Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 149
Filter
1.
Transp Res D Transp Environ ; 110: 103435, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069754

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted public transit services through plummeting ridership during the lockdown and subsequent budget cuts. This study investigates the equity impacts of reductions in accessibility due to transit service cuts during COVID-19 and their association with urban sprawl. We evaluated transit access to food and health care services across 22 US cities in three phases during 2020. We found stark socio-spatial disparities in access to basic services and employment in food and health care. Transit service cuts worsened accessibility for communities with multiple social vulnerabilities, such as neighborhoods with high rates of poverty, low-income workers, and zero-vehicle households, as well as poor neighborhoods with high concentrations of black residents. Moreover, sprawled cities experienced greater access loss during COVID-19 than compact cities. Our results point to policies and interventions to maintain social equity and sustainable urban development while benefiting diverse social groups during disruptions.

2.
Ieee Access ; 10:99150-99167, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070261

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had very negative effects on public transport systems. These effects have compromised the role they should play as enablers of social equity and environmentally sustainable mobility and have caused serious economic losses for public transport operators. For this reason, in the context of pandemics, meaningful epidemiological information gathered in the specific framework of these systems is of great interest. This article presents the findings of an investigation into the risk of transmission of a respiratory infectious disease in an intercity road transport system that carries millions of passengers annually. To achieve this objective, a data mining methodology was used to generate the data required to ascertain the level of risk. Using this methodology, the occupancy of vehicle seats by passengers was simulated using two different strategies. The first is an empirical approach to the behaviour of passengers when occupying a free seat and the second attempts to minimise the risk of contagion. For each of these strategies, the interactions with risk of infection between passengers were estimated, the patterns of these interactions on the different routes of the transport system were obtained using k-means clustering technique, and the impact of the strategies was analysed.

3.
J Transp Geogr ; 105: 103461, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069417

ABSTRACT

Identifying and examining factors affecting the use of the subway is critical for developing countries as they struggle with high levels of auto use and resulting congestion, noise and air pollution. In this research, we surveyed students of a top-ranked university in the capital of Iran before and after the COVID-19 outbreak to identify the factors affecting their use of the subway. Chi-square tests show that gender, level of education, and being the only child of the family have the highest impact on using a private car. These variables had no significant influence on students' mode choice to university before the COVID-19 pandemic, when students' mode choice was only a function of their residence location. However, the pandemic has affected priorities for mode choice. For instance, hygiene and social distancing, which were previously insignificant to students, are now among their top criteria, and travel time and cost are less important for students than in the past. As a result, subway use has significantly decreased. Based on the results of the research, when making relevant policies, more attention should be paid to the groups of women, undergraduate students and single children that are more likely to use private cars.

4.
International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science ; 11(6):362-369, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2067465

ABSTRACT

In recent decades passenger transportation journeys experienced a decline and this decline may due to various causes such as cost of transportation, low economic growth, exchange rate volatility, unemployment and petrol price. [...]to the best knowledge of the author, no study was conducted to determine the relationship between the aforementioned variables. [...]the main objective of the current study is to analyse the impact of the exchange rate, petrol price and unemployment rate on road passenger journeys in the South African transportation sector. [...]to minimize either monetary budget or physical and mental burden, irrespective of having their cars, people prefer to use public transport (Guo & Wilson, 2011;Onderwater & Kishoon, 2017). South African road transport depend on the imported fuel and the price of the latter within the domestic market is determined by the exchange rate. [...]the exchange rate is another economic variable that impacts road transpo0rt demand (Havenga et al., 2014).

5.
Sustainability ; 14(19):12873, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066474

ABSTRACT

Guided by the socio-ecological model, the aim of this study was to investigate the predictive strengths of individual, social, and physical environmental factors toward different intensities of physical activity (PA;vigorous PA, moderate PA, walking) and sedentary behavior (SB) among college students. A cross-sectional research design was used. There were 287 college students (Mage = 20.75 ± 2.91;54% female) recruited from a public research university in the Southwestern United States. Participants completed previously validated questionnaires assessing their PA, SB, and perceptions of self-efficacy, social support, and physical environment variables. Correlation and hierarchical regression analyses were performed to examine the associations and the relative contributions of those individual, social, and physical environmental factors to PA and SB, respectively. The findings indicated that self-efficacy, social support from friends, and convenience of using exercise facilities were positively correlated with vigorous PA. Self-efficacy and physical environmental factor such as convenience of using exercise facilities were significantly associated with students’ moderate PA. Physical environmental factors, including convenience of using exercise facilities, satisfaction with neighborhood services, ease of walking to public transportation stop, and detached single-family residence were significantly related to walking, while only detached single-family residence was associated to SB. The results highlight PA interventions may do well to focus on the promotion of individual and environmental variables to increase PA in college students. More evidence is needed to determine the relationships between social ecological factors and SB.

