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1.
Radiotherapy and Oncology ; 170:S866-S867, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967467

ABSTRACT

Purpose or Objective The Canadian Medical Association recently acknowledged that physician health remains a significant threat to the viability of Canada’s health care system. A 2014 survey reported a 44% prevalence of burnout among American oncologists. The purpose of this survey was to determine the national prevalence of burnout and document work engagement among Canadian radiation oncologists. Materials and Methods Between November 2019 and March 2020 (pre COVID pandemic), online questionnaire was distributed electronically to 333 Canadian radiation oncologists, across 49 centers, through the National Canadian Association of Radiation Oncology office mailing list. The survey included 62 questions determining job engagement, and validated burnout scale The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) (22 questions). Results 241 of the 333 surveyed Canadian radiation oncologists (72%) completed the questionnaire and were included in this analysis. Responses to the MBI showed that 15% of radiation oncologist met the strict criteria for burnout (i.e. negative scores in all 3 domains: exhaustion, depersonalization, and low accomplishment). Another 60% scored negative in at least one of the three burnout domains. Using the more commonly reported definition of burnout (negative scores in either exhaustion and/or depersonalization), 44% of Canadian radiation oncologist were burnt out. Only 25% had positive scores in all 3 domains and were fully engaged in their work. The full burnout syndrome varies with the provinces and was the highest in British Columbia (22% ) and lowest in Quebec (3%). The responses to work engagement questions revealed a significant concerns regarding inefficiency in work flow (50%), heavy workloads (>50%), a poor work life balance (68%), lack of control over the work environment (47%) and lack of recognition from administrators (45%). 48% perceive the atmosphere at their primary work area as “chaotic and hectic”. Within the last 3 years, 41% had considered leaving their institution to work elsewhere and 51% were considering reducing their full-time equivalent (FTE). Reassuringly, 80% reported a sense of overall ability to provide high quality care and a 59% feel they have a supportive network of colleagues, 80% are willing to try something new. The top 4 strategies identified by respondants aimed to improve worklife quality were (1) more support staff at work, (2) more efficient care models, (3) more resources for patients, and (4) lighter workloads for physicians. Conclusion The survey shows that only 25% of the Canadian radiation oncologist is fully engaged in their work, 15 % meet the strict criteria for burnout and 44% meet the more commonly used burnout criteria. With the rising incidence of cancer and complexity of care, there is an urgent need for change, leverage the enthusiasm to “try something new”, and develop appropriate strategies to improve the wellbeing of the oncology work force.

2.
International Journal of Indigenous Health ; 17(1):87-101, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1940193

ABSTRACT

The world was caught off guard by the swift spread of the COVID19 pandemic at the beginning of 2020. For vulnerable populations such as the urban Indigenous, the first wave of the pandemic was even more challenging, for multiple reasons. Because many of their usual culturally safe services were interrupted, they found themselves struggling on different levels. Our team conducted a needs assessment to shed light on how urban Indigenous people living in the Saugenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region in the province of Quebec, Canada, dealt with this situation, and what holistic health services they most wished they could have relied on. To respect Indigenous culture, data collection was completed through sharing circles in addition to a web-based survey. The results indicated that participants experienced anxiety and psychological distress during the pandemic. They identified unmet needs related to family services, support in homeschooling, access to traditional medicine, and spiritual and cultural practices, among others. Future work should involve the implementation of culturally safe services, adapted to the pandemic era, for Indigenous people living in urban areas.

