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1.
Alinteri Journal of Agriculture Science ; 36(1):507-512, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1965183

ABSTRACT

Aim: To improve the accuracy percentage of predicting misinformation about COVID-19 using SVM algorithm. Materials and methods: Support Vector Machine (SVM) with sample size = 20 and Decision Tree classification with sample size = 20 was iterated at different times for predicting the accuracy percentage of misinformation about COVID19. The Novel Poly kernel function used in SVM maps the dataset into higher dimensional space which helps to improve accuracy percentage. Results and Discussion: SVM has significantly better accuracy (94.48%) compared to Decision Tree accuracy (93%). There was a statistical significance between SVM and the Decision Tree (p=0.000) (p < 0.05 Independent Sample T-test).

2.
WIDER Working Papers ; 41(19), 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1965137

ABSTRACT

Unlike Latin American peers, and contrary to World Health Organization recommendations, Nicaragua eschewed lockdowns and other common strategies to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. Analysts have since demonstrated how Nicaraguan authorities dramatically under-reported the number of deaths and infections that resulted (though a dearth of data complicates cross-country comparisons). Questions remain about the government's decision to pursue a hands-off strategy in the first place. This paper argues that rather than optimizing for fewer cases and deaths, the authoritarian government of President Daniel Ortega instead attuned its pandemic response to other, political and economic, variables. In the context of a pre-existing sociopolitical crisis that threatened the regime's legitimacy and territorial control, policy-makers were primarily interested in safeguarding macroeconomic indicators and fomenting a sense of normalcy among the populace. For related reasons, they restricted public health information and criminalized citizen-led public health efforts. In the Nicaraguan case, government and leadership mattered more than state capacity in determining the public health response.

3.
Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry ; 13(3), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1965105

ABSTRACT

The effect of COVID-19 vaccination also depends on the population that accepts vaccines. Improving the COVID-19 vaccination methods will be tremendous to human health and the world economy. So, in this work, we use an interdisciplinary knowledge from climates, social sciences, geography, jungle, forestry and wood industry, genetic analysis, and computational biophysics, including artificial intelligence and docking simulation. The emergence of the omicron variant raises serious concerns because of the initial observation of a significant growth advantage compared to the Delta, lambda, beta, and gamma variants. Although the omicron variant preliminary observed in the EU/EEA and Asian countries depend on travel, several are now observed as parts of pandemic clustering in this zoon. Since, even if the severity of the disease is lower compared with other variants, particularly Delta, the fast transmissibility and resulting exponential growth of cases will soon outweigh any benefits of a potentially reduced severity. This research showed that though omicron covid-19 death cases are less severe than Delta, Omicron will be an important base for the emergence of new further variants through huge mutations in the future, which some are so dangerous. Due to the wet climate, the Amazon jungle is a suitable substrate for emerging any further corona variants. © 2022 by the authors.

4.
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health ; 7(2):221-231, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965028

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a disease caused by infection with the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is still a worldwide threat because of its high morbidity and mortality. This is influenced by the occurrence of hypertension, obesity, age and diabetes mellitus. However, currently there is still controversy in the results of research regarding the use of metformin in COVID-19 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). This study was aimed to analyze the effect of metformin in COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus on mortality rates. Subjects and Method: This study was a systematic review and meta-analysis with the following PICO. P: COVID-19 patient with type-2 diabetes mellitus. I: administration of metformin therapy. C: therapy other than metformin and O: mortality. The articles used in this study were obtained from several databases, namely PubMed, Science Direct, Proquest, SpringerLink, Google Scholar and Scopus. The article search keywords were: "COVID-19" OR "coronavirus" AND "diabetes" AND "metformin" AND "mortality". Articles included are full-text English using a cohort study design from 2020 to 2021 and reporting the Odds Ratio in multivariate analysis. The selection of articles was carried out using the PRISMA flow chart. The articles were analyzed using the Review Manager 5.3 application.

5.
Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health ; 7(2):167-174, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1965027

ABSTRACT

Backround: The COVID-19 pandemic has a psychological impact on society, namely anxiety. Factors that influence anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic are age, education level, occupation, and history of being diagnosed with COVID-19. This study aims to determine the risk factors for anxiety in housewives during the COVID-19 pandemic. Subjects and Method: An observational analytic study with a cross sectional approach was conducted in South Purwokerto, Central Java. The sample is 70 housewives selected by simple random sampling. The dependent variable is anxiety. independent variables were age, education, occupation, and COVID-19 infection. Anxiety was measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HRS-A) questionnaire. Other variables were collected by questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Chi-square.

