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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843109

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesThe COVID-19 pandemic has forced many people to stay at home and to maintain social distancing. This study aimed to assess the association of reduced physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic with new onset of neck pain (katakori) among a rural Japanese population living in areas damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE).Design, setting and participantsThis prospective cohort study has been conducted continuously since 2011 after the GEJE. This study used longitudinal data from 1608 adults who responded to the self-reported questionnaire before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Changes in physical activity due to the COVID-19 pandemic were categorised into four groups: ‘no change’, ‘decreased by 20%–30%’, ‘decreased by half’ and ‘almost never go out’. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the OR and 95% CI of the association between COVID-19 pandemic-related physical inactivity and new-onset neck pain.ResultsIn total, ‘no change’, ‘decreased by 20%–30%’, ‘decreased by half’, and ‘almost never go out’ were reported by 9.2%, 27.7%, 31.2% and 21.9% of respondents, respectively. Among them, 9.8% reported new-onset neck pain. A significantly higher rate of new-onset neck pain was observed in participants who reported ‘decreased by half’ (adjusted OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.30) and who ‘almost never go out’ (adjusted OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.91), compared with those who reported ‘no change.’ConclusionsDecreased physical activity has increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic and was significantly associated with new-onset neck pain among GEJE survivors.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842821

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveIn this study, we aimed to find the seroprevalence of healthcare workers (HCWs) of Pakistan involved in the treatment and care of patients with COVID-19.SettingThis was a cross-sectional study and total of 15 000 HCWs involved in providing services and care to the patients with COVID-19 were randomly selected from all over Pakistan.ParticipantsInformed consent was taken from all participants and were included according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. All testing was done on serum samples for the qualitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies using Abbott Chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. An index of 1.4 was used as a cut-off to mark reactive and non-reactive cases. SPSS V.23.0 was used for data analysis.OutcomeImmune status of the study population depicting seroprevalence among HCWs.ResultsOut of all the candidates, majority of the HCWs were men (61.9%) and were doctors (62.4%). The mean age of participants was 32.8 years (SD 8.7) and majority were asymptomatic (51.8%). In this study, 33% of the HCWs were reactive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody. Around 44% of the reactive cases were asymptomatic. The symptoms more significantly associated with seropositivity were: fever (OR 1.31;95% CI 1.16 to 1.48), headache (OR 2.43;95% CI 2.16 to 2.73), cough and shortness of breath (OR 2.10;95% CI 1.91 to 2.31), loss of sense of smell or taste (OR 3.70;95% CI 3.29 to 4.17) (p<0.001). Factors which showed significant association with the presence of antibodies were professional category (absolute risk (AR) 0.09;OR 1.46;95% CI 1.36 to 1.56), availability of protective masks (AR 0.02;OR 0.90;95% CI 0.84 to 0.96), safety goggles (AR 0.02;OR 0.90;95% CI 0.84 to 0.97) and living arrangements (AR 0.03;OR 1.12;95% CI 1.04 to 1.20) (p<0.05).ConclusionOur study showed a high seropositivity of HCWs dealing with patients with COVID-19 in Pakistan revealing significant association with professional category, nature of work place and precautions taken while performing duties.

3.
PeerJ Computer Science ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842600

ABSTRACT

The discovery of a new form of corona-viruses in December 2019, SARS-CoV-2, commonly named COVID-19, has reshaped the world. With health and economic issues at stake, scientists have been focusing on understanding the dynamics of the disease, in order to provide the governments with the best policies and strategies allowing them to reduce the span of the virus. The world has been waiting for the vaccine for more than one year. The World Health Organization (WHO) is advertising the vaccine as a safe and effective measure to fight off the virus. Saudi Arabia was the fourth country in the world to start to vaccinate its population. Even with the new simplified COVID-19 rules, the third dose is still mandatory. COVID-19 vaccines have raised many questions regarding in its efficiency and its role to reduce the number of infections. In this work, we try to answer these question and propose a new mathematical model with five compartments, including susceptible, vaccinated, infectious, asymptotic and recovered individuals. We provide theoretical results regarding the effective reproduction number, the stability of endemic equilibrium and disease free equilibrium. We provide numerical analysis of the model based on the Saudi case. Our developed model shows that the vaccine reduces the transmission rate and provides an explanation to the rise in the number of new infections immediately after the start of the vaccination campaign in Saudi Arabia.