3.
J Adv Nurs ; 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937947

ABSTRACT

The experiences of nurses who blew the whistle during the COVID-19 pandemic have exposed gaps and revealed an urgent need to revisit our understanding of whistleblowing. AIM: The aim was to develop a better understanding of whistleblowing during a pandemic by using the experiences and lessons learned of Quebec nurses who blew the whistle during the first wave of COVID-19 as a case study. More specifically, to explore why and how nurses blew the whistle, what types of wrongdoing triggered their decision to do so and how context shaped the whistleblowing process as well as its consequences (including perceived consequences). DESIGN: The study followed a single-case study design with three embedded units of analysis. METHODS: We used content analysis to analyse 83 news stories and 597 forms posted on a whistleblowing online platform. We also conducted 15 semi-structured interviews with nurses and analysed this data using a thematic analysis approach. Finally, we triangulated the findings. RESULTS: We identified five themes across the case study. (1) During the first wave of COVID-19, Quebec nurses experienced a shifting sense of loyalty and relationship to workplace culture. (2) They witnessed exceedingly high numbers of intersecting wrongdoings amplified by mismanagement and long-standing issues. (3) They reported a lack of trust and transparency; thus, a need for external whistleblowing. (4) They used whistleblowing to reclaim their rights (notably, the right to speak) and build collective solidarity. (5) Finally, they saw whistleblowing as an act of moral courage in the face of a system in crisis. Together, these themes elucidate why and how nurse whistleblowing is different in pandemic times. CONCLUSION: Our findings offer a more nuanced understanding of nurse whistleblowing and address important gaps in knowledge. They also highlight the need to rethink external whistleblowing, develop whistleblowing tools and advocate for whistleblowing protection. IMPACT: In many ways, the COVID-19 pandemic has challenged our foundational understanding of whistleblowing and, as a result, it has limited the usefulness of existing literature on the topic for reasons that will be brought to light in this paper. We believe that studying the uniqueness of whistleblowing during a pandemic can address this gap by describing why and how health care workers blow the whistle during a pandemic and situating this experience within a broader social, political, organizational context.

4.
Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences ; 113(4):23-35, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934669

ABSTRACT

Lockdown measures and the Canadian government-imposed closure of multiple non-essential businesses resulted in changes in household consumption patterns (Ker & Cardwell, 2020). [...]in Canada, consumers purchased significantly more non-perishable foods, such as rice or canned vegetables, and less fresh foods, such as bread and fresh vegetables (Statistics Canada, 2020). According to Renwick and Powell (2019), the most cited definition of food literacy is that of Vidgen and Gallegos (2014, p. 54): . . . a scaffolding that enables individuals, households, communities or nations to protect food quality through change and to build resilience in food over time. The Current Study In the spring of 2020, lockdown measures in Quebec were very strict: closure of daycares and schools, shopping malls, restaurants, and all services except essential ones;mandatory teleworking (where possible);restrictions on the number of people permitted in essential services stores (Institut national de santé publique du Québec [INSPQ], 2021).

5.
Value in Health ; 25(7):S318-S319, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1926719

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Pan-Canadian benchmark for cataract surgery wait times is 16 weeks, with aim for 90% of patients to meet this target timeframe. A targeted literature review was conducted to assess recent trends of Canada’s cataract surgery wait times, including impact of COVID-19. Methods: PubMed was searched January 1, 2017–December 10, 2021, and supplemented by grey literature search. Search terms included cataract surgery, wait times, epidemiology, Canada, and COVID-19. Inclusion criteria comprised of literature reporting national and provincial (Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, Alberta) data with outcomes of interest: percentage of patients treated within 16-week benchmark, 90th percentile wait time (10% waited >x weeks), and 50th percentile/median wait time (half waited >x weeks). Results: Published data from 8 unique sources were included (n=3 white papers, n=5 government data). Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) reported percentage of patients treated within 16 weeks nationally (2017=71%, 2018=70%, 2019=71%, 2020=45%) and by province (Ontario: 2017=69%, 2020=40%;Quebec: 2017=85%, 2020=53%;British Columbia: 2017=63%, 2020=53%;Alberta: 2017=56%, 2020=34%). Five sources reported 90th percentile: CIHI national data showed 10% waited >30.0-31.0 weeks from 2017–2019, and >44.0 weeks in 2020;for Ontario in 2018, 10% waited >28.9 weeks, according to the Eye Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario;provincial government data showed similar results for Alberta (2017–2018=>38.6, 2020–2021=>41.0-63.0) and British Columbia (2021=>27.9). Median wait times (weeks) were reported by 5 sources, with similar national results by CIHI and OECD (2017–2019=9.3-9.6, 2020=18.9);Fraser Institute also reported 2020 national (20.6 [12.0-64.0]) and provincial (Ontario=17.0, Quebec=12.0, British Columbia=28.0, Alberta=24.0) data. Conclusions: Approximately 30% of patients experienced a wait longer than the 16-week pan-Canadian benchmark from 2017–2019, growing to 55% in 2020 amidst COVID-19. To mitigate the impact of COVID-19 and bring wait times to the recommended threshold, collaboration among provincial health authorities and clinicians may be necessary with prioritization of stable funding and reimbursement for cataract surgery.

