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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233610

ABSTRACT

Though the bulk of the COVID-19 pandemic is behind, the search for effective and safe anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs continues to be relevant. A highly pursued approach for antiviral drug development involves targeting the viral spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 to prevent its attachment to the cellular receptor ACE2. Here, we exploited the core structure of polymyxin B, a naturally occurring antibiotic, to design and synthesize unprecedented peptidomimetics (PMs), intended to target contemporarily two defined, non-overlapping regions of the S receptor-binding domain (RBD). Monomers 1, 2, and 8, and heterodimers 7 and 10 bound to the S-RBD with micromolar affinity in cell-free surface plasmon resonance assays (KD ranging from 2.31 µM to 2.78 µM for dimers and 8.56 µM to 10.12 µM for monomers). Although the PMs were not able to fully protect cell cultures from infection with authentic live SARS-CoV-2, dimer 10 exerted a minimal but detectable inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 entry in U87.ACE2+ and A549.ACE2.TMPRSS2+ cells. These results validated a previous modeling study and provided the first proof-of-feasibility of using medium-sized heterodimeric PMs for targeting the S-RBD. Thus, heterodimers 7 and 10 may serve as a lead for the development of optimized compounds, which are structurally related to polymyxin, with improved S-RBD affinity and anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peptidomimetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptidomimetics/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Polymyxins , Pandemics , Protein Binding
2.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2023 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240251

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Congenital Factor 13 Deficiency (FXIIID) is a rare bleeding disorder (RBD) of autosomal recessive inheritance, with an incidence of 1 in 3-5 million. The clinical symptomatology, diagnosis, and management of FXIIID are described. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of children with FXIIID was performed from January 2000 through October 2021 at a tertiary care center in Southern India. The diagnosis was performed by the Urea clot solubility test (UCST) and Factor XIII antigen assay. RESULTS: Twenty children (representing 16 families) were included. Male: Female ratio was 1.5:1. The median age of symptom onset was 6 mo, and the median age of diagnosis was 1 y, demonstrating a delay in diagnosis. Consanguinity was present in 15 (75%) with 4 children having affected siblings. Clinical symptomatology ranged from mucosal bleeds to intracranial bleeds and hemarthrosis, with many children having a history of prolonged umbilical bleeding in their neonatal period. Fourteen children were on cryoprecipitate prophylaxis. Four children had breakthrough bleeds due to irregular prophylaxis, including one intracranial bleed due to a delay in cryoprecipitate prophylaxis during the covid pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Congenital FXIIID presents with a wide range of bleeding manifestations. The high prevalence of consanguinity in Southern India can be a cause of FXIIID's high prevalence in this region. There is a propensity for intracranial bleeding with a significant number having this at first presentation. Regular prophylaxis is required and feasible to prevent potentially fatal bleeds.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 893: 164766, 2023 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238295

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a promising approach for monitoring the spread of SARS-CoV-2 within communities. Although qPCR-based WBE is powerful in that it allows quick and highly sensitive detection of this virus, it can provide limited information about which variants are responsible for the overall increase or decrease of this virus in sewage, and this hinders accurate risk assessments. To resolve this problem, we developed a next generation sequencing (NGS)-based method to determine the identity and composition of individual SARS-CoV-2 variants in wastewater samples. Combination and optimization of targeted amplicon-sequencing and nested PCR allowed detection of each variant with sensitivity comparable to that of qPCR. In addition, by targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein, which has mutations informative for variant classification, we could discriminate most variants of concern (VOC) and even sublineages of Omicron (BA.1, BA.2, BA.4/5, BA.2.75, BQ.1.1 and XBB.1). Focusing on a limited domain has a benefit of decreasing the sequencing reads. We applied this method to wastewater samples collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Kyoto city throughout 13 months (from January 2021 to February 2022) and successfully identified lineages of wild-type, alpha, delta, omicron BA.1 and BA.2 as well as their compositions in the samples. The transition of these variants was in good agreement with the epidemic situation reported in Kyoto city during that period based on clinical testing. These data indicate that our NGS-based method is useful for detecting and tracking emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 in sewage samples. Coupled with the advantages of WBE, this method has the potential to serve as an efficient and low cost means for the community risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Wastewater , Sewage
4.
J Mol Graph Model ; 124: 108540, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244484