4.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(1), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841768

ABSTRACT

Globally, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a major public health problem due to its high virulence associated with communities spreading with no definitive treatment and untimely death. Various perceptions have been associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. This study assessed the perception of mitigating strategies and its challenges regarding COVID-19 among residents in Ogun State, Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study design using a multi-stage sampling technique was used to solicit information from 2400 respondents in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire from 4th to 15th October 2020. Descriptive statistics were employed for data analysis. Findings of this study revealed that avoidance of social gathering (23.5%), the use of face masks (23.3%), and cleaning of hands with sanitizer (22.7) were the most common mitigation strategies adopted by the respondents in the study area, although full adherence was low. The most strategies to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 were suggested by the respondents. These strategies included regular quarantining affected person(s), practicing basic measures, and going to the hospital with 21.5%, 20.6%, and 19.7% respectively. The results also showed that going to Churches and Mosques, inconvenient time of using face masks and restriction from social gathering and clubbing during COVID-19 pandemic were the most challenges faced in the study area. This study concludes that there should be more provision of medical supplies and palliatives for individuals, health education, the enforcement of preventive measures, and free testing and treatment should receive much recognition.

5.
Texila International Journal of Public Health ; 9(1), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1841767

ABSTRACT

Due to unprecedented threat to the economy and the quality of life caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, this study focused on cost-benefit analysis during the lockdown of COVID-19 and the health belief model of COVID-19 pandemic in Ogun State, Nigeria. A total of 2400 copies of the questionnaire were administered to solicit information from the respondents using systematic random sampling technique on the targeted population while 2363 copies were retrieved and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study revealed that the lockdown had negative impacts on health, economic, and social impacts. Results showed that 50.7% of the respondents spent no time going to the market and/or work during COVID-19, and this made 81.9% of them unable to gain extra gain during the lockdown as they were completely restricted for activities. The lockdown had impacts on socioeconomic activities as the prices of consumable goods increased due to the low supply. 71.8% of the respondents indicated that the government did not provide palliative measures for the households. The results further showed that everyone could be infected with COVID-19 as 86.0% of respondents indicated. 48% revealed that COVID-19 drugs were unavailable and prayers from religious leaders could not cure COVID-19. Besides, 65.5% were able to follow the basic measures put in place to reduce the spread of COVID-19 in the study area. This study concluded that necessary things should be put in place to ease the affairs of the populace before any other lockdown measure is made.

6.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-336028

ABSTRACT

A simple method is devised to estimate the onset ratio of COVID-19 patients from the proportion of untraceable patients tested positive, which allows us to obtain the number of asymptomatic patients, the number of infectious patients and the effective reproduction number. The recent data in Tokyo indicate that there are about six to ten times as many infectious patients in the city as the daily confirmed new cases. It is shown that, besides social distancing and use of effective masks, a quarantine measure on non-symptomatic patients is critically important in controlling the pandemic.

7.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ; 1(159), 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1838128

