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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e061851, 2022 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097984

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Health agencies and community organisations play a crucial role in disseminating information to the public about COVID-19 risks and events, providing instructions on how to change behaviour to mitigate those risks, motivating compliance with health directives and addressing false information. Social media platforms are a critical tool in risk communication, providing a medium for rapid transmission of messages as well as providing the opportunity for engagement and immediate feedback. Access to health information, services and support are especially important for marginalised and underserved ('equity-deserving') populations who are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. This scoping review aims to review the breadth and depth of the academic and grey literature on equity-informed social media risk communication tools to provide guidance on promising practices and principles for reaching equity-deserving populations through social media. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) framework guided the identification of the research question; identification and selection of relevant studies from electronic databases and hand-searches of discipline-specific journals; extraction and charting of the data; and collating and reporting of findings. The results of the screening process will be reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis-Scoping Review guidelines. FINDINGS: We will identify reported facilitators and barriers to the development of risk communications that target equity-deserving communities. We will also identify recommendations for equity-informed risk communication for COVID-19. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study does not require ethics approval. We intend to disseminate the results through publication in an open-access peer-reviewed journal, conference presentations, lay summaries (eg, checklists) for health organisations and messages to be shared through social media.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , Communication , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Systematic Reviews as Topic
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e066190, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088817

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a tremendous negative effect on the mental health and well-being of Canadians. These mental health challenges are especially acute among vulnerable Canadian populations. People living in Canada's most populous province, Ontario, have spent prolonged time in lockdown and under public health measures and there is a gap in our understanding of how this has impacted the mental health system. This protocol describes the Mental health and Addictions Service and Care Study that will use a repeated cross-sectional design to examine the effects, impacts, and needs of Ontario adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cross-sectional survey of Ontario adults 18 years or older, representative of the provincial population based on age, gender and location was conducted using Delvinia's AskingCanadians panel from January to March 2022. Study sample was 2500 in phases 1 and 2, and 5000 in phase 3. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test and Diagnostic Statistical Manual-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure-Adult were used to assess for substance and mental health concerns. Participants were asked about mental health and addiction service-seeking and/or accessing prior to and during the pandemic. Analyses to be conducted include: predictors of service access (ie, sociodemographics, mental illness and/or addiction, and social supports) before and during the pandemic, and χ2 tests and logistic regressions to analyse for significant associations between variables and within subgroups. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the Sunnybrook Research Ethics Board. Dissemination plans include scientific publications and conferences, and online products for stakeholders and the general public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Child , Adolescent , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Ontario/epidemiology
3.
Surg Endosc ; 36(11): 7898-7914, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As enhanced recovery programs (ERPs) have continued to evolve, the length of hospitalization (LOS) following elective minimally invasive colorectal surgery has continued to decline. Further refinements in multimodal perioperative pain management strategies have resulted in reduced opioid consumption. The interest in ambulatory colectomy has dramatically accelerated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Severe restrictions in hospital capacity and fear of COVID transmission forced surgical teams to rethink strategies to further reduce length of inpatient stay. METHODS: Members of the SAGES Colorectal Surgery Committee began reviewing the emergence of SDD protocols and early publications for SDD in 2019. The authors met at regular intervals during 2020-2022 period reviewing SDD protocols, safe patient selection criteria, surrogates for postoperative monitoring, and early outcomes. RESULTS: Early experience with SDD protocols for elective, minimally invasive colorectal surgery suggests that SDD is feasible and safe in well-selected patients and procedures. SDD protocols are associated with reduced opioid use and prescribing. Patient perception and experience with SDD is favourable. For early adopters, SDD has been the natural evolution of well-developed ERPs. Like all ERPs, SDD begins in the office setting, identifying the correct patient and procedure, aligning goals and objectives, and the perioperative education of the patient and their supporting significant others. A thorough discussion with the patient regarding expected activity levels, oral intake, and pain control post operatively lays the foundation for a successful application of SDD programs. These observations may not apply to all patient populations, institutions, practice types, or within the scope of an existing ERP. However, if the underlying principles of SDD can be incorporated into an existing institutional ERP, it may further reduce the incidence of post operative ileus, prolonged LOS, and improve the effectiveness of oral analgesia for postoperative pain management and reduced opioid use and prescribing. CONCLUSIONS: The SAGES Colorectal Surgery Committee has performed a comprehensive review of the early experience with SDD. This manuscript summarizes SDD early results and considerations for safe and stepwise implementation of SDD with a specific focus on ERP evolution, patient selection, remote monitoring, and other relevant considerations based on hospital settings and surgical practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Surgery , Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Colectomy/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Colorectal Surgery/methods , Length of Stay , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Patient Selection , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071426