6.
Sustainability ; 14(19):11798, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2066370

ABSTRACT

Sustainable development and urban resilience are dominant urban planning paradigms that have become buzzwords in urban planning and policy domains over the past 2–3 decades. While these two paradigms have been analyzed and scrutinized in different studies, the interconnection between them in policy realms is understudied. Compact development policy is expected to contribute to a variety of sustainability goals. However, these goals’ alignment with the principles and goals of urban resilience is under question. This research tries to shed some light on this issue. A critical review method is employed to understand how compactness as a sustainable urban development policy relates to different principles and dimensions of urban resilience. First, the conceptual and theoretical relationship between urban resilience and compact city is established. Next, the resulting framework is used to critically analyze 124 articles to understand how the compact city policy relates to urban resilience from different dimensions and principles. Densification and intensification, mixed land use and diversity, and spatial connectivity and public transportation are identified as principles of the compact city. Finally, the interconnection between compact city policy and urban resilience dimensions and principles is explored and assessed through examining the selected literature. The results of the review show some alignments between compact city policy outcomes and urban resilience. However, the level of alignment may vary depending on the context, scale, or dimension. In other words, while compact city in one scale/dimension can increase urban resilience to a specific adverse event or stressor, it might increase vulnerability to others in another scale/dimension. From the policy perspective, compact development policy and urban resilience principles should clearly be defined a priori to reach favorable outcomes.

7.
Journal of Advanced Transportation ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064340

ABSTRACT

Bike-sharing holds promise for available and healthy mobility services during COVID-19 where bike sharing users can make trips with lower health concerns due to social distancing compared to the restricted transportation modes such as public transit and ridesharing services. Leveraging the trip data of the Divvy bike-sharing system in Chicago, this study exploresspatially heterogeneous effects of built environment on bike-sharing usage under the pandemic. Results show that the average weekly ridership declined by 52.04%. To account for the spatially heterogeneous relationship between the built environment and the ridership, the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model and the semiparametric GWR (S-GWR) model are constructed. We find that the S-GWR model outperforms the GWR and the multiple linear regression models. The results of the S-GWR model indicate that education employment density, distance to subway, COVID-19 cases, and ridership before COVID-19 are global variables. The effects between ridership and the built environment factros (i.e., household density, office employment density, and the ridership) vary across space. The results of this study could provide a useful reference to transportation planners and bike-sharing operators to determine the high bike-sharing demand area under the pandemic,thus adjusting station locations, capacity, and rebalancing schemes accordingly.

8.
Mathematical Problems in Engineering ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2064339

ABSTRACT

Transportation is regarded as one of the most important issues currently being researched;this issue needs the search for approaches or processes that might lessen many contemporary traffic concerns. Congestion, pollution, and accidents have escalated lately, negatively impacting urban environments, economic development, and citizens’ lifestyles. The rise of illnesses and epidemics throughout the world, such as COVID-19, has created an urgent need to find the best way to save people’s lives. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) is a well-known moniker for improving transportation systems and is regarded as one of the ancient and contemporary difficulties in route planning applications. One of the main tasks of VRP is serving many customers by determining the optimal route from an initial point to a destination on a real-time road map. The best route is not necessarily the shortest-distance route, but, in emergency cases, it is the route that takes the least fitness cost (time) and the fastest way to arrive. This paper aims to provide an adaptive genetic algorithm (GA) to determine the optimal time route, taking into account the factors that influence the vehicle arrival time and cause delays. In addition, the Network Analyst tool in ArcGIS is used to determine the optimal route using real-time map based on the user’s preferences and suggest the best one. Experimental results indicate that the performance of GA is mainly determined by an efficient representation, evaluation of fitness function, and other factors such as population size and selection method.