6.
Kidney360 ; 3(6): 1057-1064, 2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929089

ABSTRACT

Background: Hemodialysis patients have faced unique challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. They face high risk of death if infected and have unavoidable exposure to others when they come to hospital three times weekly for their life-saving treatments. The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of the scope and magnitude of the effects of the pandemic on the lived experience of patients receiving in-center hemodialysis. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 patients who were undergoing dialysis treatments in five hemodialysis centers in Montreal from November 2020 to May 2021. Interviews were transcribed and then analyzed using thematic content analysis. Results: Most participants reported no negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on their hemodialysis care. Several patients had negative feelings related to forced changes in their dialysis schedules, and this was especially pronounced for indigenous patients in a shared living situation. Some patients were concerned about contracting COVID-19, especially during public transportation, whereas others expressed confidence that the physical distancing and screening measures implemented at the hospital would protect them and their loved ones. Some participants reported that masks negatively affected their interactions with health care workers, and for many others, the pandemic was associated with feelings of loneliness. Finally, some respondents reported some positive effects of the pandemic, including use of telemedicine and creating a sense of solidarity. Conclusions: Patients undergoing hemodialysis reported no negative effects on their medical care but faced significant disruptions in their routines and social interactions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, they showed great resilience in their ability to adapt to the new reality of their hemodialysis treatments. We also show that studies focused on understanding the lived experiences of indigenous patients and patients from different ethnic backgrounds are needed in order reduce inequities in care during public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis
7.
The Dickensian ; 118(516):96-101, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1904408

ABSTRACT

In October we met to 'discuss the way forward' as the buzz-phrase has it, and we think we saw one;as in November John Peck delivered an interesting talk on 'Dickens and Science';and in December we braved the Omicron appearance by holding a Christmas meeting, with readings and seasonal refreshments, music provided by member Julie Weaver. ROMA HUSSEY Broadstairs On Saturday 12 February a public event entitled 'Happy Birthday Mr Dickens!' was held at the Pavilion in Broadstairs to celebrate the 210th birthday of Charles Dickens. The Dickens Declaimers performed 'The Jellyby Family' from Bleak House, followed by 'Celebrating a Life', a script consisting of character vignettes as varied as Mr Sapsea, Miss Havisham, Mr Jingle, Louisa Gradgrind and Lady Dedlock amongst others. According to new research, Mr Dick and Miss Havisham were both modelled on two real people who were residing in the area when Dickens visited.

8.
Dalhousie Law Journal ; 45(1):0_1,1-30, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1897718

ABSTRACT

[...]it illustrates how Article 1195 of the Code civil des français (CCF) and Articles 6.2.1-6.2.3 of the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts (UNIDROIT) address contractual hardship. [...]it establishes that Anglo-Canadian contract law is moving in a direction that prioritizes reasonable contracting behaviour and approves of the courts' powers to provide relief where contracts are unfair. Anglo-Canadian contract law sets a very high threshold for frustration,9 and does not accept that hardship constitutes a frustrating event (however, scholars have argued that the two are not mutually exclusive).10 Anglo-Canadian contract law has embraced Lord Radcliffe's approach of the "radical change" in the nature of the obligation, as enunciated in Davis Contractors Ltd v Fareham Urban District Council.11 In Davis, a contractor was hired to build 78 houses for £92,424 over the course of 8 months.12 Due to labor shortages, the contract took 22 months to complete and the costs to build each house rose to £115, 233.13 The court denied the contractor's claim for frustration, seeing that the turn of events was not unforeseeable.14 Lord Radcliffe stated the test as follows: The frustration doctrine must find an appropriate balance between the inclination to hold people to their bargains, notwithstanding the fact that the bargain has become unexpectedly less attractive to them and, on the other hand, an inclination to relieve the parties from their bargains where a refusal to do so appears unjust and may result in the unjust enrichment of the other party.18 Given these tensions, judges have been cautious and confined the doctrine of frustration to rare circumstances.19 This narrow approach-which bears similarities to Québec's20-supports the argument that there is a gap in the law pertaining to changed circumstances, and that it would be appropriate to develop good faith to assist parties facing hardship arising from extenuating circumstances (such as the Covid-19 pandemic).

