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1.
J Med Virol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2034901

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused COVID-19 epidemic is worsening. Binding of the Spike1 protein of SARS-CoV-2 with the ACE2 receptor mediates entry of the virus into host cells. Many reports show that protein arginine methylation by PRMTs is important for the functions of these proteins, but it remains unclear whether ACE2 is methylated by PRMTs. Here, we show that PRMT5 catalyses ACE2 symmetric dimethylation at residue R671 (meR671-ACE2). We indicate that PRMT5-mediated meR671-ACE2 promotes SARS-CoV-2 RBD binding with ACE2 probably by enhancing ACE2 N-glycosylation modification. We also reveal that the PRMT5-specific inhibitor GSK3326595 is able to dramatically reduce ACE2 binding with RBD. Moreover, we discovered that meR671-ACE2 plays an important role in ACE2 binding with Spike1 of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron, Delta and Beta variants;and we found that GSK3326595 strongly attenuates ACE2 interaction with Spike1 of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron, Delta and Beta variants. Finally, SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection assays uncovered that PRMT5-mediated meR671-ACE2 is essential for SARS-CoV-2 infection in human cells, and pseudovirus infection experiments confirmed that GSK3326595 can strongly suppress SARS-CoV-2 infection of host cells. Our findings suggest that as a clinical Phase II drug for several kinds of cancers, GSK3326595 is a promising candidate to decrease SARS-CoV-2 infection by inhibiting ACE2 methylation and ACE2-Spike1 interaction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 219: 980-997, 2022 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031328

ABSTRACT

Omicron, another SARS-CoV-2 variant, has been recorded and reported as a VoC. It has already spread across >30 countries and is a highly mutated variant. We tried to understand the role of mutations in the investigated variants by comparison with previous characterized VoC. We have mapped the mutations in Omicron S-glycoprotein's secondary and tertiary structure landscape using bioinformatics tools and statistical software and developed different models. In addition, we analyzed the effect of diverse mutations in antibody binding regions of the S-glycoprotein on the binding affinity of the investigated antibodies. This study has chosen eight significant mutations in Omicron (D614G, E484A, N501Y, Q493K, K417N, S477N, Y505H G496S), and seven of them are located in the RBD region. We also performed a comparative analysis of the ΔΔG score of these mutations to understand the stabilizing or destabilizing properties of the investigated mutations. The analysis outcome shows that D614G, Q493K, and S477N mutations are stable mutations with ΔΔG scores of 0.351 kcal/mol, 0.470 kcal/mol, and 0.628 kcal/mol, respectively, according to DynaMut estimations. While other mutations (E484A, N501Y, K417N, Y505H, G496S) showed destabilizing results. The D614G, E484A, N501Y, K417N, Y505H, and G496S mutations increased the molecular flexibility of S-glycoprotein to interact with the ACE2 receptor, increasing the variant's infectivity. Our study will contribute to research on the SARS-CoV-2 variant, Omicron, by providing information on the mutational pattern and exciting properties of these eight significant mutations, such as antibody escape and infectivity quotient (stabilizing or destabilizing; increased or decreased molecular flexibility of S-glycoprotein to interact with the human ACE2 receptor).

3.
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology ; : 127079, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031500

ABSTRACT

Background Although essential trace elements (ETEs) play pivotal roles in life-supporting biochemical processes, their function in innate and adaptive immunity has not been fully elucidated, particularly during immunization. Furthermore, the association between anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG antibodies and ETE levels with vaccine responsiveness has not been investigated. Methods The present study explored the status of ETEs (Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se) in sera of healthy women before and after vaccination with the anti-SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in a follow-up period of six months. The main aim was to explore links between ETE levels and IgG antibodies produced against Spike glycoprotein's Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD). Results A recombinant protein of SARS-CoV-2 comprising the receptor binding domain was successfully expressed in HEK-293T cells. The purified protein was suitable for producing a sensitive antibody detection assay for human serum and monitored seropositivity, indicating a transient response with peak anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels 2 months after vaccination. In parallel to increasing antibody titers, serum concentrations of Cu, Mn, and Se were not affected by vaccination, and concentrations remained relatively constant at the different sampling sites during the 6-month observation period. Total serum Zn concentrations were slightly elevated when compared between the first and last sampling dates. Overall, no consistent effects of vaccination on any of the three trace elements analyzed in our study were observed. Conclusion Vaccination of adult healthy female volunteers with an mRNA vaccine was not associated with consistent changes in serum trace element concentrations over a six-month observation period.