9.
22nd COTA International Conference of Transportation Professionals, CICTP 2022 ; : 952-962, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2062371

ABSTRACT

Traffic operation has shown abnormal characteristics during COVID-19. This paper obtains traffic data from multiple fields in Beijing for the whole year of 2020, combines traffic operation data with the number of confirmed cases, and deeply explores the operating characteristics of road networks, public transportation, and intercity transportation at various stages during the major epidemic. The results showed that travel demand decreased significantly during the epidemic period. From the perspective of urban road network traffic pressure, the demand for rigid travel in peak hours during the epidemic recovery period is relatively large. Based on this research, it can provide decision support for the government to formulate relevant prevention and control measures and policies, thereby improving the ability of urban traffic to respond to public health emergencies. © ASCE.

10.
22nd COTA International Conference of Transportation Professionals, CICTP 2022 ; : 919-927, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2062369

ABSTRACT

With the effective control of Novel coronavirus pneumonia, the priority problem which all cities have to face is how to provide convenient transportation services for the resumption of production. Take Qingdao for example, It is proposed that the transformation of public transportation users to private transportation is the key to effectively control the spread of the epidemic before the NCP is completely resolved at the urban traffic level. On this basis, we put forward some suggestions on how to provide urban transportation services for commuting during the special period of the epidemic. Such as, we need to focus on the low-income groups who commute over long distances, the traffic environment of slow traffic commuter groups and traffic accessibility within the influential scope of core area. © ASCE.

11.
6th International Conference on Management in Emerging Markets, ICMEM 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2052011

ABSTRACT

The recent development of information technology has changed how individuals access services via online public transportation, e-marketplace, e-commerce, as well as ehealthcare. As the COVID-19 pandemic forces the customers to minimize contact with the service providers, they begin to use e-healthcare for their daily needs, medical consultations, online medicine purchases, even COVID-19 test appointments can be arranged using this application. The purpose of this study is to examine the main drivers of customer intention to use mobile health. The study applies the Extended Technology Acceptance Model. The study also adds external variables that are affecting customer's intention to use were added to the model. The data was collected through online surveys, consisting of two hundred respondents of mobile health users. The data was analyzed using structural equation models, the result shows that customer's intention to use e-healthcare application is heavily influenced by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, as well as subjective norm, health consciousness, and communication effectiveness. Furthermore, this study also offers tangible recommendations of improvement for current mobile healthcare companies. © 2021 IEEE.

12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048488

ABSTRACT

The corona virus disease pandemic (COVID-19) is one of the recent issues that spread in the world, which disrupted life, impacted the economy, and led to heavy losses, whether for government sectors or private companies. This paper focuses on the Kuwait public transport company KPTC and Kuwait Airways' experience during the pandemic, since they incurred major losses due to the decline of their users. Public transport is a place to catch COVID-19, as it is subjected to the use of a large number of passengers daily within a small closed environment. The causes that led to the spread of the virus among public transport users and develop solutions to limit its spread and preserve public transport pioneer's safety were discussed in the paper. Additionally, the environmental impact resulting from the reduction of public transportation using was also addressed. Data was obtained from the KPTC, Kuwait Airways office, the Ministry of Health (MOH) database, and the Environment Public Authority (EPA) database. A questionnaire was distributed to public transport users to determine the reasons for the decline in its user's number and their aspirations to reconsider their use and ensure their satisfaction. For airplane data, the risk of importation of COVID-19 was calculated. For KPTC data, COVID-19 impact on the emissions generated per passenger-km was computed where the emissions were estimated by MOVES. The survey responses were statically analyzed using the chi-square test on the SPSS program, and they were compared to numerical analysis results. The results showed the impact of COVID-19 on people's willingness to use public transportation which was associated with the increase in the number of buses to implement social distancing has negatively affected the environment. Thus, a comprehensive strategy solution was presented consisting of three basic approaches: providing a healthy, risk-free environment for public transportation users, achieving social distancing at a low cost to offset the losses, and ensuring a healthy environment.