ABSTRACT

Background: In response to the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), governments have implemented a variety of measures to control the spread of the virus and the associated disease. Among these, have been measures to control the pandemic in primary and secondary school settings. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of measures implemented in the school setting to safely reopen schools, or keep schools open, or both, during the COVID-19 pandemic, with particular focus on the different types of measures implemented in school settings and the outcomes used to measure their impacts on transmission-related outcomes, healthcare utilisation outcomes, other health outcomes as well as societal, economic, and ecological outcomes. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and the Educational Resources Information Center, as well as COVID-19-specific databases, including the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register and the WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease (indexing preprints) on 9 December 2020. We conducted backward-citation searches with existing reviews. Selection criteria: We considered experimental (i.e. randomised controlled trials;RCTs), quasi-experimental, observational and modelling studies assessing the effects of measures implemented in the school setting to safely reopen schools, or keep schools open, or both, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Outcome categories were (i) transmission-related outcomes (e.g. number or proportion of cases);(ii) healthcare utilisation outcomes (e.g. number or proportion of hospitalisations);(iii) other health outcomes (e.g. physical, social and mental health);and (iv) societal, economic and ecological outcomes (e.g. costs, human resources and education). We considered studies that included any population at risk of becoming infected with SARS-CoV-2 and/or developing COVID-19 disease including students, teachers, other school staff, or members of the wider community. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently screened titles, s and full texts. One review author extracted data and critically appraised each study. One additional review author validated the extracted data. To critically appraise included studies, we used the ROBINS-I tool for quasi-experimental and observational studies, the QUADAS-2 tool for observational screening studies, and a bespoke tool for modelling studies. We synthesised findings narratively. Three review authors made an initial assessment of the certainty of evidence with GRADE, and several review authors discussed and agreed on the ratings. Main results: We included 38 unique studies in the analysis, comprising 33 modelling studies, three observational studies, one quasi-experimental and one experimental study with modelling components. Measures fell into four broad categories: (i) measures reducing the opportunity for contacts;(ii) measures making contacts safer;(iii) surveillance and response measures;and (iv) multicomponent measures. As comparators, we encountered the operation of schools with no measures in place, less intense measures in place, single versus multicomponent measures in place, or closure of schools. Across all intervention categories and all study designs, very low- to low-certainty evidence ratings limit our confidence in the findings. Concerns with the quality of modelling studies related to potentially inappropriate assumptions about the model structure and input parameters, and an inadequate assessment of model uncertainty. Concerns with risk of bias in observational studies related to deviations from intended interventions or missing data. Across all categories, few studies reported on implementation or described how measures were implemented. Where we describe effects as 'positive', the direction of the point estimate of the effect favours the intervention(s);'negative' effects do not favour the intervention. We found 23 modelling studie

8.
Journal of Rural Development ; 40(1):28-45, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1837581

ABSTRACT

Odisha, a State vulnerable to natural disasters, is located on the eastern coast of India. The State also experienced COVID-19 pandemic which affected all parts of the globe. The study has been undertaken to assess the coping mechanism adopted by the State to address COVID-19 pandemic situation considering its poor public health system. The role of rural local self-governments in managing the pandemic situation has also been analysed during the study. The study is based on the analysis of secondary data available from COVID-19 dashboard of Government of Odisha, circulars webhosted by State in the public domain and findings of focus group discussions organised with the multiple stakeholders associated in managing the COVID-19 situation. After a detailed research on COVID-19 management in Odisha, the study concludes that multipronged strategies of State like enforcing early lockdown, establishing dedicated COVID-19 hospitals, temporary medical camps to look after large influx of migrants and decentralised management of pandemic by the rural local self-governments are major contributing factors in managing the situation effectively. Gram Panchayats of Odisha also experienced multiple challenges in dealing with the pandemic situation due to desperate return of a large number of migrants, surveillance of the suspected COVID-19 cases, and arranging facilities for quarantine and food during the period of institutional isolation. The study recommends to strengthen the comprehensive primary healthcare at Gram Panchayat level with due attention to the preventive measures, livelihood security of rural poor and decentralised management of the pandemic at the local level. © 2021 National Institute of Rural Development. All rights reserved.

9.
Economy Transdisciplinarity Cognition ; 24(2):39-49, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837297

ABSTRACT

In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, entities and internal auditors have to face the new challenges posed by changing ways of working. Internal auditors need to give importance to the analysis of exposure to business risk and the implications for financial reporting. The purpose of the financial reporting system is to produce reporting that is complete, accurate, and transparent. COVID-19 has reinforced the need for efficient remote working, even for control activities. Some of impacted areas refers to: Risk assessment impact, Effective alocation of resources, Key service organizations reliance, Remote access, Execution of controls and monitoring. In the same time as economic activities, the public sector faced also major changes in audit and internal control activities. The need to reduce social interaction during COVID-19 pandemic is changing the way audit and internal control works, with a much greater emphasis on teleworking, working remotely and with more technology dependence. This situation generates a number of advantages but also disadvantages, which are presented in the content of the article. Teleworking increases cyber security risks and may also require additional infrastructure from auditors, but can reduce costs.