4.
Clinical Immunology Communications ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031197

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019 the world has been dealing with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The first SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was made available in Europe at the end of 2020. 202 volunteers from the vicinity of the University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt took part in this study;their IgG levels recognizing the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 were determined. The aim was to evaluate the SARS-CoV-2 titer levels of vaccinated, recovered and vaccinated plus recovered persons. We could show that there is a significant difference in the antibody levels of vaccinated, vaccinated plus recovered and only recovered probands. Additionally, the highest antibody levels were found in triple vaccinated persons. Furthermore, the Moderna vaccine seems to have a higher immune response.

5.
Front Public Health ; 10:952916, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2022976

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic continuing, more contagious SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron, have been emerging. The mutations, especially those that occurred on the spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD), are of significant concern due to their potential capacity to increase viral infectivity, virulence, and breakthrough antibodies' protection. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the pathophysiological change of SARS-CoV-2 mutations remains poorly understood. Here, we summarized 21 RBD mutations and their human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) and/or neutralizing antibodies' binding characteristics. We found that most RBD mutations, which could increase surface positive charge or polarity, enhanced their hACE2 binding affinity and immune evasion. Based on the dependence of electrostatic interaction of the epitope residue of virus and docking protein (like virus receptors or antibodies) for its invasion, we postulated that the charge and/or polarity changes of novel mutations on the RBD domain of S protein could affect its affinity for the hACE2 and antibodies. Thus, we modeled mutant S trimers and RBD-hACE2 complexes and calculated their electrotactic distribution to study surface charge changes. Meanwhile, we emphasized that heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) might play an important role in the hACE2-mediated entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells. Those hypotheses provide some hints on how SARS-CoV-2 mutations enhance viral fitness and immune evasion, which may indicate potential ways for drug design, next-generation vaccine development, and antibody therapies.

6.
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022797

ABSTRACT

Heparan sulfate (HS) acts as a co-receptor of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) by interacting with severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike glycoprotein (SGP) facilitating host cell entry of SARS-CoV-2 virus. Heparin, a highly sulfated version of heparan sulfate (HS), interacts with a variety of proteins playing key roles in many physiological and pathological processes. In this study, SARS-CoV-2 SGP receptor binding domain (RBD) wild type (WT), Delta and Omicron variants were expressed in Expi293F cells and used in the kinetic and structural analysis on their interactions with heparin. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis showed the binding kinetics of SGP RBD from WT and Delta variants were very similar while Omicron variant SGP showed a much higher association rate. The SGP from Delta and Omicron showed higher affinity (K-D) to heparin than the WT SGP. Competition SPR studies using heparin oligosaccharides indicated that binding of SGP RBDs to heparin requires chain length greater than 18. Chemically modified heparin derivatives all showed reduced interactions in competition assays suggesting that all the sulfo groups in the heparin polysaccharide were critical for binding SGP RBDs with heparin. These interactions with heparin are pH sensitive. Acidic pH (pH 6.5, 5.5, 4.5) greatly increased the binding of WT and Delta SGP RBDs to heparin, while acidic pH slightly reduced the binding of Omicron SGP RBD to heparin compared to binding at pH 7.3. In contrast, basic pH (pH 8.5) greatly reduced the binding of Omicron SGP RBDs to heparin, with much less effects on WT or Delta. The pH dependence indicates different charged residues were present at the Omicron SGP-heparin interface. Detailed kinetic and structural analysis of the interactions of SARS-CoV-2 SGP RBDs with heparin provides important information for designing anti-SARS-CoV-2 molecules.

7.
Acta Crystallographica: Section D, Structural Biology ; 78(9):1156-1170, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2018424

ABSTRACT

A remarkable number of SARS‐CoV‐2 variants and other as yet unmonitored lineages harbor amino‐acid substitutions with the potential to modulate the interface between the spike receptor‐binding domain (RBD) and its receptor ACE2. The naturally occurring Q498Y substitution, which is present in currently circulating SARS‐CoV‐2 variants, has drawn the attention of several investigations. While computational predictions and in vitro binding studies suggest that Q498Y increases the binding affinity of the spike protein for ACE2, experimental in vivo models of infection have shown that a triple mutant carrying the Q498Y replacement is fatal in mice. To accurately characterize the binding kinetics of the RBD Q498Y–ACE2 interaction, biolayer interferometry analyses were performed. A significant enhancement of the RBD–ACE2 binding affinity relative to a reference SARS‐CoV‐2 variant of concern carrying three simultaneous replacements was observed. In addition, the RBD Q498Y mutant bound to ACE2 was crystallized. Compared with the structure of its wild‐type counterpart, the RBD Q498Y–ACE2 complex reveals the conservation of major hydrogen‐bond interactions and a more populated, nonpolar set of contacts mediated by the bulky side chain of Tyr498 that collectively lead to this increase in binding affinity. In summary, these studies contribute to a deeper understanding of the impact of a relevant mutation present in currently circulating SARS‐CoV‐2 variants which might lead to stronger host–pathogen interactions. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Acta Crystallographica: Section D, Structural Biology is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

8.
25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2021 ; : 845-846, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2012345

ABSTRACT

We present fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (FO-SPR) label-free (LF) bioassays for quantification and kinetic profiling of complete antibody isotypes against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. This was accomplished not only in serum but also for the first time directly in whole blood of COVID-19 convalescent patients. The LF bioassay was correlated with the traditional FO-SPR sandwich bioassay, the latter also benchmarked with ELISA. Compared to other serological tests, our approach is superior in: (1) information about kinetics, (2) rapid insight into the amount of all antibody isotypes and (3) exceptional compatibility with whole blood samples. © 2021 MicroTAS 2021 - 25th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences. All rights reserved.

9.
Virus Research ; : 198915, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2008179

ABSTRACT

The key structure of the interface between the spike protein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) acts as an essential switch for cell entry by the virus and drugs targets. However, this is largely unknown. Here, we tested three peptides of spike receptor binding domain (RBD) and found that peptide 391–465 aa is the major hACE2-interacting sites in SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD. We then identified essential amino acid residues (403R, 449Y, 454R) of peptide 391–465 aa that were critical for the interaction between the RBD and hACE2. Additionally, a pseudotyped virus containing SARS-CoV-2 spike with individual mutation (R454G, Y449F, R403G, N439I, or N440I) was determined to have very low infectivity compared with the pseudotyped virus containing the wildtype (WT) spike from reference strain Wuhan 1 respectively. Furthermore, we showed the key amino acids had the potential to drug screening. For example, molecular docking (Docking) and infection assay showed that Cephalosporin derivative can bind with the key amino acids to efficiently block infection of the pseudoviruses with wild type spike or new variants. Moreover, Cefixime inhibited live SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results also provide a novel model for drug screening and support further clinical evaluation and development of Cephalosporin derivatives as novel, safe, and cost-effective drugs for prevention/treatment of SARS-CoV-2.

10.
Protein J ; : 1-11, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2007198

ABSTRACT

The newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants are potential threat and posing new challenges for medical intervention due to high transmissibility and escaping neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses. Many of these variants have mutations in the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that interacts with the host cell receptor. Rapid mutation in the RBD through natural selection to improve affinity for host receptor and antibody pressure from vaccinated or infected individual will greatly impact the presently adopted strategies for developing interventions. Understanding the nature of mutations and how they impact the biophysical, biochemical and immunological properties of the RBD will help immensely to improve the intervention strategies. To understand the impact of mutation on the protease sensitivity, thermal stability, affinity for the receptor and immune response, we prepared several mutants of soluble RBD that belong to the variants of concern (VoCs) and interest (VoIs) and characterize them. Our results show that the mutations do not impact the overall structure of the RBD. However, the mutants showed increase in the thermal melting point, few mutants were more sensitive to protease degradation, most of them have enhanced affinity for ACE2 and some of them induced better immune response compared to the parental RBD.