9.
Revue Medicale Suisse ; 16(713):2131-2134, 2020.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1897434
10.
Frontiers in Digital Health ; 3, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1892633

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on health and social service systems (HSSS) worldwide. It has put tremendous pressure on these systems, threatening access, continuity, and the quality of patient care and services. In Quebec (Canada), the delivery of care and services has radically changed in a short period of time. During the pandemic, telehealth has been widely deployed and used, notwithstanding the decades-long challenges of integrating this service modality into the Quebec HSSS. Adopting a narrative-integrative approach, this article describes and discusses Quebec's experience with the deployment and utilization of telehealth in the context of COVID-19. Firstly, we introduced the achievements and benefits made with the use of telehealth. Secondly, we discussed the challenges and concerns that were revealed or accentuated by the sanitary crisis, such as: (1) training and information;(2) professional and organizational issues;(3) quality of services and patient satisfaction;(4) cost, remuneration, and funding;(5) technology and infrastructure;(6) the emergence of private telehealth platforms in a public HSSS;(7) digital divide and equity;and (8) legal and regulatory issues. Finally, the article presents recommendations to guide future research, policies and actions for a successful integration of telehealth in the Quebec HSSS as well as in jurisdictions and countries facing comparable challenges. © Copyright © 2021 Alami, Lehoux, Attieh, Fortin, Fleet, Niang, Offredo, Rouquet, Ag Ahmed and Ly.

11.
Paediatrics & Child Health ; : 7, 2022.
Article in French | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1886462

ABSTRACT

Historique Meme si les facteurs sociodemographiques sont lies a l'infection par le SRAS-CoV-2 et aux hospitalisations chez les adultes, peu de donnees portent sur l'association entre ces caracteristiques et les hospitalisations attribuables au SRAS-CoV-2 chez les enfants. La presente etude visait a determiner l'association entre la defavorisation materielle par quartier et l'incidence d'hospitalisations a cause du SRAS-CoV-2 chez les enfants. Methodologie Les chercheurs ont realise une etude de cohorte retrospective de tous les enfants (de 0 a 17 ans) atteints d'une infection par le SRAS-CoV-2 confirmee par un test d'amplification en chaine par polymerase apres transcription inverse (PCR) entre le 1(er) mars et le 31 mai 2021 dans un hopital pediatrique de soins tertiaires de Montreal, au Canada. Ils ont collige les donnees par examen des dossiers et ont inclus l'age, le sexe et les codes postaux, afin de pouvoir lier la defavorisation materielle a l'echelle de l'aire de diffusion, mesuree au moyen des quintiles de l'indice de defavorisation materielle de Pampalon. Ils ont examine l'association entre les quintiles de cet indice et les hospitalisations a l'aide de la regression de Poisson. Resultats Pendant la periode de l'etude, 964 enfants ont recu un resultat positif au SRAS-CoV-2 confirme par un test PCR, et 124 d'entre eux ont ete hospitalises. Au total, 40,7 % des enfants hospitalises habitaient dans le quintile le plus defavorise d'apres l'indice de defavorisation materielle de Pampalon. Le rapport du taux d'incidence des hospitalisations dans ce groupe etait de 2,42 (intervalle de confiance a 95 % : 1,33;4,41) par rapport au quintile le plus privilegie. Conclusion Plus du double des enfants qui habitaient dans les quartiers les plus defavorises sur le plan materiel etaient hospitalises a cause de la COVID-19 par rapport a ceux qui habitaient dans les quartiers les plus privilegies. Il faudrait deployer des efforts particuliers pour proteger les enfants qui habitent dans des quartiers defavorises, particulierement dans l'attente de la vaccination des plus jeunes.

12.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):299, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880471