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has raised concerns worldwide due to its enhanced transmissibility and immune escapability. The first dominant Omicron BA.1 subvariant harbors more than 30 mutations in the spike protein from the prototype virus, of which 15 mutations are located at the receptor binding domain (RBD). These mutations in the RBD region attracted significant attention, which potentially enhance the binding of the receptor human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) and decrease the potency of neutralizing antibodies/nanobodies. This study applied the molecular dynamics simulations combined with the molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MMGBSA) method, to investigate the molecular mechanism behind the impact of the mutations acquired by Omicron on the binding affinity between RBD and hACE2. Our results indicate that five key mutations, i.e., N440K, T478K, E484A, Q493R, and G496S, contributed significantly to the enhancement of the binding affinity by increasing the electrostatic interactions of the RBD-hACE2 complex. Moreover, fourteen neutralizing antibodies/nanobodies complexed with RBD were used to explore the effects of the mutations in Omicron RBD on their binding affinities. The calculation results indicate that the key mutations E484A and Y505H reduce the binding affinities to RBD for most of the studied neutralizing antibodies/nanobodies, mainly attributed to the elimination of the original favorable gas-phase electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between them, respectively. Our results provide valuable information for developing effective vaccines and antibody/nanobody drugs.

5.
Fortune J Health Sci ; 5(3): 432-454, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242468

ABSTRACT

In India, COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease-2019) continues to this day, although with subdued intensity, following two major waves of viral infection. Despite ongoing vaccination drives to curb the spread of COVID-19, the relative potential of the administered vaccines to render immune protection to the general population and their advantage over natural infection remain undocumented. In this study, we examined the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced by the two vaccines Covishield and Covaxin, in individuals living in and around Kolkata, India. We also compared the immune responses induced separately by vaccination and natural infection. Our results indicate that although Covishield generates a better humoral immune response toward SARS-CoV-2, both vaccines are almost equivalent in terms of cell-mediated immune response to the virus. Both Covishield and Covaxin, however, are more effective toward the wild-type virus than the Delta variant. Additionally, the overall immune response resulting from natural infection in and around Kolkata is not only similar to that generated by vaccination but the cell-mediated immune response to SARS-CoV-2 also lasts for at least ten months in some individuals after the viral infection.

6.
Elife ; 122023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242416

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) causes immune perturbations which may persist long term, and patients frequently report ongoing symptoms for months after recovery. We assessed immune activation at 3-12 months post hospital admission in 187 samples from 63 patients with mild, moderate, or severe disease and investigated whether it associates with long COVID. At 3 months, patients with severe disease displayed persistent activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, based on expression of HLA-DR, CD38, Ki67, and granzyme B, and elevated plasma levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-7, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) compared to mild and/or moderate patients. Plasma from severe patients at 3 months caused T-cells from healthy donors to upregulate IL-15Rα, suggesting that plasma factors in severe patients may increase T-cell responsiveness to IL-15-driven bystander activation. Patients with severe disease reported a higher number of long COVID symptoms which did not however correlate with cellular immune activation/pro-inflammatory cytokines after adjusting for age, sex, and disease severity. Our data suggests that long COVID and persistent immune activation may correlate independently with severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism
7.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1201136, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240735

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic infectious virus that has caused significant outbreaks in the Middle East and beyond. Due to a highly mortality rate, easy transmission, and rapid spread of the MERS-CoV, it remains as a significant public health treat. There is currently no licensed vaccine available to protect against MERS-CoV. Methods: In this study, we investigated whether the proteolytic cleavage sites and fusion peptide domain of the MERS-CoV spike (S) protein could be a vaccine target to elicit the MERS-CoV S protein-specific antibody responses and confer immune protection against MERS-CoV infection. Our results demonstrate that immunization of the proteolytic cleavage sites and the fusion peptide domain using virus-like particle (VLP) induced the MERS-CoV S protein-specific IgG antibodies with capacity to neutralize pseudotyped MERS-CoV infection in vitro. Moreover, proteolytic cleavage sites and the fusion peptide VLP immunization showed a synergistic effect on the immune protection against MERS-CoV infection elicited by immunization with VLP expressing the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein. Additionally, immune evasion of MERS-CoV RBD variants from anti-RBD sera was significantly controlled by anti-proteolytic cleavage sites and the fusion peptide sera. Conclusion and discussion: Our study demonstrates the potential of VLP immunization targeting the proteolytic cleavage sites and the fusion peptide and RBD domains of the MERS-CoV S protein for the development of effective treatments and vaccines against MERS-CoV and related variants.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Immunization , Peptides , Peptide Hydrolases
8.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 40: 101278, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231001