10.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):5321, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837209

ABSTRACT

Background: In this narrative review, we address the COVID-19 pandemic mis–dis information crisis in which healthcare systems have been pushed to their limits, with collapses occurring worldwide. The context of uncertainty has resulted in skepticism, confusion, and general malaise among the population. Informing the public has been one of the major challenges during this pandemic. Misinformation is defined as false information shared by people who have no intention of misleading others. Disinformation is defined as false information deliberately created and disseminated with malicious intentions. Objective: To reach a consensus and critical review about mis–dis information in COVID-19 crisis. Methods: A database search was conducted in PsychINFO, MedLine (Pubmed), Cochrane (Wiley), Embase and CinAhl. Databases used the MeSH-compliant keywords of COVID-19, 2019-nCoV, Coronavirus 2019, SARS-CoV-2, misinformation, disinformation, information, vaccines, vaccination, origin, target, spread, communication. Results: Both misinformation and disinformation can affect the population’s confidence in vaccines (development, safety, and efficacy of vaccines, as well as denial of the severity of SARS-CoV infection). Institutions should take into account that a great part of the success of the intervention to combat a pandemic has a relationship with the power to stop the misinformation and disinformation processes. The response should be well-structured and addressed from different key points: central level and community level, with official and centralized communication channels. The approach should be multifactorial and enhanced by the collaboration of social media companies to stop misleading information, and trustworthy people both working or not working in the health care systems to boost the power of the message. Conclusions: The response should be well-structured and addressed from different key points: central level and community level, with official and clearly centralized communication channels. The approach should be multifactorial and enhanced from the collaboration of social media companies to stop misleading information, and trustworthy people both working and not working in the health care systems to boost the power of a message based on scientific evidence.

11.
Pers Individ Dif ; 192: 111589, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839183

ABSTRACT

To be or not to be quarantined? That is the question posed by COVID-19 pandemic to almost every resident in the world. Approximately three months after the first application of the COVID-19 lockdown to residents in 17 Asian, African, European, American, and Oceanian countries, we carried out a cross-national survey of 26,266 residents via online platforms such as Sojump and Prolific to investigate their willingness to quarantine and its influencing factors. Findings show that 1) The willingness to quarantine is low in countries with high long-term orientation; 2) Females are more willing to be quarantined than males; 3) Gender difference on willingness to quarantine is large among people with older age and low education. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. Understanding how culture and demographics affect people's willingness to quarantine not only provides insight into how to respond to the current pandemic, but also helps the world prepare for future crises.

12.
International Research Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology ; 6(3):177-181, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1836658

ABSTRACT

In times of COVID we have special Covid 19 Quarantine centers setup in order to treat covid patients. Since covid is highly infectious it is very important to quarantine covid patients but at the same time doctors need to monitor health of covid patients too. With the increasing number of cases it is becoming difficult to keep a track on the health conditions of so many quarantined patients. The problems here are Doctors need to regularly monitor patient health and there are increasing number of patients for the doctors to monitor and also doctors are at risk of infection just for monitoring purpose. To Solve this issue we here design a IOT based health monitor system that allows for remotely monitoring of multiple covid patients over the internet. The system monitors patient heartbeat, temperature and blood pressure using a heartbeat sensor, temperature sensor and BP Sensor respectively. The system then transmits this data over the internet using wifi transmission by connecting to wifi internet connection. The data is transmitted and received over IOT by IOT Gecko platform to display data of patient remotely. The entire system is run by a microcontroller based circuitry. If any anomaly is detected in patient health pr if the patient presses the emergency help button on IOT device, an alert is sent over IOT remotely. This System allows Doctors to monitor patients remotely without risk of infection and Doctor gets instant alert in case of health fluctuations of emergency. In this paper, we have proposed ECG Monitoring System based on IoT (Internet of Things) Using this system doctors at hospital can analyse the critical parameters sent by this system. Doctors can also analyse the real time health related parameters of a patients which are not admitted in hospital. We have integrated ECG sensor in this system.

13.
Polska Akademia Nauk. Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences ; 69(4), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1836358

ABSTRACT

We analyze the Google-Apple exposure notification mechanism designed by the Apple-Google consortium and deployed on a large number of Corona-warn apps. At the time of designing it, the most important issue was time-to-market and strict compliance with the privacy protection rules of GDPR. This resulted in a plain but elegant scheme with a high level of privacy protection. In this paper we go into details and propose some extensions of the original design addressing practical issues. Firstly, we point to the danger of a malicious cryptographic random number generator (CRNG) and resulting possibility of unrestricted user tracing. We propose an update that enables verification of unlinkability of pseudonymous identifiers directly by the user. Secondly, we show how to solve the problem of verifying the “same household” situation justifying exempts from distancing rules. We present a solution with MIN-sketches based on rolling proximity identifiers from the Apple-Google scheme. Thirdly, we examine the strategies for revealing temporary exposure keys. We have detected some unexpected phenomena regarding the number of keys for unbalanced binary trees of a small size. These observations may be used in case that the size of the lists of diagnosis keys has to be optimized.