ABSTRACT

Background: People in prison are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection due to overcrowding and the challenges in implementing infection prevention and control measures;however, seroprevalence studies are lacking in correctional settings. We examined the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and associated modifiable risk factors among incarcerated adult men in Quebec, Canada. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in three provincial prisons, representing 45% of Quebec's incarcerated male provincial population. The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity, detected by the Roche Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 serology test. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on sociodemographic, clinical, and carceral characteristics. The association of carceral variables with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was examined using Poisson regression models with robust standard error. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated. Results: Between January 19 and September 15, 2021, 246 of 1,100 (22%) recruited individuals tested positive across three prisons (range 15-27%). Of these, 192 (78%) reported having at least one previous SARS-CoV-2 PCR test, with 122 (64%) testing positive and 70 (36%) testing negative;73 (30%) individuals with a positive serology test were asymptomatic. Seropositivity increased with time spent in prison since March 2020 (aPR 2.17, 95%CI 1.53-3.07 for all vs. little), employment during incarceration (aPR 1.64, 95%CI 1.28-2.11 vs. not), shared meal consumption during incarceration (with cellmates: aPR 1.46, 95%CI 1.08-1.97 vs. alone;with sector: aPR 1.34, 95%CI 1.03-1.74 vs. alone), and incarceration post-prison outbreak (aPR 2.32, 95% CI 1.69-3.18 vs. pre-outbreak) (see Table). Shared (vs. single) cells were not associated with increased seropositivity. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among incarcerated individuals was high and varied between prisons. Several modifiable carceral factors were associated with seropositivity, underscoring the importance of decarceration and occupational safety measures, individual meal consumption, and enhanced infection prevention and control measures including vaccination during incarceration.

13.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):314-315, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880037

ABSTRACT

Background: Ending the HIV Epidemic by 2030 initiative includes phylogenetics as a molecular framework to track patterns of HIV spread. In this study, phylogenetics was combined with available epidemiological data to elucidate track evolving trends in HIV-1 spread among Men having Sex with Men (MSM) and Heterosexual (HET) populations in Quebec. Methods: Phylogenetic linkage analysis was performed using MEGA-10 and HIV-TRACE/Microbe-TRACE methodologies. New infections genotyped between 2014-2020 were stratified into groups: i) Subtype B MSM (subtype B male singletons/male-male clusters, n=1812);ii) Subtype B Heterosexual (female singletons/female-male clusters, n=432), including migrants from the Caribbean and Americas;and iii) Non-B subtype (n=737) epidemics. Test requisition data and clinical data from Clinique Actuel (n=141 and 50, 2016-2018) monitored epidemiological features in a subset of newly diagnosed persons. Results: Among MSM, annual new infections declined by 20% and 40% over the 2015-2017 and 2018-2020 periods, respectively. Overall, 45% of new infections in MSM were associated with 20 active large clusters, adding 8-96 infections/clusters from 2014-2020. Clinical data showed 37% newly diagnosed MSM were born outside Canada, 28% of whom were linked to large cluster outbreaks. Among heterosexuals with subtype B infections, there was a 31% increase from 2015-2017 followed by a 36% decline from 2018-2020 post-COVID. Of note, large cluster HET outbreaks occurred in Quebec City, Richelieu, and Northern Quebec Overall, non-B subtype infections remained steady (median 100 annually) over the 2014 to 2020 period. Several non-B subtype clusters reflect the domestic introduction and spread of subtype CRF02- AG variants. Cluster membership and cluster size was associated with recent stage infection, viral sequence recency (based on % mixed base calls) and younger age of members within individual clusters. Conclusion: Annual numbers of new HIV-1 infections have steadily declined among MSM post-2008, concomitant to improved HIV prevention paradigms. Epidemic control among MSM and HET groups has been thwarted by large cluster outbreaks. Recent arrivals to Quebec accounted for a growing number of subtype B and non-B subtype infections. HIV prevention efforts must continue in the post-COVID era, tailored to avert transmission cascades in younger persons and recent migrant populations.

14.
Canadian Medical Association. Journal ; 194(21):E741-E745, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1877168

ABSTRACT

During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic through early 2021, international comparisons showed a wide variation in patterns of mortality across countries. Although some countries saw no change in mortality or even fewer deaths than expected, others saw marked increases, such as a 19% increase in Italy, 18% in the UK and 22% in the US. In Canada, a 5% increase was reported during this early pandemic period. A report from the Public Health Agency of Canada suggested differential mortality rates among older adults across Canada's provinces in 2020. An analysis of data from the first few months of the pandemic showed a twofold variation in excess mortality rates across regions of England and Wales, whereby excess mortality refers to the degree to which observed deaths exceed expected deaths (based on modelling of previous years of age-specific mortality). Excess mortality is a useful indicator of the population-wide effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.