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the new SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes the disease known as COVID-19, has generated a pandemic that has plunged the world into a health crisis. The infection process is triggered by the direct binding of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) of the host cell. In the present study, virtual screening techniques such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, calculation of free energy using the GBSA method, prediction of drug similarity, pharmacokinetic, and toxicological properties of various ligands interacting with the RBD-ACE2 complex were applied. The ligands radotinib, hinokiflavone, and ginkgetin were identified as potential destabilizers of the RBD-ACE2 interaction, which could produce their pharmacological effect by interacting at an allosteric site of ACE2, with affinity energy values of -10.2 ± 0.1, -9.8 ± 0.0, and -9.4 ± 0.0 kcal/mol, indicating strong receptor affinity. The complex with hinokiflavone showed the highest conformational stability and rigidity of the dynamic simulation and also obtained the best binding free energy of the three molecules, with an energy of -215.86 kcal/mol.

9.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 40: 101281, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328250

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has globally affected both human health and economy. Several variants with a high potential for reinfection and the ability to evade immunity were detected shortly after the initial reported case of COVID-19. A total of 30 mutations in the spike protein (S) have been reported in the SARS-CoV-2 (BA.2) variant in India and South Africa, while half of these mutations are in the receptor-binding domain and have spread rapidly throughout the world. Drug repurposing offers potential advantages over the discovery of novel drugs, and one is that it can be delivered quickly without lengthy assessments and time-consuming clinical trials. In this study, computational drug design, such as pharmacophore-based virtual screening and MD simulation has been concentrated, in order to find a novel small molecular inhibitor that prevents hACE2 from binding to the receptor binding domain (RBD). three medicinal compound databases: North-East African, North African, and East African were screened and carried out a multi-step screening approach that identified three compounds, which are thymoquinol 2-O-beta-glucopyranoside (C1), lanneaflavonol (C2), and naringenin-4'-methoxy-7-O-Alpha-L-rhamnoside (C3), with excellent anti-viral properties against the RBD of the omicron variant. Furthermore, PAIN assay interference, computation bioactivity prediction, binding free energy, and dissociation constant were used to validate the top hits, which indicated good antiviral activity. The three compounds that were found may be useful against COVID-19, though more research is required. These findings could aid the development of novel therapeutic drugs against the emerging Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2.

10.
Letters in Drug Design & Discovery ; 20(6):684-698, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2321535

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) is still a major challenge worldwide. The disease is caused by binding the coronavirus to ACE2 receptors on lung cells, infecting the cells and triggering the onset of symptoms. The prevention of such a binding in which the virus is eventually unable to enter the cell could be a promising therapeutic approach.Methods: In this in silico study, 306 compounds of Lamiaceae family native in Iran (native Mints) were retrieved from several databases as 3D structures, and after that molecular docking and virtual screening, the compounds with inhibitory potential were selected in terms of free energy binding against the spike protein of the virus. The pharmacokinetic profile of selected compounds was evaluated, and by molecular dynamic simulation and MM/PBSA, four compounds were further assessed for binding affinities against the receptor-binding domain of the spike.Results: The results showed the Catechin gallate and Perovskone B from Stachys and Salvia genus generated a stronger binding affinity, and therefore could act as potential inhibitory compounds of RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.Conclusion: This study revealed that some members of the Lamiaceae family could be employed to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 activity through interaction with spike protein and therefore could be used for further investigation in vitro and in vivo.

11.
Indonesian Journal of Chemistry ; 23(2):370-382, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2326071

ABSTRACT

The stability characteristics associated with the shelf life of a biosensor are rarely investigated, however, they are important factors for real applications. Stability is the variation in the detection signal over a long period of storage. This study aims to determine the effect of storage time on the stability of SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) spike protein aptamers related to shelf life and the performance of an electrochemical aptasensor on clinical samples. The research method includes a stability study conducted using the accelerated stability method based on the Arrhenius equation at three variations of temperature and storage time. The electrochemical aptasensor's performance was evaluated on clinical samples of 32 nasopharyngeal swabs at biosafety level 3 and its potential on clinical saliva samples. The results indicated that the developed electrochemical aptasensor was stable for ± 15 days with a shelf life of 18, 17 and 16 days, respectively, at 25, 40 and 50 °C. This electrochemical aptasensor has the potential to be a Point of Care (POC) device for the clinical detection of SARS-CoV-2 because it can be tested on clinical samples of nasopharyngeal swabs and the results show its potential application to detect in clinical saliva samples. © Arum Kurnia Sari et al.