11.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(4): 100603, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004611

ABSTRACT

The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic highlights the importance of determining the breadth and durability of humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Herein, we characterize the humoral response in 27 naive and 40 recovered vaccinees. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and memory B cell (MBC) responses are durable up to 6 months, although antibody half-lives are shorter for naive recipients. The magnitude of the humoral responses to vaccination strongly correlates with responses to initial SARS-CoV-2 infection. Neutralization titers are lower against SARS-CoV-2 variants in both recovered and naive vaccinees, with titers more reduced in naive recipients. While the receptor-binding domain (RBD) is the main neutralizing target of circulating antibodies, Moderna-vaccinated naives show a lesser reliance on RBDs, with >25% neutralization remaining after depletion of RBD-binding antibodies. Overall, we observe that vaccination induces higher peak titers and improves durability in recovered compared with naive vaccinees. These findings have broad implications for current vaccine strategies deployed against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
12.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004590

ABSTRACT

Respiratory transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is considered to be the major dissemination route for COVID-19, therefore, mucosal immune responses have great importance in preventing SARS-CoV-2 from infection. In this study, we constructed a recombinant Vaccinia virus (VV) harboring trimeric receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (VV-tRBD), and evaluated the immune responses towards RBD following intranasal immunization against mice and rabbits. In BALB/c mice, intranasal immunization with VV-tRBD elicited robust humoral and cellular immune responses, with high-level of both neutralizing IgG and IgA in sera against SARS-CoV-2 psudoviruses, and a number of RBD-specific IFN-γ-secreting lymphocytes. Sera from immunized rabbits also exhibited neutralization effects. Notably, RBD-specific secretory IgA (sIgA) in both nasal washes and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALs) were detectable and showed substantial neutralization activities. Collectively, a recombinant VV expressing trimeric RBD confers robust systemic immune response and mucosal neutralizing antibodies, thus warranting further exploration as a mucosal vaccine.

13.
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine ; 45:102595, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004369

ABSTRACT

The development of safe and effective vaccine formulations against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents a hallmark in the history of vaccines. Here we report a COVID-19 subunit vaccine based on a SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) incorporated into nano-multilamellar vesicles (NMV) associated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA). The results based on immunization of C57BL/6 mice demonstrated that recombinant antigen incorporation into NMVs improved antibody and T-cell responses without inducing toxic effects under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Administration of RBD-NMV-MPLA formulations modulated antigen avidity and IgG subclass responses, whereas MPLA incorporation improved the activation of CD4+/CD8+ T-cell responses. In addition, immunization with the complete vaccine formulation reduced the number of doses required to achieve enhanced serum virus-neutralizing antibody titers. Overall, this study highlights NMV/MPLA technology, displaying the performance improvement of subunit vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, as well as other infectious diseases.

14.
Immunity ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2000465

ABSTRACT

Vaccines generate high-affinity antibodies by recruiting antigen-specific B cells to germinal centers (GCs), but the mechanisms governing the recruitment to GCs on secondary challenges remain unclear. Here, using preclinical SARS-CoV and HIV mouse models, we demonstrated that the antibodies elicited during primary humoral responses shaped the naive B cell recruitment to GCs during secondary exposures. The antibodies from primary responses could either enhance or, conversely, restrict the GC participation of naive B cells: broad-binding, low-affinity, and low-titer antibodies enhanced recruitment, whereas, by contrast, the high titers of high-affinity, mono-epitope-specific antibodies attenuated cognate naive B cell recruitment. Thus, the directionality and intensity of that effect was determined by antibody concentration, affinity, and epitope specificity. Circulating antibodies can, therefore, be important determinants of antigen immunogenicity. Future vaccines may need to overcome-or could, alternatively, leverage-the effects of circulating primary antibodies on subsequent naive B cell recruitment.