14.
Peer Community Journal ; 2(e6), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1836344

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in France has focused a lot of attention as it has had one of the largest death tolls in Europe. It provides an opportunity to examine the effect of the lockdown and of other events on the dynamics of the epidemic. In particular, it has been suggested that municipal elections held just before lockdown was ordered may have helped spread the virus. In this manuscript we use Bayesian models of the number of deaths through time to study the epidemic in 13 regions of France. We found that the models accurately predict the number of deaths 2 to 3 weeks in advance, and recover estimates that are in agreement with recent models that rely on a different structure and different input data. In particular, the lockdown reduced the viral reproduction number by 80%. However, using a mixture model, we found that the lockdown had had different effectiveness depending on the region, and that it had been slightly more effective in decreasing the reproduction number in denser regions. The mixture model predicts that 2.08 (95% CI: 1.85-2.47) million people had been infected by May 11, and that there were 2567 (95% CI: 1781-5182) new infections on May 10. We found no evidence that the reproduction numbers differ between week-ends and week days, and no evidence that the reproduction numbers increased on the election day. Finally, we evaluated counterfactual scenarios showing that ordering the lockdown 1 to 7 days sooner would have resulted in 19% to 76% fewer deaths, but that ordering it 1 to 7 days later would have resulted in 21% to 266% more deaths. Overall, the predictions of the model indicate that holding the elections on March 15 did not have a detectable impact on the total number of deaths, unless it motivated a delay in imposing the lockdown.

15.
Dementia e Neuropsychologia ; 16(1):121-126, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1833836

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infectious disease declared by the World Health Organization as a public health emergency of international concern. Objective: The objective of this article was to determine the physical, psychological, and social health conditions and mood of COVID-19 quarantine in adults with mild cognitive impairment. Methods: The sample consisted of 129 participants, most of them were healthy, but some have mild cognitive impairment. The data were collected with a questionnaire and the Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale applied through phone calls from April to June 2020. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in the changes in sleep habits of the healthy participants (p=0.018). Intragroup comparisons of the Yesavage Geriatric Depression Scale in healthy participants were significant (p=0.010) and at the intergroup level before and after quarantine showed significant differences in pretest scores (p=0.003). Conclusions: Social isolation had a negative psychological effect on sleep habits, depressed mood, and physical health, mainly in healthy participants. © 2022, Associacao Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. All rights reserved.

16.
International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare ; 15(2):137-150, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1831632

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The emergence of COVID-19 pandemic in the late 2019 was accompanied by various consequences that included almost the entire life aspects worldwide. To cope with the pandemic, imposing restricted measures was required, such as quarantine, lockdown and social distancing. The purpose of this paper is to identify the houses' interior designs responses in Jordan under Covid-19 Pandemic. Design/methodology/approach: Under such conditions, people have to spend long periods inside their houses. This issue highlighted the importance and the vital role of houses interior design in meeting the various needs of residents under emergent and changing conditions. Findings: This study revealed current and future responses that may be implemented to cope with the pandemic consequences in terms of houses' interior design. Moreover, a conceptual model was proposed. Number of suggestions and further research were introduced considering the revealed findings. Originality/value: This study aimed at identifying the houses' interior design responses in Jordan under COVID-19 pandemic. The study methodology adopted both inductive and qualitative approaches to achieve its goals. Under the qualitative approach, semi-structured interviews were undertaken by interviewing ten interior designers and academics.

17.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335014

ABSTRACT

Background: The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 led to a steep rise in transmissions. Recently, as public tolerance for isolation abated, CDC guidance on duration of at-home isolation of COVID-19 cases was shortened to five days if no symptoms, with no lab test requirement, despite more cautious approaches advocated by other federal experts. Methods: We conducted a decision tree analysis of alternative protocols for ending COVID-19 isolation, estimating net costs (direct and productivity), secondary infections, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Sensitivity analyses assessed the impact of input uncertainty. Results: Per 100 individuals, five-day isolation had 23 predicted secondary infections and a net cost of $33,000. Symptom check on day five (CDC guidance) yielded a 23% decrease in secondary infections (to 17.8), with a net cost of $45,000. Antigen testing on day six yielded 2.9 secondary infections and $63,000 in net costs. This protocol, compared to the next best protocol of antigen testing on day five of a maximum eight-day isolation, cost an additional $1,300 per secondary infection averted. Antigen or polymerase chain reaction testing on day five were dominated (more expensive and less effective) versus antigen testing on day six. Results were qualitatively robust to uncertainty in key inputs. Conclusions: A six-day isolation with antigen testing to confirm the absence of contagious virus appears the most effective and cost-effective de-isolation protocol to shorten at-home isolation of individuals with COVID-19.

18.
Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg ; 58(1): 45, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833389

ABSTRACT

Background: Covid-19 pandemic has left deep psychological impacts, especially among infected patients. It is extremely important to understand the extent of those effects, while improving the compliance with isolation measures at the same time. Objectives: To detect prevalence of stress using two psychological scales and examine the stress associated factors, also to identify self-isolation compliance rates among COVID-19 patients. Methods: Cross-sectional research was conducted from 15 November to 22 December 2020, involving 379 patient participants selected via systematic random sampling. Kessler 10 Psychological Distress (K10) and the impact of event scale-revised (IES-R) tests were used to ascertain the levels of distress. Results: K10 measure revealed elevated stress amongst 121 (31.9%) of participants, whereas IES_R indicated the level was 37.7%. Using the K10 indicated the multivariate analysis was significant for females (OR = 2.482, 95% CI: 1.532-4.021), patients with financial problems (OR = 2.332, 95% CI: 1.270-4.282) and patients experiencing shortages of essentials (OR = 4.920, 95% CI: 2.524-9.590). The IES-R scale indicated that only female and patients experiencing shortages scored significantly in multivariate analysis, (OR = 1.895, 95% CI: 1.1223-2.935) and (OR = 2.928, 95% CI: 1.1580-5.424), respectively. Those undergoing shorter isolation periods reported lower levels of stress on both K10, p=0.016 and IES-R, p=0.002. Approximately 90% of patients used their own towels during isolation. Moreover, 80.2% slept in separate rooms and 74% used masks in the presence of other family members. Essential supply shortages were reported by 14.2% of respondents. Conclusions: Self-compliance rates were not optimal, while psychological distress was more prevalent among some groups. Intervention is imperative to minimize stress and improve self-isolation compliance.

19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1394-1401, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830896

ABSTRACT

The fast-spreading Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 overwhelmed Hong Kong, causing the fifth wave of COVID-19. It remains to be determined what mitigation measures might have played a role in reversing the rising trend of confirmed cases in this major outbreak. The government of Hong Kong has launched the mass rapid antigen tests (RAT) in the population and the StayHomeSafe scheme since February 2022. In this study, we examined the impact of the mass RAT on disease transmission and the case fatality ratio. It was suggested that the implementation of RAT plausibly played a role in the steady decrease of the effective reproduction number, leading to diminished SARS-CoV-2 transmission. In addition, we projected the disease burden of the outbreak in a scenario analysis to highlight the necessity of the StayHomeSafe scheme in Hong Kong. The Omicron outbreak experience in Hong Kong may provide actionable insights for navigating the challenges of COVID-19 surges in other regions and countries.

20.
6th IFIP WG 5.15 International Conference on Information Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction, ITDRR 2021 ; 638 IFIP:160-175, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1826257

ABSTRACT

The paper proposes to use information technology for modeling and assessing the effectiveness of alternative quarantine measures to prevent the spread of viral infections (for example, COVID 19). A software tool was developed to simulate the spread of a virus infection, the protection effectiveness and quarantine measures based on the Unity3D engine. The modeling process is accompanied by a visual display of the interaction of observation objects. Statistics are displayed dynamically and are presented both a statistical data and a graph. The simulation system is flexible and adaptive, allowing you to customize a number of parameters. Among which should be noted the following: observation parameters (up to 1000 elements, with an increase at startup on computers with high performance);selection of protection means with a percentage of the number of objects that use the protection type;behavioral scenarios of observed objects. This allows you to check the effectiveness of quarantine measures, to assess the effectiveness of protecting the population from viral infections. The paper also demonstrates a comparison of the obtained simulation results. © 2022, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

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