13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043736

ABSTRACT

Although more than two years have passed since the appearance of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), few policies on public transportation have been implemented to reduce its spread. It is common knowledge that public transportation is vulnerable to COVID-19, but it has not been easy to formulate an appropriate public transportation policy based on a valid rationale. In this study, a modified SEIHR model was developed to evaluate the socioeconomic effects of public transportation policies. By applying the developed model to intercity buses in the Seoul metropolitan area, the socioeconomic efficiency of the policy of reducing the number of passengers was evaluated. The analysis showed that the optimal number of passengers decreased as the number of initially infected people increased; in addition, the basic reproduction number R0, illness cost per person, and probability of infection with a single virus were higher. However, depending on these variable conditions, the policy to reduce the number of passengers in a vehicle may not be required, so it is necessary to make an appropriate judgment according to the situation. In particular, the emergence of a new mutant COVID-19 will necessitate the development of appropriate countermeasures by comprehensively examining the change in the number of infected individuals and the fatality rate. This study can guide the development of such countermeasures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Motor Vehicles , Public Policy , Seoul/epidemiology , Transportation
14.
Transportation Amid Pandemics ; : 409-420, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2041433

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus epidemic has had a major effect on transportation. In this chapter, the future of post-pandemic transportation is discussed and measures for its improvement are proposed, based on the pre-pandemic transportation problems and the changes that have occurred due to the pandemic in Japan. In the post-pandemic world, demand leveling and margin utilization along with further involvement of public entities in public transportation projects are recommended for urban transportation and local transportation, respectively. It is also recommended to integrate mobility services based on technical development, introduce and disseminate new mobility services across the entire transportation system, and design systems and develop technologies for more efficient logistics and higher productivity.

15.
Digital Innovation for Healthcare in COVID-19 Pandemic: Strategies and Solutions ; : 201-216, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2027771

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has changed our lifestyle;nowadays, activities such as studying, working, and meetings, among others, have drastically changed from being face to face to being remote;however, there is still an activity that has not changed as quickly as needed because of its main purpose, i.e., transportation. In this approach, a complete COVID-19 geospatial analysis is conducted correlating official reported cases of COVID-19-infected individuals and those who died with the data of public transportation, focusing on specific areas and the subway service in Mexico City. The geospatial analysis allows identifying the importance of some subway stations and their influence on the rate of infected people and also allows visualizing the distribution of COVID-19 all over the geographic areas near the subway stations and understanding the distribution of COVID-19 in the city. Finally, the approach generates a visualization model of the distribution of COVID-19 and its relation to the subway service using geospatial intelligence. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

16.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-343331

ABSTRACT

To adhere to health regulations and reduce the risks associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, employers, mobility operators, and travelers alike adopted new strategies such as teleworking, rigorous sanitation, and social distancing. In this research, we examine the individual-level factors contributing to transit ridership abandonment and return decisions. We utilize comprehensive survey-based data of transit users in the Chicago metropolitan area (N = 5,648) collected prior to reopening. We investigate three ridership behaviors, namely (1) discontinued public transit ridership, (2) the intent to return to pre-pandemic transit ridership levels once health concerns are alleviated, and (3) the likelihood of using public transit more often if its fare systems are integrated with other mobility services such as ridehailing and micromobility. Examining the role of sociodemographics, employment characteristics, transit investment priorities, and travel behavior before and during the pandemic, this research reveals fine-grained details about transit usage decline, as well as future intentions. The results indicate that teleworking, unemployment, and vehicle access are the major factors behind discontinued transit ridership. Analysis of race, ethnicity, and gender effects reveals that vulnerable users often have a higher risk of abandonment coupled with a lower likelihood of returning. These results point to the need for transit agencies to consider the unique concerns of ethnic/racial minorities and women. Encouragingly, there is an opportunity for agencies to attract more ridership with fare integration. Several respondent segments would use transit more if fare systems are integrated with ridehailing and micromobility, highlighting the importance of lowering the barriers to accessing these mobility services. This research informs several policies that can be adopted by transit agencies and other mobility providers. We discuss the importance of an equitable return to transit, possibilities for Mobility-as-a-Service with fare integration as a starting point and stress the significance of teleworking in future transit policies.