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused detrimental impacts on different population groups throughout the world. This study aimed to explore the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic's mandatory lockdown protocols on individual and social activities and mental health conditions of community-dwelling older people in Jakarta, Indonesia. A qualitative design using one-on-one in-depth interviews was employed to collect data from the participants (n = 24) who were recruited using the snowball sampling technique. Data analysis was guided by the five steps proposed in a qualitative data analysis framework, including familiarisation with the data, identification of a thematic framework, indexing the data, charting the data and mapping and interpreting the data. The findings showed that before the COVID-19 outbreak participants engaged in different kinds of regular individual and social activities. However, the COVID-19 outbreak and its mandatory lockdown protocols significantly influenced both their activities and social life, which led to social disconnection and financial difficulties for them. COVID-19 outbreak, mandatory lockdown protocols, and the disruption of individual and social activities of the participants also caused mental health challenges to them, including feelings of loneliness, loss, sadness, stress, and anger. The findings suggest that there is a need for intervention programs addressing the socio-economic and mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older populations to help them cope with these challenges. Future studies involving large-scale older populations to comprehensively understand COVID-19 impacts on them are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Mental Health , Indonesia/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e062927, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064160

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Demographic change in Germany is accompanied by a birth rate deficit and increasing life expectancy. One effect of the ageing population is an increase in people needing care, most of whom want to grow old in their homes and to be cared for there. At the same time, informal caregivers are a core resource in the German care system, but due to social changes, this resource is not endless. Processes of social change in German society will cause further erosion in the potential number of informal local caregivers. Therefore, it will be increasingly important to provide conditions so that individuals at a distance who support people needing care are actually able to do so. Distance caregiving is a broad field, posing questions of intergenerational and intragenerational solidarity and the balance between work, family and caring responsibilities. Systematic research is required into opportunities and limitations, including innovative technology, in the whole field of care arrangements over a distance. The demands of the different actors in the distance caregiving arrangement are not yet known and are the subject of our study. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will develop a model for distance caregiving. A qualitative multimethod research design (non-interventional study) will be adopted. The study will take place between September 2021 and August 2024. Participants will be selected by a purposeful sampling process. Phenomenological analysis will guide our data analysis. Data collected in this study will allow for triangulation, thereby increasing the trustworthiness of findings. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for this study has been granted by the ethics committee of the Faculty of Medicine of the Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin (ID: EA1/371/21). Dissemination of the results will take place among the scientific community. Results will also be disseminated among the public and actors involved in healthcare and nursing care.


Subject(s)
Home Care Services , Caregivers , Germany , Humans , Life Expectancy , Qualitative Research
6.
Political Geography ; 99:102771, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2061769

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic border closure policy and other anti-migrant policies in 2020 have become another basis for flaunting the ECOWAS free movement protocols by member states now referred to as pandemic nationalism. Although not limited to (West) Africa, pandemic nationalism reinforces the inability of ECOWAS to demonstrate supranationalism and ensure harmonization of Covid-19 trans-border policies among its members. Consequently, member states were unilaterally imposing conflicting or uncoordinated Coronavirus border closure policy without recourse to the protocols. Thus, the pandemic border closure policy has only exacerbated pre-existing trajectories which have serious implications for visa-free, border-free, and borderless West Africa as well as cross-border migration. These challenges are often attributed to colonial borders. This article has been able to adequately demonstrate that the Covid-19 pandemic has deepened nationalism which has, in turn, increased violation of ECOWAS free movement protocols through uncoordinated and reprisal border closure in which nationalism has trumped regionalism. The study is essentially qualitative, descriptive, analytical, and empirical.

7.
2022 IEEE Region 10 Symposium, TENSYMP 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2052088

ABSTRACT

People all around the country have taken precautions to be safe since the COVID-19 outbreak began. It's critical to maintain such precautions until the virus is under control and vaccine is available to protect everyone from contracting it. Taking safety precautions is not always simple and consistent. They are, however, critically vital. This study aims to design and construct a device that will monitor the safe distance and body temperature of the user. The device does not require wi-fi and simply requires a small amount of infrastructure to charge (USB 5v). It utilizes basic technology and may be assembled with commonly available, low-cost components. The device mainly uses the NRF24L01 RF module, ultrasonic sensor and MLX90614 thermometer sensor for the monitoring system. It is also composed of other electronic components like switch, LCD display and power source. The device will prevent the virus from infecting you, your family, and your friends. Results have shown that this device is applicable for distance and temperature monitoring of a person as an aid to prevent the spread of the virus. © 2022 IEEE.

8.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2046003

ABSTRACT

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for remote computer connection has drastically increased. This need is also anticipated to increase in the future as many institutes allow working remotely. This paper reports on a development of a software called “iCtrl”, which started in late 2020. iCtrl is a desktop remote-control application that allows remote connection to an institute's computer facilities. iCtrl application supports Virtual Network Computing (VNC) connection on both Windows and macOS operating systems. It offers a user-friendly interface to eliminate complicated setup processes. iCtrl has been used for over two years and received positive ratings from undergraduate students in a first-year programming language course and a third-year computer network course. Feedback provided by students suggested a few potential improvements such as cross-platform support and Secure Shell (SSH) connections. This motivated us to design a web-based version for iCtrl in summer 2021 that supported cross-OS platform access, SSH and VNC connection, while providing an industry-leading file management interface design with reference to Google Drive and Microsoft OneDrive. This allowed not only to transfer responsibilities of platform support to the browser developers but also to design a more intuitive interface for the students to upload, retrieve and manage files using the SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP). The latest survey noted an 86.2% approval of our application over the traditional methods, and the download count of the application is now 10 times of the old version after we applied engineering practices. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022.

9.
Revista Cubana de Enfermeria ; 38(3), 2022.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2045591

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The organization of pediatric services is essential in the current process of confronting the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To describe, from a nursing perspective, the social representation on management in the organization of pediatric hospital services for the care of patients suspected of COVID-19. Methods: A qualitative study of transcendental phenomenological methodological orientation was carried out at Octavio de la Concepción de la Pedraja Pediatric Hospital from Holguín, Cuba, between January and April 2021. The knowledge acquired from the experience of nurses, five supervisors, three area heads and eight ward chiefs, selected by nonprobabilistic sampling, was integrated. The following phases were used: descriptive, structural and discussion. The descriptive phase consisted of three stages: choice of technique, semistructured interview and elaboration of the description. The structural phase had the following stages: reading, determination of the central topic and expression in scientific language. In the results discussion phase, the results were related to the conclusions and findings of researchers to understand the possible differences or similarities for further enhancement. Results: Four categories emerged from the data analysis: design of nursing care protocols for COVID-19 positive and suspect patients;reorganization, recruitment and training of personnel;organization of working groups according to clinical picture and rapid test or PCR results;and general measures. Conclusions: The organization of nursing care services by groups avoided the collapse of the nursing human resource and guaranteed the availability of beds, as well as staff own safety and patient safety, to minimize in-hospital transmissibility. © 2022, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.

10.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2045395

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 accommodation protocols at The Citadel allowed faculty and students affected by the virus to quickly implement video-based instruction. Extending student access to classroom lecture as recordings on the LMS is just another step toward streaming educational content, as YouTube has made possible for years. Video-based lecture technology also lowers the barriers to education, making connection more physically and financially accessible. After nearly three semesters of implemented video-based teaching protocols in place, students are seeing the value in remote learning contexts when in-person learning is not possible. This paper reports student perceptions of selected effective approaches to hybrid/hyflex learning, comparing student and faculty perceptions regarding its value and effectiveness at a largely residential institution. Faculty who taught remotely during the pandemic underwent continuous professional development at The Citadel in order to ensure successful academic experiences for both faculty and students. Faculty reported feeling significantly burdened with learning about this course delivery mode. Additionally, some faculty struggled with institutional compliance and regionally-approved best practices for instructional design. This paper examines some of the best practices and challenges for building and deploying a set of standards for online instruction, noting that while arduous, high fidelity instructional design creates value for students and faculty, both online and offline, with students appreciating readily accessible course materials and recorded lectures. Best practice recommendations are driven by synthesizing qualitative faculty feedback and Likert-scaled student survey data. Faculty and student survey results show that face-to-face learning is still the 'gold standard' for optimal learning opportunities, however, the pandemic has accelerated the build-out of hyflex course deliveries and created sustainable systems and instructional design standards for online learning. Student perceptions show that they identify and value selected unanticipated benefits to hyflex learning, despite faculty misgivings. This report presents this conflict of perceptions as an opportunity to be seized, and is part of a longer series of studies on student perceptions of learning effectiveness. Validation of results is preliminarily supported by similar protocols adopted at other institutions, and record-setting successes at the Dean, Department Head, and Instructional Design-aid level. Going forward, as the pandemic is brought under control, the authors foresee students' expectations rising: video-recorded lectures and remote connection during live lecture no longer present unsurmountable technological barriers and they aid student learning. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022.

11.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e064424, 2022 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042867

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: WHO declared vaccine hesitancy as a global public health threat in 2019. Since even a slight reduction in vaccine coverage rates can lead to a decrease in herd immunity, it is imperative to explore the underlying factors affecting vaccine hesitancy. This qualitative study protocol aims to explore determinant factors that influence vaccine hesitancy in Iran from the parent's perspective. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Descriptive-Interpretive Qualitative research will be conducted to gain an insight into vaccine hesitancy in the west of Tehran province in Iran. Participants in the study will be recruited from vaccine-hesitant parents of children under 5 years' old who will be recognised as being hesitant to extract from the national health information system. The semistructured interviews and in-depth questions will be performed both face-to-face in an open space such as a park near their homes and via video call because of the COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing. Interviews will be conducted by a trained qualitative person. Transcribed data will be analysed through thematic analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the research ethics committee at the Iran University of Medical Sciences (Approval ID #IR.IUMS.REC.1399.273). The results of the study are expected to be presented by the end of 2022 year. A variety of dissemination methods will be employed to communicate research findings, including presentations at conferences and peer-reviewed publications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Iran , Parents , Qualitative Research , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
12.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-343338

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is one of the dangerous infectious disease in the 21st century which is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The WHO had majorly focused on the day wise cases, deaths, hospital availability on days of COVID-19. To make these data available for the public use, the WHO has made this data available with regular update on the RESTful services. The one who wants to track, analyse, experiment on the COVID-19 can consume this RESTful service for their research and for their product or service. Salesforce is one of the popular CRM tool which is majorly based on increasing sales and services to the company. The COVID-19 RESTful service can be consumed by the salesforce platform and helps in displaying reports, dashboards which are used mainly in finding the beds availability, hospital availability and ventilator availability in the locality. The PoC mainly deals with the concepts of web service consumer, reports, dashboard, app builder, scheduler classes, test classes, package creation in salesforce

13.
Masyarakat Kebudayaan Dan Politik ; 35(3):380-395, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2026045

ABSTRACT

Dissemination of information related to the issues of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Instagram account @humasprovjatim is interesting to study because of understanding the meaning and motives behind educational messages conveyed through the Instagram account @humasprovjatim. It can form awareness regarding health protocols during the pandemic and post-COVID-19 pandemic to realize changes in attitudes, behavior, and healthy lifestyles that reduce the spread of COVID-19. This study aims to analyze educational messages aware of health protocols on the Instagram account of Public Relations (PR) of East Java Province (@humasprovjatim). This study used content analysis methods with Pentad's Dramatic Analysis. The object studied was educational messages from the PR Instagram feed in March-December 2020. Result of this research is the dramatic rhetoric in the content of the Instagram feed by the PR of the province of East Java. The Instagram media is a rhetorical stage in conveying the message of community life in dealing with COVID-19. Conclusion of this research is that there is an important role for packaging content on their Instagram. The results of this study explain that the PR Instagram account is a stage where a "show" occurs which is considered capable of bridging the government to build educational messages regarding the health protocols presented in such a way to the public.

15.
International Journal of Learning Technology ; 17(2):133-153, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022018

ABSTRACT

Many academic institutions have relied exclusively on traditional learning, but the sudden outbreak of COVID-19 shook all educational systems by forcing a shift to emergency remote teaching. The purpose of this study is to understand this transformation and consider the concept of an e-learning ecosystem for building sustainable education to overcome COVID-19 or a similar crisis. Therefore, the conceptual research mainly focuses on developing and proposing: 1) the systematic model considering e-learning guidelines and possible scenarios;2) the model to inquire, classify, design, and evaluate e-learning ecosystems;3) the matrix to design different e-learning ecosystems;4) the holistic framework that integrates all the extraordinary measures, protocols, and procedures for the e-learning ecosystem. All these components recognise the changes in academic institutions and will be the foundation for future e-learning ecosystems.