12.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28797, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327342

ABSTRACT

The immunogenicity induced by the third dose of inactivated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in people living with HIV (PLWH) is unclear, and relevant literature is extremely scarce. It is important to add evidence on the humoral immune response induced by the third dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in PLWH. We collected peripheral venous blood for spike receptor binding domain-protein specific immunoglobulin G (S-RBD-IgG) antibody tests at 28 days after the second dose (T1 ), 180 days after the second dose (T2 ) and 35 days after the third dose (T3 ) of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in PLWH. The differences in S-RBD-IgG antibody levels and specific seroprevalence among T1 , T2 , and T3 time periods were analyzed, and the effects of age, vaccine brand, and CD4+ T cell count on the levels and specific seroprevalence of S-RBD-IgG antibody induced by the third dose in PLWH were examined. The third dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines induced strong S-RBD-IgG antibody responses in PLWH. The levels and specific seroprevalence of S-RBD-IgG antibody were significantly higher than those at 28 and 180 days after the second dose and were not affected by vaccine brand or CD4+ T cell count. Younger PLWH produced higher levels of S-RBD-IgG antibody. The third dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine showed good immunogenicity in PLWH. It is necessary to popularize the third dose in the PLWH population, especially PLWH who do not respond to two doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines. Meanwhile, the durability of the protection provided by the third dose in PLWH must be continuously monitored.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Seroepidemiologic Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
13.
J Pharm Anal ; 2023 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327241

ABSTRACT

Currently, human health due to corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been seriously threatened. The coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein plays a crucial role in virus transmission and several S-based therapeutic approaches have been approved for the treatment of COVID-19. However, the efficacy is compromised by the SARS-CoV-2 evolvement and mutation. Here we report the SARS-CoV-2 S protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) inhibitor licorice-saponin A3 (A3) could widely inhibit RBD of SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Beta, Delta, and Omicron BA.1, XBB and BQ1.1. Furthermore, A3 could potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Omicron virus in Vero E6 cells, with EC50 of 1.016 µM. The mechanism was related with binding with Y453 of RBD determined by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) analysis combined with quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) simulations. Interestingly, phosphoproteomics analysis and multi fluorescent immunohistochemistry (mIHC) respectively indicated that A3 also inhibits host inflammation by directly modulating the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways and rebalancing the corresponding immune dysregulation. This work supports A3 as a promising broad-spectrum small molecule drug candidate for COVID-19.

14.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28796, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321936

ABSTRACT

Host proteases trypsin and trypsin-like proteases have been reported to facilitate the entry of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in its host cells. These protease enzymes cleave the viral surface glycoprotein, spike, leading to successful cell surface receptor attachment, fusion and entry of the virus in its host cell. The spike protein has protease cleavage sites between the two domains S1 and S2. Since the cleavage site is recognized by the host proteases, it can be a potential antiviral therapeutic target. Trypsin-like proteases play an important role in virus infectivity and the property of spike protein cleavage by trypsin and trypsin-like proteases can be used to design assays for screening of antiviral candidates against spike protein cleavage. Here, we have documented the development of a proof-of-concept assay system for screening drugs against trypsin/trypsin-like proteases that cleave spike protein between its S1 and S2 domains. The assay system developed uses a fusion substrate protein containing a NanoLuc luciferase reporter protein, the protease cleavage site between S1 and S2 domains of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and a cellulose binding domain. The substrate protein can be immobilized on cellulose via the cellulose binding domain of the substrate. When trypsin and trypsin-like proteases cleave the substrate, the cellulose binding domain remain bound to the cellulose and the reporter protein is dislodged. Reporter assay using the released reporter protein is the read out of the protease activity. We have demonstrated the proof-of-concept using multiple proteases like trypsin, TMPRSS2, furin, cathepsin B, human airway trypsin and cathepsin L. A significant increment in fold change was observed with increasing enzyme concentration and incubation time. Introduction of increasing amounts of enzyme inhibitors in the reaction reduced the luminescent signal, thus validating the assay. Furthermore, we used SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses to study the cleavage band pattern and re-confirm the cleavage for enzymes tested in the assay. Taken together, we have tested an in-vitro assay system using the proposed substrate for screening drugs against trypsin like protease-based cleavage of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. The assay system can also be potentially used for antiviral drug screening against any other enzyme that might cleave the used cleavage site.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Trypsin , Virus Internalization , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases
15.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-14, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313948