6.
Journal of Population and Social Studies ; 30:764-777, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964994

ABSTRACT

Despite the importance of vaccinations to combat COVID-19, some people are still wary. This study examines factors affecting attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Data were collected using an online survey to determine the factors that affect people's attitudes reluctant to have the COVID-19 vaccine. In total, 958 respondents participated in this study. The main factors affecting people's attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine in the UAE are medical concerns, religious concerns, misinformation about vaccines on social media, the rapid speed of vaccine development, and the risks of side effects associated with the vaccine. There was no difference in gender, but the older respondents (55 and above), those less educated, unemployed, and those who work in the private sector have more fears and hesitancy toward taking the vaccine.

7.
Era's Journal of Medical Research ; 8(2):153-161, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964968

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses cause animal and human respiratory and bowel infections. They have not been deemed highly pathogenic to humans until the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002 and 2003 in Guangdong province, China. Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large, enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that can infect both animals and humans. Coronaviruses didn't just appear recently. They are large family of viruses that have been around for a long time. Formerly, coronaviruses (CoVs) were seen as relatively harmless respiratory pathogens to humans. However, two outbreaks of severe respiratory tract infection, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) caused high pathogenicity and mortality rates among human populations as a result of zoonotic CoVs crossing the species barrier. Now the recent detection of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), added a new member in corona virus family.The novel coronavirus (COVID 19) is one of the member of coronavirus family which infect human. Scientists have divided coronaviruses into four subgroupings, called alpha, beta, gamma and delta. Seven of these viruses can infect people. The four common coronaviruses are-229E(alpha),NL63(alpha),OC43(beta),HKU1(beta). The three less-common coronaviruses areMERS-CoV(beta), SARS-CoV(beta),SARS-CoV-2. Our main target is to describe the the structure, Pathogenecity, Transmissibility and Epidemiology of above mentioned subgroups of corona viruses in our review.

8.
International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research ; 10(1):18-31, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1964939

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus. On 30 January 2020, the first case of the COVID-19 was reported in India and it affects the whole world. The impact of various nutrients on the human immune system. To defend itself, the human body has numerous components. The human immune system identifies molecules that are foreign to its structure and responds to them in a useful manner. When a pathogen factor enters the human body, the immune system responds by triggering an immunological response.

9.
Acta Agriculturae Jiangxi ; 34(2):160-165, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964892

ABSTRACT

In this study, 650 tissue samples which were collected from 16 pig farms in Hubei Province, were used to detect porcine circovirus (PCV) and Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). The results showed that the positive rates of PCV1, PCV2, PCV3 and PEDV single infection were 1.08%, 4.15%, 2.46% and 6.46%, respectively. In the double infections, PEDV+PCV2 had the highest positive rate of 3.54%, followed by PCV2+PCV3, with a positive rate of 1.54%. In multiple infections, PEDV+PCV2+PCV3 had the highest positive rate of 2.00%. The results indicated that the positive rates of PEDV and PCV were decreased compared with the previous studies, but the prevalence of PEDV and PCV was still wide in Hubei Province, and most of which were co-infection.

10.
Journal of Yangzhou University, Agricultural and Life Sciences Edition ; 42(6):48-53, 2021.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964809

ABSTRACT

As a member of the family Picornaviridae, porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is often infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, teschovirus and so on. In recent years, PSV has been isolated from porcine in many provinces of China. It suggests that it is necessary to strengthen the research on PSV. In this study, according to the sequence of PSV HuN2 strain, VP1 gene was inserted into the pGEX-6 P-1 vector, and expressed the recombinant protein. BALB/c mice aged 6-8 weeks were immunized according to the standard procedure. After the third immunization, the mouse orbital blood was collected to identify the antibody level. The highly positive mouse spleen cells were selected for cell fusion. The positive hybridoma cells and two subclones were screened by IFA method, and then a PSV VP1 monoclonal antibody was obtained, named as 33-2 A. The results of IFA showed that PSV could be recognized by 33-2 A MAb, and specific green fluorescence appeared in the cytoplasm;The results of WB and IP showed that PSV infected porcine cell could specifically bind to 33-2 A, and there was a specific band at 32 ku. We also identified the B-cell antigen epitope of 33-2 A, it was at amino acids 40-46 of PSV VP1 protein, and the polypeptide sequence was 40PALTAAE46. The results showed that the monoclonal antibody can react with PSV VP1 protein. The epitope was analyzed with the PSV sequences uploaded in NCBI, 33-2 A antibody can react with most PSV strains and has a certain universal to PSV. This study laid a foundation for the study of the etiology and pathogenesis of PSV.

11.
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences ; 10(44):3810-3814, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964684

ABSTRACT

The objective of this case report is to highlight the impending secondary fungal infection outbreak in COVID-19 and the need to contain this emerging spread of fungal infections. Three case reports are presented, all from India. Altered immunity is an important risk factor for mucormycosis. In addition, diabetes has been noted to be critical for the development of mucormycosis in immunocompetent patients. Candidiasis is an infection caused by the Candida species due to the immunosuppressed state developed by the use of glucocorticoids, which results in secondary fungal infection requiring urgent medical attention.

12.
Animal Husbandry and Feed Science ; 43(4):109-115, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964619

ABSTRACT

Objective: To gather information on the research status and the hot spots of zoonosis and zoonotic microorganisms worldwide, and to provide references for the prevention and control of zoonotic diseases in China. Method: COOC 12.6 and Citespace 5.8 R1 software were used to carry out frequency statistics, co-occurrence analysis, cluster analysis, timeline analysis and burst analysis on the keywords associated with zoonosis and zoonotic microorganisms in PubMed database. Result: According to the keywords frequency statistics and co-occurrence analysis results from the year of 2001 to 2021 in pubMed database, the zoonosis and zoonotic microorganisms arousing high international attentions were classified into the following three categories: the first category was commonly observed zoonotic microorganisms such as Brucella, hepatitis E virus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella, to which continuous public attentions were still needed to be paid;the second category was the zoonotic microorganisms worldwide concerned in recent years such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza A virus, which were worthy of more in-depth research to control the spread of these diseases as soon as possible;the third category was the zoonosis that had massively prevailed in specific regions abroad such as Q fever and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), and these diseases were expected to be noticed in terms of imported risks to avoid their outbreaks in China. In addition to the above mentioned zoonosis and zoonotic microorganisms, some keywords associated with detection and diagnosis such as phylogeny and PCR were also of high interests. The cluster analysis generated a total of 10 clusters, in which the tick-borne infectious disease cluster suggested the role of ticks in the transmission of zoonotic diseases;the results of timeline and burst analysis demonstrated that among the zoonotic microorganisms, the attentions being paid to influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2 were gradually increasing. At the same time, the detection technology of zoonotic microorganisms was evolving from specific sequence detection to whole genome sequencing. These fields were likely to be the research direction and trend in the future.

13.
Animal Husbandry and Feed Science ; 43(4):14-18, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964618

ABSTRACT

[Objective] To identify the B-cell epitope peptide of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) S2 gene by combinative use of bioinformatics software and monoclonal antibody technology. [Method] The B-cell epitope of PEDV S2 gene was screened using CLC Sequence viewer 6.8 software and IEDB online database, and the obtained epitope peptide was synthesized artificially. Female BALB/c mice were immunized with the conjugate of epitope peptide and keyhole hemocyanin (KLH) as antigen. Mice with higher antibody titers were identified by ELISA assay and then received an additional immunization. The spleen of the mice was taken 3 days post immunization to prepare the splenocyte suspension for cell fusion. The cells were grown on HAT selective medium to screen for effective hybridoma cells. The positive clones screened by ELISA assay were then used for expanding culture. Positive hybridoma cells were intraperitoneally injected to mice and ascites were collected. ELISA assay was used to determine the antibody titers in mice ascites and in the supernatants of monoclonal cell strains. The cells with the highest antibody titers was used as cell strain for subsequent use. [Result] The selected B-cell epitope peptide sequence was MQYVYTPTYYML Following immunization with the peptide antigen, the serum antibody titer before cell fusion reached 1:2 000. The ELISA assay of ascites from BALB/c mice and the supernatants from monoclonal cell strain cultures demostrated that the antibody liter reached 1:4 000. [Conclusion] The B-ell epitope of PEDV S2 gene was identified, which may be helpful for the vector construction of a epitope based peptide vaccine against PEDV.

14.
Kawasaki Medical Journal ; 48(33-37):33-37, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1964599

ABSTRACT

Dialysis patients are compromised hosts;thus, they might become even more seriously ill in the case of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). A man in his 50s under maintenance dialysis was accidentally a close contact of someone with SARS-COV-2 infection. Therefore, he received the PCR test for SARS-COV-2 three days a week at the time of his visit to our hospital for his hemodialysis session. He was admitted the day after the result of the PCR test was positive. This patient belongs to a high-risk group with severe illnesses, including the fact that he had not been vaccinated against SARS-COV-2. He received antibody cocktail therapy (casirivimab/imdevimab) on the day he was hospitalized. As a result, he escaped aggravation of COVID-19. This case suggests the important of early diagnosis and early treatment with this cocktail therapy for prevention of aggravation of COVID19 in high-risk hemodialysis patients.

15.
International Journal of Biological Sciences ; 18(13):4901-4913, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1964519

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2019, the coronavirus pandemic emerged, resulting in the highest mortality and morbidity rate globally. It has a prevailing transmission rate and continues to be a global burden. There is a paucity of data regarding the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in COVID-19. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate lncRNAs, particularly NEAT1 and TUG1, and their association with IL-6, CCL2, and TNF-α in COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe disease. Methods: The study was conducted on 80 COVID-19 patients (35 with severe and 45 with moderate infection) and 40 control subjects. Complete blood count (CBC), D-dimer assay, serum ferritin, and CRP were assayed. qRT-PCR was used to measure RNAs and lncRNAs. Results: NEAT1 and TUG1 expression levels were higher in COVID-19 patients compared with controls (P< 0.001). Furthermore, CCL2, IL-6, and TNF-α expressions were higher in COVID-19 patients compared to controls (P< 0.001). CCL2 and IL-6 expression levels were significantly higher in patients with severe compared to those with moderate COVID-19 infection (P< 0.001). IL-6 had the highest accuracy in distinguishing COVID-19 patients (AUC=1, P< 0.001 at a cutoff of 0.359), followed by TUG1 (AUC=0.999, P< 0.001 at a cutoff of 2.28). NEAT1 and TUG1 had significant correlations with the measured cytokines, and based on the multivariate regression analysis, NEAT1 is the independent predictor for survival in COVID-19 patients (P=0.02). Conclusion: In COVID-19 patients, significant overexpression of NEAT1 and TUG1 was observed, consistent with cytokine storm. TUG1 could be an efficient diagnostic biomarker, whereas NEAT1 was an independent predictor for overall survival.

16.
Zdravniski Vestnik ; 91(5/6):237-241, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964493

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an unpredictable disease that can lead to multiorgan dysfunctions. There is a high frequency of venous and arterial thrombosis, among other symptoms. Spontaneous bleeding in COVID-19 patients has also been described, but rarely, whether or not they are on anticoagulant therapy. We report a case of a 65-year-old female COVID-19 patient treated in our hospital. During the hospitalisation, she experienced sudden, severe pain in the lower part of the abdomen and had signs of hemorrhagic shock. CT of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a spontaneous giant haematoma of the anterior abdominal wall. A surgical procedure was done. We identified spontaneous bleeding in the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. The patient recovered well. Rapid diagnosis and timely intervention are crucial to ensure a good patient outcome.

17.
Zdravniski Vestnik ; 91(5/6):255-261, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964492

ABSTRACT

Slovenia is one of the countries that have been most affected by the autumn/winter 2020/21 wave of the COVID-19 pandemic regarding the incidence and excess mortality among the general population as well as regarding the incidence among health care workers and nursing personnel. The World Health Organization has underestimated the importance of the airborne spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the recommended safety measures have not been entirely sufficient. When people breathe, talk, sing, cough, or sneeze, they emit respiratory droplets of various sizes, most of which are always smaller than 1 m. Respiratory droplets smaller than 5 m stay airborne in indoor spaces for a long time and travel over distances much longer than 2 m. Thus, an infected person in an indoor environment creates an infectious aerosol that may infect other people without close interpersonal contact. This short review presents the mathematical model and internet application by authors from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for calculating the safe time before probable airborne infection occurs in indoor spaces. The importance of ventilation, air filtration, air humidity, and air disinfection by ultraviolet light is briefly discussed. The principles of preventing the airborne spread of SARS-CoV-2 are summarized.