15.
International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics ; 28(5), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2000039

ABSTRACT

Different SARS-CoV-2 new variants emerged and spread during the past few months, sparking infections and death counts. The new variant B.1.617 (delta variant) sparked in India in the past few months, causing the highest records. The B.1.617 variant of SARS-CoV-2 has the double mutations E484Q and L452R on its spike Receptor Binding Domain (RBD). The first mutation is like the reported South African and the Brazilian variants (501.V2 and B.1.1.248). This mutation lies in the region C480-C488, which we predicted before to be recognized by the host-cell receptor;Glucose Regulated Protein 78 (GRP78). In the current study, we test the binding affinity of the host-cell receptor GRP78 to the delta variant spike RBD using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations of up to 100 ns. Additionally, the ACE2-RBD is tested by protein–protein docking. The results reveal equal average binding affinities of the GRP78 against wildtype and delta variant spikes. This supports our previous predictions of the contribution of GRP78 in SARS-CoV-2 spike recognition as an auxiliary route for entry.

16.
J Public Health Res ; 11(3): 22799036221104173, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993303

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic causes severe acute respiratory syndrome and requires rapid action. The development of effective safe vaccines become a global priority for achieving herd immunity. Vaccination is expected to form specific antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein which can neutralize the virus, preventing the virus from binding with ACE 2 receptors. Objective: Evaluating and to know if there any differences of kinetics antibody levels from recipient's anti-IgG S-RBD and NAb with complete second dose CoronaVac Vaccine, to determine the antibody response in preventing SARS-CoV-2. Method: A prospective-cohort study using observational analytics was conducted from January-April 2021 at Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya. A total of 50 subjects are healthcare workers who received two doses of CoronaVac. The IgG S-RBD and NAb levels were measured on Maglumi 800 device (SNIBE, China). Differences in IgG S-RBD and NAb levels before vaccination and after second dose CoronaVac vaccination on 14th day, on 28th day, ware tested using Friedman and Wilcoxon tests. Result: Mean values of IgG S-RBD and NAb have fluctuated. There was a significant difference between IgG S-RBD and NAb levels on day-0 (0.090 vs 18.630; p < 0.001) and day-28 (141.266 vs 116.640; p = 0.037). The median value showed the IgG S-RBD level on day-28 was much better than NAb value (141,266 v 116,640). Conclusion: CoronaVac will form persistent antibodies. Despite antibody development, the acquired humoral immunity decreased at 28 days after full CoronaVac immunization. Kinetics of antibody NAb decreased more rapidly than IgG S-RBD.

17.
mSphere ; : e0024322, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992945

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has contributed largely to the global vaccine disparity. Development of protein subunit vaccines can help alleviate shortages of COVID-19 vaccines delivered to low-income countries. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a three-dose virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine composed of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) decorated with the receptor binding domain (RBD) from the Wuhan or Beta SARS-CoV-2 strain adjuvanted with either aluminum hydroxide (alum) or squalene in water emulsion (SWE). RBD HBsAg vaccines were compared to the standard two doses of Pfizer mRNA vaccine. Alum-adjuvanted vaccines were composed of either HBsAg conjugated with Beta RBD alone (ß RBD HBsAg+Al) or a combination of both Beta RBD HBsAg and Wuhan RBD HBsAg (ß/Wu RBD HBsAg+Al). RBD vaccines adjuvanted with SWE were formulated with Beta RBD HBsAg (ß RBD HBsAg+SWE) or without HBsAg (ß RBD+SWE). Both alum-adjuvanted RBD HBsAg vaccines generated functional RBD IgG against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC), decreased viral RNA burden, and lowered inflammation in the lung against Alpha or Beta challenge in K18-hACE2 mice. However, only ß/Wu RBD HBsAg+Al was able to afford 100% survival to mice challenged with Alpha or Beta VOC. Furthermore, mice immunized with ß RBD HBsAg+SWE induced cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies against major VOC of SARS-CoV-2, lowered viral RNA burden in the lung and brain, and protected mice from Alpha or Beta challenge similarly to mice immunized with Pfizer mRNA. However, RBD+SWE immunization failed to protect mice from VOC challenge. Our findings demonstrate that RBD HBsAg VLP vaccines provided similar protection profiles to the approved Pfizer mRNA vaccines used worldwide and may offer protection against SARS-CoV-2 VOC. IMPORTANCE Global COVID-19 vaccine distribution to low-income countries has been a major challenge of the pandemic. To address supply chain issues, RBD virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines that are cost-effective and capable of large-scale production were developed and evaluated for efficacy in preclinical mouse studies. We demonstrated that RBD-VLP vaccines protected K18-hACE2 mice against Alpha or Beta challenge similarly to Pfizer mRNA vaccination. Our findings showed that the VLP platform can be utilized to formulate immunogenic and efficacious COVID-19 vaccines.

18.
China Biotechnology ; 42(6):30-38, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1988562

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a high-throughput platform for drug discovery targeting receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, a surface display system was designed and constructed to deliver functional RBD to the surface of Pichia pastoris. Methods: Four anchor molecules were fused to RBD, and then were transformed into Pichia pastoris by using electroporation. The surface display efficiency of RBD was measured using flow cytometry, and the affinity of RBD binding to the ACE2 receptor was further determined. Results: RBD-Sed1p system exhibited the highest surface display efficiency of 70%. The binding affinity to ACE2 of RBD displayed on the cellular surface (KD=30.42 nmol/L) was close to that of RBD in solution (KD=16.00 nmol/L). Conclusion: A surface display system of RBD was successfully developed in Pichia pastoris, which can be used for high-throughput screening and evaluation of anti-COVID-19 drugs. © 2022, China Biotechnology Press. All rights reserved.

19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 874741, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987571

ABSTRACT

Background: Two years into the pandemic, yet the threat of new SARS-CoV-2 variants continues to loom large. Sustained efforts are required to fully understand the infection in asymptomatic individuals and those with complications. Identification, containment, care, and preventative strategies rely on understanding the varied humoral immune responses. Methods: An in-house ELISA was developed and standardized to screen for serum IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 S1-RBD protein as an antigen. This study aims to investigate the seroprevalence of serum antibodies against S1-RBD antigen in pre-pandemic (n = 120) and during the early pandemic period (n = 120) in subjects from the Hail region, KSA and to correlate it with clinical and demographic factors. Results: Samples collected from both male (n = 60) and female (n = 60) subjects during the pandemic in the age groups of 20-40 (0.31 ± 0.029 and 0.29 ± 0.024, respectively) and 41-60 years (0.35 ± 0.026 and 0.30 ± 0.025, respectively) showed significantly higher levels of serum antibodies against S-RBD antigen than the age-matched pre-pandemic samples [male (n = 60) and female (n = 60)]. Pandemic subjects exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) higher inhibition (80-88%) than age-matched pre-pandemic subjects (32-39%). Antibodies against S1-RBD antigen were detected in approximately 10% of the total pre-pandemic population (males and females). However, subjects > 60 years did not show antibodies. Conclusion: Antibody levels increased in samples collected during the pandemic, even though these subjects were not clinically COVID-19 positive. A small number of pre-pandemic subjects showed serum antibodies, suggesting prior exposure to other coronaviruses in the region. With dwindling neutralizing antibody levels and reduced vaccine efficacy against newer variants, it remains crucial to develop better assays for surveillance, management, and future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
20.
Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids ; : 1-14, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984880

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid aptamers are developed from a pool of random oligonucleotide libraries with an in vitro selection through systematic evolution of ligands via exponential enrichment (SELEX) process, which are capable of specific and high-affinity molecular binding against targets. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike protein from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is involved in the early stages of viral infection, is a promising target for aptamer selection. Currently, there are no effective approaches to prevent virus from spreading. In this study, a new ssDNA aptamer RBD/S-A1 binding to the RBD of spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 with high affinity (Kd=1.74 ± 0.2 nM) and low cross-binding activity was selected and evaluated. Although aptamers targeting the RBD of spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 have been described in a handful of previous studies, the RBD/S-A1 aptamer identified in this work may be considered as a potential supplementation for the current diagnosis and research of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

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