15.
Buildings ; 12(5):672, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871552

ABSTRACT

The prefabricated construction industry, also known as off-site construction, has been operating in North America for several years now and differs from traditional construction in its much shorter project timelines, lower costs, and increased build quality. However, the lack of a suitable and efficient assembly solution has been identified by many as a barrier to the use of off-site construction for larger buildings. To maximise the benefits of off-site manufacturing for multistorey buildings, an automated connection solution is presented in this paper. A new plug-in self-locking device was developed according to the following product design phases: on-site observations, definition of the problem and product specifications, solution generation, prototyping, fabrication, and testing. The plug-in self-locking device allows the assembly process to be accelerated by eliminating the fastening steps and a higher completion of modules off-site to be achieved. The design bears the compressive, tensile, and shear loads and contributes to the load path of the building.

16.
Healthcare ; 10(5):949, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871102

ABSTRACT

This study examined the relationship between sensory processing sensitivity and psychological stress reactivity in 69 healthy Japanese university students. The Japanese version of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale and the Japanese version of the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile were used for subjective assessment. The Galvanic skin response was measured as an objective measure of stress responses while the participants were completing the Stroop task. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the Spearman rank correlation coefficient, and the Mann–Whitney U test were conducted for data analysis. The results demonstrated that there was no significant correlation between the Japanese version of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale and Galvanic skin response. However, there was a marginal trend toward significance between low registration in the Japanese version of the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile and Galvanic skin response (rs = 0.231, p < 0.10;rs = 0.219, p < 0.10), suggesting that self-rated sensitivity was not necessarily associated with objective measures. These results indicate that sensory processing sensitivity analyses require the consideration of the traits and characteristics of the participants and multifaceted evaluations using a sensitivity assessment scale other than the Japanese version of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale.

17.
International Journal of Gerontology ; 16(2):106-109, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1865637

ABSTRACT

Background: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has been widely used to discriminate individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As a tele-neuropsychological service has become important due to Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19), computerized neuropsychological assessments delivered by telehealth have recently been developed. However, to date, their reliability is unclear yet. Thus, this study was to investigate the reliability of the tele-neuropsychological assessment using the computerized MoCA (c-MoCA). Method: Thirty-four community-dwelling older adults (age: 65-86 years, 17 females) participated in this study. While the primary assessor scored the participant's performance by telehealth, the secondary assessor independently scored the performance by directly observing face-to-face. To establish the inter-rater reliability of the c-MoCA by telehealth, the absolute agreement and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were analyzed.

18.
Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research ; 10(1):13-23, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1863822

ABSTRACT

The primary outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, causing pneumonia-like symptoms in patients named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had evolved into a global pandemic. COVID-19 has surpassed Middle East respiratory syndrome and severe acute respiratory syndrome in terms of rate and scale causing more than one million deaths. Development of an effective vaccine to fight against the spread of COVID-19 is the main goal of many countries around the world and plant-based vaccines are one of the available methods in vaccine developments. Plant-based vaccine has gained its reputation among researchers for its known effective manufacturing process and cost effectiveness. Many companies around the world are participating in the race to develop an effective vaccine by using the plant system. This review discusses different approaches used as well as highlights the challenges faced by various companies and research groups in developing the plant-based COVID-19 vaccine.

19.
Canadian Medical Association. Journal ; 194(20):E711-E712, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1863818

ABSTRACT

The US Supreme Court may soon strike down its landmark ruling in Roe v. Wade, ending constitutional protections for abortion, according to a draft decision leaked to Politico. The ruling would mean that states can decide whether and how to restrict abortion--or ban it outright. Nearly two dozen Republican-led states are expected to issue immediate bans, 13 of which have "trigger laws" on the books that would automatically kick in once the Supreme Court overturns Roe v. Wade. Abortion will probably remain legal in Democrat strongholds. At least a dozen states, including California, have passed laws protecting access. Here, how Roe v. Wade could galvanize efforts to restrict access in Canada.

20.
VISUAL Review. International Visual Culture Review / Revista Internacional de Cultura ; 8(2):151-165, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1863733

ABSTRACT

UNESCO World Heritage site designation is an opportunity to achieve international status. Studies have demonstrated that many of these sites are major attractions to international visitors and first-time visitors. While Covid-19 has limited international mobility during 2020, this study aims to understand how those responsible for tourism and World Heritage sites have communicated the heritage of the Historic District of Old Quebec (Canada) to local and national visitors. To measure tourist attractiveness, the study analyzed publications posted on Instagram during the summer of 2020. Strategies for diffusion revealed an approach to enhance natural sites more than the cultural heritage. © Global Knowledge Academics, authors. All rights reserved.

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