18.
Zdravniski Vestnik ; 91(5/6):205-214, 2022.
Article in Slovenian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964491

ABSTRACT

The new risks faced by healthcare workers in the COVID-19 pandemic have inspired the development of new forms of personal protective equipment (PPE). Such a novel PPE is an aerosol box modified and adapted to facilitate safer intubation of patients infected with SARS-CoV2. Hitherto, the idea of a protective aerosol box has found clinical application in anaesthesiology and many other fields of medicine and dentistry. However, numerous criticisms of the original design have led to the evolution of new forms that gradually improved the original shortcomings. The present modified design improves the safety and simplicity of use while reducing the operator's hindrance during interventions. Operator training is also extremely important for the correct and safe use of the aerosol box in clinical practice. Aerosol box does significantly affect the speed of intubation therefore it is not recommended in urgent cases. Many authors have been able to prove that the use of the original box, as well as its later modifications, adequately protects healthcare workers from large and small water droplets. However, the use of the original form increases the risk of infection with aerosol particles.

19.
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy ; 16(2):235-252, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1964362

ABSTRACT

The fourth booster vaccination was approved in Israel during Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant surge due to increasing SARS-CoV2 breakthrough infections among recently vacci-nated, reasons for this resurgence is not clear. In this Observational study, we analyzed verified SARS-CoV2 infections among over 60 years of age based on vaccination schedule (December 20, 2020-January 29, 2022);infec-tions, severe illness and deaths based on vac-cine immunity (between August 1, 2021-Janu-ary 29, 2022) using Israel COVID-19 dashboard data. There were a total of 214,394 SARS-CoV2 infections (December 20, 2020-Janaury 29, 2022;based vaccination schedule), 165,899 infections;6,267 severe illnesses and 2,031 deaths (August 1, 2021-Janaury 29, 2022) an-alyzed based vaccine immunity among over 60 years old. Vaccination with two doses, main-tained vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 93.2% (95% CI 90-95.5%) for 16 weeks until May 8, 2021 with 14.2% breakthrough infections. When there were no public health restrictions (June-July 2021) partially vaccinated has significantly lower infection rates (X2 [2, N=721]=190.79,p<0.001) with VE of 80.4% (95% CI 69.1-98.3%), while in-fection rates among vaccinated with two doses and unvaccinated are not statistically significant and decline of VE to 6.4% (95% CI -9.9-19.3%) among vaccinated with two doses. After rein-statement of restrictions since July 29, 2021, the VE of vaccinated with two doses improved to 68.0% (95% CI 56.7-76.7%), the third booster showed significantly higher breakthrough infec-tions (26.4%) and a shorter period of 12 weeks effectiveness until October 23, 2021 and by No-vember 20, 2021 the infections rates of vacci-nated with third booster are not statistically bet-ter than partially vaccinated (X2 [1, N=54]=1,85, p=0.17). During the Omicron variant surge, the VE of third booster declined to 42.7% (95% CI 39.9-45.3%) and the infection rates were sig-nificantly higher than vaccinated with two doses (X2[1,N=5898]=8.50, p=0.003) as of January 15, 2022 and subsequently showed improvement in VE to 51.7% (95% CI 50.2-53.2%) and signifi-cantly lower infection rates than vaccinated with two doses (X2[1,N=12380]=98.28, p=<0.001) by January 29, 2022. The vaccinated without valid-ity group (partially vaccinated;past 1-2 doses with expired Green Passes) showed significant-ly lower infection rates (X2 [1, N=15727]=295.3, p<0.001) during December 5,2021-January 29, 2022 period compared to vaccinated with validity (95% of them received third booster dose, and have Green Pass access) group that showed significantly increased infection rates and substantially increased percentages of se-vere illness and deaths.

20.
Journal of Applied Biological Sciences ; 16(1):89-101, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1964344

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 outbreak is still threatening the public health. Therefore, in the middle of the pandemic, all kind of knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 may help us to find the solution. Determining the 3D structures of the proteins involved in host-pathogen interactions are of great importance in the fight against infection. Besides, post-translational modifications of the protein on 3D structure should be revealed in order to understand the protein function since these modifications are responsible for the host-pathogen interaction. Based on these, we predicted O-glycosylation and phosphorylation positions using full amino acid sequence of S1 protein. Candidate positions were further analyzed with enzyme binding activity, solvent accessibility, surface area parameters and the positions determined with high accuracy rate were used to design 3D O-glycoprotein structure of the S1 protein using carbohydrate force field. In addition, the interaction between the C-type lectin CD209L and a-mannose residues was examined and carbohydrate recognition positions were predicted. We suggest these positions as a potential target for the inhibition of the initial binding of SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein to the host cell.

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