16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 969658, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022996

ABSTRACT

Background: The best way to prevent COVID-19 is to observe health protocols. Therefore, identifying the reasons of following these protocols in order to plan and make intervention seems necessary. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of observing health protocols related to prevention of COVID-19 among the Iranian adult women with a qualitative approach. Method: In this qualitative study, the conventional content analysis approach was used. saturation was obtained after face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 38 women from Kermanshah who were selected through purposeful sampling and snowball sampling. Guba and Lincoln criteria were used for the strength of the research and Graneheim and Lundman method was used for its analysis. Results: After analyzing the interviews, 5 categories, 12 subcategories and 110 initial codes were obtained. Categories and sub-categories were: 1- Individual factors (personality traits, health literacy about COVID-19); 2- Perceived risk having underlying disease in oneself and family, history of getting COVID-19 and death in close relatives; 3- Fear of the destructive consequences of the disease (concern about the economic consequences of getting the disease, concern about the treatment process); 4- Social and cultural factors (social monitoring, religious insight, ability to properly manage social interactions, impressionability from important others); 5- Environmental factors (supportive living environment, access to health and anti-infective materials). Conclusion: Increasing the adherence of adult women to health instructions related to COVID-19 requires interventions at different levels of individual, environmental and social, and without accurate knowledge of the customs and culture of a society effective interventions cannot be established.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Culture , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Qualitative Research
17.
Journal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography ; 38(5):395-395, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2021146
18.
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing ; : 1-16, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2019016

ABSTRACT

We consider the problem of sparse signal recovery in a non-adaptive pool-test setting using quantitative measurements from a non-linear model. The quantitative measurements are obtained using the reverse transcription (quantitative) polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) test, which is the standard test used to detect Covid-19. Each quantitative measurement refers to the cycle threshold, a proxy for the viral load in the test sample. We propose two novel, robust recovery algorithms based on alternating direction method of multipliers and block coordinate descent to recover the individual sample cycle thresholds and hence determine the sick individuals, given the pooled sample cycle thresholds and the pooling matrix. We numerically evaluate the normalized mean squared error, false positive rate, false negative rate, and the maximum sparsity levels up to which error-free recovery is possible. We also demonstrate the advantage of using quantitative measurements (as opposed to binary outcomes) in non-adaptive pool testing methods in terms of the testing rate using publicly available data on Covid-19 testing. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. IEEE

19.
3rd International Conference on Intelligent Engineering and Management, ICIEM 2022 ; : 274-278, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018839

ABSTRACT

Still in many countries COVID19 virus is changing its structure and creating damages in terms of economy and education. In India during the period of January 2022 third wave is on its high peak. Many colleges and schools are still forced to teach online. This paper describes how cyber security actionable or practical fundamental were taught by school or college teachers. Various cyber security tools are used to explain the actionable insight of the subject. Main Topics or concepts covered are MITM (Man In the Middle Attack) using ethercap tool in Kali Linux, spoofing methods like ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) spoofing and DNS (Domain Name System) spoofing, network intrusion detection using snort , finding information about packets using wireshark tool and other tools like nmap and netcat for finding the vulnerability. Even brief details were given about how to crack password using wireshark. © 2022 IEEE.

20.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e063236, 2022 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020064

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Decentralised clinical trial activities-such as participant recruitment via social media, data collection through wearables and direct-to-participant investigational medicinal product (IMP) supply-have the potential to change the way clinical trials (CTs) are conducted and with that to reduce the participation burden and improve generalisability. In this study, we investigated the decentralised and on-site conduct of trial activities as reported in CT protocols with a trial start date in 2019 or 2020. DESIGN: We ascertained the decentralised and on-site conduct for the following operational trial activities: participant outreach, prescreening, screening, obtaining informed consent, asynchronous communication, participant training, IMP supply, IMP adherence monitoring, CT monitoring, staff training and data collection. Results were compared for the public versus private sponsors, regions involved, trial phases and four time periods (the first and second half of 2019 and 2020, respectively). SETTING: Phases 2, 3 and 4 clinical drug trial protocols with a trial start date in 2019 or 2020 available from ClinicalTrials.gov. OUTCOME MEASURES: The occurrence of decentralised and on-site conduct of the predefined trial activities reported in CT protocols. RESULTS: For all trial activities, on-site conduct was more frequently reported than decentralised conduct. Decentralised conduct of the individual trial activities was reported in less than 25.6% of the 254 included protocols, except for decentralised data collection, which was reported in 68.9% of the protocols. More specifically, 81.9% of the phase 3 protocols reported decentralised data collection, compared with 73.3% and 47.0% of the phase 2 and 4 protocols, respectively. For several activities, including prescreening, screening and consenting, upward trends in reporting decentralised conduct were visible over time. CONCLUSIONS: Decentralised methods are used in CTs, mainly for data collection, but less frequently for other activities. Sharing best practices and a detailed description in protocols can drive the adoption of decentralised methods.


Subject(s)
Informed Consent , Inosine Monophosphate , Cross-Sectional Studies , Data Collection , Humans , Time Factors
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