17.
Sustainability ; 14(16):10172, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024143

ABSTRACT

In a century where mobility is becoming more sustainable in terms of energy transition, emissions reduction, and a healthy quality of life, the use of bicycles is increasing and has many advantages over other modes of transport that have been underused. The bicycle is an excellent alternative for short distances of up to five kilometers. In combination with public transportation, it can also successfully compete with motorized transport for longer distances. For the adequate development of cycling, it is necessary to create the right conditions in terms of accessibility and road safety. This means planning appropriate cycling infrastructure where cyclists feel comfortable and safe, which can lead to additional increased use in bicycles for everyday trips. Comfort for cyclists is a concept supported by road safety, a pleasant environment, connectivity, and the attractiveness of cycling infrastructure. In other words, cyclists respond to the physical, psychological, and sociological aspects of the cycling experience that are also related to the cycling infrastructure and environment: where I am, what I see and perceive, and how I feel. This paper presents the concept of the level of service for cyclists (BLOS) as a unified method for defining the comfort of cyclists. This paper presents the method for determining the level of service or comfort for bicyclists as a function of road width, width of the cycling area, traffic volume, and the speed and structure of motorized traffic flow. The result of BLOS, the mathematical model used, is graphically presented and allows decision-makers and designers of cycling infrastructure to easily assess the suitability of cycling infrastructure. Different diagrams for different input data are presented in the paper.

18.
Energies ; 15(17):6471, 2022.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023316

ABSTRACT

In this study, the authors assessed the road emissions of several passenger cars using specialised instrumentation, of the PEMS type, to measure particle number emissions in real traffic conditions. The tests were performed on a RDE test route developed and compliant with EU guidelines. The results of the tests were discussed in terms of the direct (created in the internal combustion engine) emission of particulate matter in various road conditions. Additionally, an index was determined that characterizes the number of particles according to their diameter in relation to the content of particles in the air. A characteristic of combustion engines (gasoline, diesel) is that during a cold start of the engine, the concentration of the number of particles with diameters around 100 nm increases more than 200 times (for hybrids—300 times). On this basis, it can be concluded that particle emissions with diameters smaller than 23 nm are significant in motor vehicles powered by combustion engines, regardless of whether they are conventional or hybrid vehicles. The share of particles with diameters less than 5 nm is 66% (for diesel engines) and 40% (for gasoline engines) of all the particles.

19.
Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2020836

ABSTRACT

Transit ridership has been seriously affected around the world by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigates the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on bus service ridership patterns in King County, Washington, using clustering and multinomial logit (MNL) models. Ridership patterns of King County Metro buses during different study periods are detected using clustering. The characteristics of ridership patterns and cluster assignment spatial distributions are further examined. The MNL models were developed using explanatory factors, including socio-demographic, transit service, and land use characteristics at each stop, that are correlated with the ridership pattern cluster assignments. Results of the developed models demonstrate disparities across socio-economic groups and unevenness throughout different neighborhoods in ridership reduction and peaking patterns during COVID-19.

20.
8th IEEE International Conference on Smart Computing, SMARTCOMP 2022 ; : 56-61, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018981

ABSTRACT

Accurately predicting the ridership of public-transit routes provides substantial benefits to both transit agencies, who can dispatch additional vehicles proactively before the vehicles that serve a route become crowded, and to passengers, who can avoid crowded vehicles based on publicly available predictions. The spread of the coronavirus disease has further elevated the importance of ridership prediction as crowded vehicles now present not only an inconvenience but also a public-health risk. At the same time, accurately predicting ridership has become more challenging due to evolving ridership patterns, which may make all data except for the most recent records stale. One promising approach for improving prediction accuracy is to fine-tune the hyper-parameters of machine-learning models for each transit route based on the characteristics of the particular route, such as the number of records. However, manually designing a machine-learning model for each route is a labor-intensive process, which may require experts to spend a significant amount of their valuable time. To help experts with designing machine-learning models, we propose a neural-architecture and feature search approach, which optimizes the architecture and features of a deep neural network for predicting the ridership of a public-transit route. Our approach is based on a randomized local hyper-parameter search, which minimizes both prediction error as well as the complexity of the model. We evaluate our approach on real-world ridership data provided by the public transit agency of Chattanooga, TN, and we demonstrate that training neural networks whose architectures and features are optimized for each route provides significantly better performance than training neural networks whose architectures and features are generic. © 2022 IEEE.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL