity, mutual authentication, and privacy, since the patient’s data is transmitted via a public channel. Moreover, the sensing devices deployed in TMIS are resource-limited in terms of communication and computational costs. Thus, we design a physically secure privacy-preserving scheme using physical unclonable functions (PUF) in TMIS, called PUF-PSS to resolve the security requirements and efficiency of the existing related schemes. PUF-PSS prevents the security threats and also guarantees anonymity, key freshness, and authentication. We evaluate the security of PUF-PSS by performing formal and informal security analyses, including AVISPA implementation and ROR oracle model. We perform the test bed experiments utilizing well-known MIRACL based on a Raspberry PI 4 and compare the communication and computational costs of PUF-PSS with the previous schemes for TMIS. Consequently, PUF-PSS guarantees better efficiency and security than previous schemes and can be applied to TMIS environments.

16.
Pharmaceutical Journal ; 309(7964), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2065051
17.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 378, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064111

ABSTRACT

What should we do now to improve health in the future? For women with gestational diabetes, adherence to five healthy lifestyle habits over a quarter century of follow-up was associated with a 90% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes, when compared with women who had none of these habits (doi:10.1136/bmj-2022-070312).1 Gestational diabetes is a strong marker of future illness, associated with a meaningful increase in later cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Some though not all of the risk is due to the subsequent development of diabetes (doi:10.1136/bmj-2022-070244).2 Quite obviously, then, women with gestational diabetes are especially likely to benefit from public health measures aimed at helping them implement healthy habits.

18.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A40-A41, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064012

ABSTRACT

Aims Attendance to hospital for children and young people with complex medical needs and autism can be frightening and stressful, due the unfamiliar setting and unknown people, communication difficulties and sensory overload. Currently at our Trust, there are no specific resources for this patient group, and we have received informal and formal feedback that the needs of these young people and their families are not being met. We aim to improve the experiences of children and young people with complex medical needs and autism at our Trust by creating a new patient pathway, involving children and families early to drive change. Methods We designed a focus group for parents of children with complex medical needs and autism. We identified families from the neurology clinic, and wrote to them to explain the project and our aims and to invite them to take part in the focus group. We followed this up with a phone call to discuss the project further and to answer their questions. The focus group took place in September 2021. Results Five parents and one grandparent attended the focus group. Between them, they had experience of emergency hospital attendances, inpatient admissions, outpatient appointments, paediatric intensive care, multiple investigations and care across multiple sites in the UK and abroad. Their children attended both mainstream and special schools. There was a wide range of complexity of need, and input from health, school, therapies and social care. The range of experience made for a highly insightful and interesting discussion. Positive feedback was received for the neurology consultant, epilepsy clinical nurse specialist, play specialists and hospital school team, with a particular focus on parents knowing who to contact when they needed advice and support. Key areas for change identified included more privacy for adolescents, a leaflet detailing what to expect during an admission, sensory toys, a patient passport and iPads for the emergency department. Families also commented that specific changes could be made to improve their children's experiences of outpatient clinics, including minimising the wait to be seen, considering whether the child needs to be brought to a face-to-face appointment, the presence of a sensory room and improvements to the phlebotomy room, including the presence of play specialists. They also identified opportunities to join up care between secondary and tertiary services, for example arranging for pre-admission COVID-19 swabs at the local hospital, rather than at the tertiary hospital where the admission was planned. The next phase will be to apply for funding to achieve these aims. We are devising a Makaton passport and a system to help children to communicate using symbols. We will involve the children, young people and families at every stage of our project. Conclusion Patients and families have a much greater insight into the challenges faced than professionals, and their input is the most valuable tool to drive change. Relationships between patients and professionals have a huge impact on experience of care. We will continue to work with families in order to bring about meaningful and impactful change.

19.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):868-869, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063539

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Telemedicine is an essential part of healthcare delivery and has grown exponentially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on optimal utilization and implementation of telemedicine in SOT care remain limited. We aimed to evaluate patient, provider and clinic staff perspectives on telemedicine use and potential barriers in SOT clinics. Method(s): We prospectively enrolled adults seen via telemedicine (video or telephone) in SOT clinics at a single academic transplant center between 9-10/2021. Patients completed a survey administered either online or phone following their visit. Providers and clinic staff involved in telemedicine completed online surveys. Surveys were tailored to patient, provider and clinic staff to assess specific concerns, barriers and satisfaction with telemedicine. Result(s): Survey response rate was 21% (175/853) for patients, 57% (70/122) for providers and 31% (20/64) for clinic staff. 95% of visits were video and seen in liver (39%), kidney (40%), lung (16%) and heart transplant (5%) clinics. Patients were male (51%) with a median age of 62, English-speaking (95%) and had some college experience (84%). Patient and provider descriptions of telemedicine use are shown in Figure 1. Patients were not concerned with privacy (86%), lack of physical exam (76%), audio/video difficulties (89% and 93%) or help with setup (82%). Most were satisfied with the ease of video visit (85%) and quality of care (80%). Compared to in-person visits, patients felt their telemedicine visit was similar (66%) if not better (16%). Among providers, most were satisfied with ease of video visits (74%) and quality of care (60%), but 48% were dissatisfied with telephone visits. Providers spent time assisting patients (72%) or required help from staff to aid patients (7%) with visits;90% noted functioning of software/hardware before visits as crucial to improving telemedicine use. Among clinic staff, 50% reported additional time spent aiding patients with initial visit setup due to needing to instruct how to use telemedicine software (60%) and providing additional instructions to caregiver(s) (20%). Conclusion(s): Telemedicine via video is an effective and convenient method of healthcare delivery across the continuum of SOT care according to patients, providers and clinic staff. However, concerns about time assisting with setup were noted by providers and staff. Additional resources and support are needed to improve navigation of telemedicine for patients and to improve efficiency with telemedicine for providers and staff. (Figure Presented).

20.
JAMIA Open ; 5(4): ooac083, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062926

ABSTRACT

Background: One of the increasingly accepted methods to evaluate the privacy of synthetic data is by measuring the risk of membership disclosure. This is a measure of the F1 accuracy that an adversary would correctly ascertain that a target individual from the same population as the real data is in the dataset used to train the generative model, and is commonly estimated using a data partitioning methodology with a 0.5 partitioning parameter. Objective: Validate the membership disclosure F1 score, evaluate and improve the parametrization of the partitioning method, and provide a benchmark for its interpretation. Materials and methods: We performed a simulated membership disclosure attack on 4 population datasets: an Ontario COVID-19 dataset, a state hospital discharge dataset, a national health survey, and an international COVID-19 behavioral survey. Two generative methods were evaluated: sequential synthesis and a generative adversarial network. A theoretical analysis and a simulation were used to determine the correct partitioning parameter that would give the same F1 score as a ground truth simulated membership disclosure attack. Results: The default 0.5 parameter can give quite inaccurate membership disclosure values. The proportion of records from the training dataset in the attack dataset must be equal to the sampling fraction of the real dataset from the population. The approach is demonstrated on 7 clinical trial datasets. Conclusions: Our proposed parameterization, as well as interpretation and generative model training guidance provide a theoretically and empirically grounded basis for evaluating and managing membership disclosure risk for synthetic data.

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