ABSTRACT

It is reasonable to think that cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or immunotherapy may have a more aggressive course if they are positive for the novel coronavirus disease. Their compulsive condition requires investigation into effective drugs. We applied computational techniques to a series of compounds known for restoring the function of p53 cancer mutant p53R175H and p53G245S. Two potent inhibitors, 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-(1, 3 -thiazol-2-yl) urea (CTU, PubChem NSC321792) with the highest binding affinity -6.92 kcal/mol followed by a thiosemicarbazone compound N'-(1-(Pyridin-2-yl)ethylidene) azetidine - 1 -carbothiohydrazide (NPC, PubChem NSC319726) with -6.75 kcal/mol were subjected to Molecular Dynamics simulation with receptor binding domain (RBD) and compared with control ligand dexamethasone. In particular, CTU adheres to pocket 1 with an average free energy of binding -21.65 ± 2.89 kcal/mol at the RBD - angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 binding region with the highest frequency of amino acid residues after reaching a local equilibrium in 100 ns MD simulation trajectory. A significant enthalpy contribution from the independent simulations unfolds the possibility of dual binding sites for NPC as shifted pocket 1 (-15.59 ± 5.98 kcal/mol) and pocket 2 (-18.90 ± 5.02 kcal/mol). The obtained results for these two compounds are in good agreement with dexamethasone (-18.45 ± 2.42 kcal/mol). Taken together our findings could facilitate the discovery of small molecules that restore the function of p53 cancer mutants newly against COVID-19 in cancer patients.

16.
Mol Divers ; 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312123

ABSTRACT

SARS, or severe acute respiratory syndrome, is caused by a novel coronavirus (COVID-19). This situation has compelled many pharmaceutical R&D companies and public health research sectors to focus their efforts on developing effective therapeutics. SARS-nCoV-2 was chosen as a protein spike to targeted monoclonal antibodies and therapeutics for prevention and treatment. Deep mutational scanning created a monoclonal antibody to characterize the effects of mutations in a variable antibody fragment based on its expression levels, specificity, stability, and affinity for specific antigenic conserved epitopes to the Spike-S-Receptor Binding Domain (RBD). Improved contacts between Fv light and heavy chains and the targeted antigens of RBD could result in a highly potent neutralizing antibody (NAbs) response as well as cross-protection against other SARS-nCoV-2 strains. It undergoes multipoint core mutations that combine enhancing mutations, resulting in increased binding affinity and significantly increased stability between RBD and antibody. In addition, we improved. Structures of variable fragment (Fv) complexed with the RBD of Spike protein were subjected to our established in-silico antibody-engineering platform to obtain enhanced binding affinity to SARS-nCoV-2 and develop ability profiling. We found that the size and three-dimensional shape of epitopes significantly impacted the activity of antibodies produced against the RBD of Spike protein. Overall, because of the conformational changes between RBD and hACE2, it prevents viral entry. As a result of this in-silico study, the designed antibody can be used as a promising therapeutic strategy to treat COVID-19.

17.
Biol Res ; 56(1): 22, 2023 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317394

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a large number of diseases worldwide. There are few vaccines to constrain this disease and the value of them is high. In this sense, the antigens of the vaccine platform Soberana, the receptor binding domain from SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, both the monomeric (mRBD) and dimeric (dRBD) forms, have been developed. This study encompassed several analyses by different techniques like circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) and Gel Filtration- High Performance Liquid ChLC of mRBD and dRBD. Monomer and dimer exhibited similar far-UV CD spectral characteristics with 54% of ß-sheet content. Similar conformational features according to near-UV CD and FS studies were observed in both RBD. Stress stability studies by far-UV CD, FS, biological activity and GF-HPLC at 37 °C showed that mRBD is very stable. On the other hand, dRBD fluorescent emission showed a shift towards higher wavelengths as the incubation time increases, suggesting exposition of tryptophan residues, unlike what happens with mRBD. Biological activity outcome confirms these results. GF-HPLC profiles showed that in mRBD, the product of molecular stress are dimers and does not increase over time. However, dRBD showed dimer fragmentation as the main degradation species. This study reveals the usefulness of CD techniques for the analysis of degradation of RBD molecules as well as showed the difference in stability of both RBD molecules. Besides, our work provides useful insights into the production of a key protein used in diagnosis and therapeutics to fight COVID-19 pandemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Mammals
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315986

ABSTRACT

This study is an extension of current research into a novel class of synthetic antihypertensive drugs referred to as "bisartans", which are bis-alkylated imidazole derivatives bearing two symmetric anionic biphenyltetrazoles. Research to date indicates that bisartans are superior to commercially available hypertension drugs, since the former undergo stronger docking to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 is the key receptor involved in SARS-CoV-2 entry, thus initiating COVID-19 infection and in regulating levels of vasoactive peptides such as angiotensin II and beneficial heptapeptides A(1-7) and Alamandine in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In previous studies using in vivo rabbit-iliac arterial models, we showed that Na+ or K+ salts of selected Bisartans initiate a potent dose-response inhibition of vasoconstriction. Furthermore, computational studies revealed that bisartans undergo stable binding to the vital interfacial region between ACE2 and the SARS-CoV-2 "receptor binding domain" (i.e., the viral RBD). Thus, bisartan homologs are expected to interfere with SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or suppress disease expression in humans. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the role of tetrazole in binding and the network of amino acids of SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD-ACE2 complex involved in interactions with sartans. This study would, furthermore, allow the expansion of the synthetic space to create a diverse suite of new bisartans in conjunction with detailed computational and in vitro antiviral studies. A critical role for tetrazole was uncovered in this study, shedding light on the vital importance of this group in the binding of sartans and bisartans to the ACE2/Spike complex. The in silico data predicting an interaction of tetrazole-containing sartans with ACE2 were experimentally validated by the results of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses performed with a recombinant human ACE2 protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers , Binding Sites , Protein Binding
19.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(11): 3495-3508, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314727

ABSTRACT

Due to the high number of doses required to achieve adequate coverage in the context of COVID-19 pandemics, there is a great need for novel vaccine developments. In this field, there have been research approaches that focused on the production of SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles. These are promising vaccine candidates as their structure is similar to that of native virions but they lack the genome, constituting a biosafe alternative. In order to produce these structures using mammal cells, it has been established that all four structural proteins must be expressed. Here we report the generation and characterization of a novel chimeric virus-like particle (VLP) that can be produced by the expression of a single novel fusion protein that contains SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) ectodomain fused to rabies glycoprotein membrane anchoring region in HEK293 cells. This protein is structurally similar to native S and can autonomously bud forming enveloped VLPs that resemble native virions both in size and in morphology, displaying S ectodomain and receptor binding domain (RBD) on their surface. As a proof of concept, we analyzed the immunogenicity of this vaccine candidate in mice and confirmed the generation of anti-S, anti-RBD, and neutralizing antibodies. KEY POINTS: • A novel fusion rabies glycoprotein containing S ectodomain was designed. • Fusion protein formed cVLPs that were morphologically similar to SARS-CoV-2 virions. • cVLPs induced anti-S, anti-RBD, and neutralizing antibodies in mice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rabies , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Mice , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , HEK293 Cells , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Mammals
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 2023 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313836

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For patients with primary antibody deficiency, the first line of therapy is replacement with immunoglobulin (Ig) products. Prior to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, Ig products did not contain antibodies with specificity for this virus, and there have been limited data on the antibodies present in the Ig products in current use. OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively examine SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in current Ig products. METHODS: We examined 142 unique lots of 11 different Ig products intended for intravenous and/or subcutaneous delivery for IgG-binding activities against recombinant SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain, spike, and nucleocapsid proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In addition, to assess functionality, 48 of these unique lots were assessed for their ability to inhibit the variants SARS-CoV-2 Ancestral, Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron spike binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). RESULTS: Significantly increased antibody values were observed for products manufactured after the year 2020 (expiration dates 2023-2024), as compared with Ig products before 2020 (prepandemic). Sixty percent and 85% of the Ig products with expiration dates of 2023 and 2024 were positive for antibody to SARS-CoV-2 proteins, respectively. The area under the curve values were significantly higher in products with later expiration dates. Later dates of expiration were also strongly correlated with inhibition of ACE2-binding activity; however, a decline in inhibition activity was observed with later variants. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, more recent Ig products (expiration dates 2023-2025) contained significantly higher binding and inhibition activities against SARS-CoV-2 proteins, compared with earlier, or prepandemic products. Normal donor SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are capable of inhibiting ACE2-binding activities and may provide a therapeutic benefit for patients who do not make a robust vaccine response.

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