Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 157
Filter
1.
Virol J ; 19(1):217, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2162390

ABSTRACT

The application of single-cell RNA sequencing in COVID-19 research has greatly improved our understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis and immunological characteristics. In this commentary, we discuss the current challenges, limitations, and perspectives in harnessing the power of single-cell RNA sequencing to accelerate both basic research and therapeutic development for COVID-19 and other emerging infectious diseases.

2.
Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2158885

ABSTRACT

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) has become a routinely used technique to quantify the gene expression profile of thousands of single cells simultaneously. Analysis of scRNA-seq data plays an important role in the study of cell states and phenotypes, and has helped elucidate biological processes, such as those occurring during development of complex organisms, and improved our understanding of disease states, such as cancer, diabetes, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), among others. Deep learning, a recent advance of artificial intelligence that has been used to address many problems involving large datasets, has also emerged as a promising tool for scRNA-seq data analysis, as it has a capacity to extract informative and compact features from noisy, heterogeneous, and high-dimensional scRNA-seq data to improve downstream analysis. The present review aims at surveying recently developed deep learning techniques in scRNA-seq data analysis, identifying key steps within the scRNA-seq data analysis pipeline that have been advanced by deep learning, and explaining the benefits of deep learning over more conventional analytic tools. Finally, we summarize the challenges in current deep learning approaches faced within scRNA-seq data and discuss potential directions for improvements in deep learning algorithms for scRNA-seq data analysis.

3.
Semin Immunopathol ; 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128600

ABSTRACT

The twenty-first century has seen the emergence of many epidemic and pandemic viruses, with the most recent being the SARS-CoV-2-driven COVID-19 pandemic. As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses rely on host cells to replicate and produce progeny, resulting in complex virus and host dynamics during an infection. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), by enabling broad and simultaneous profiling of both host and virus transcripts, represents a powerful technology to unravel the delicate balance between host and virus. In this review, we summarize technological and methodological advances in scRNA-seq and their applications to antiviral immunity. We highlight key scRNA-seq applications that have enabled the understanding of viral genomic and host response heterogeneity, differential responses of infected versus bystander cells, and intercellular communication networks. We expect further development of scRNA-seq technologies and analytical methods, combined with measurements of additional multi-omic modalities and increased availability of publicly accessible scRNA-seq datasets, to enable a better understanding of viral pathogenesis and enhance the development of antiviral therapeutics strategies.

4.
Glycobiology ; 32(11):968-969, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2135202

ABSTRACT

Most of the biologics are glycoproteins. It is well-established that N-glycans harboured by proteins are involved in the protein half-life, bioactivity and immunogenicity. Currently, most of the biologics are produced in mammalian cells. However, microalgae emerged as a cheaper alternative biofactory. Among them, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum benefits from numerous advantages and has been successfully used to produce biologics such as SARS-COV2 RBD and functional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). These mAbs have been demonstrated to be glycosylated with oligomannosides that are similar to the mammalian ones and that result from processing steps occurring in the ER and the early Golgi apparatus. Surprisingly, these oligomannosides represent the major N-glycans population even if the diatom possesses glycoenzymes potentially involved in the biosynthesis of complex-type N-glycans in the Golgi apparatus. Therefore, it is essential to characterize the regulation of the P. tricornutum protein N-glycosylation pathway as well as the expression level of genes involved in the N-glycosylation of proteins. In the present work, we performed RNA-Seq analyses on different ecotypes of P. tricornutum and decode the differential expression of genes involved in the protein N-glycosylation pathway.

6.
Cell Reports Medicine ; : 100848, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2119960

ABSTRACT

Summary: Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a delayed-onset, COVID-19-related hyperinflammatory illness characterized by SARS-CoV-2 antigenemia, cytokine storm, and immune dysregulation. In severe COVID-19, neutrophil activation is central to hyperinflammatory complications, yet the role of neutrophils in MIS-C is undefined. Here, we collect blood from 152 children: 31 cases of MIS-C, 43 cases of acute pediatric COVID-19, and 78 pediatric controls. We find that MIS-C neutrophils display a granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell (G-MDSC) signature with highly altered metabolism, distinct from the neutrophil interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) response we observe in pediatric COVID-19. Moreover, we observe extensive spontaneous neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation in MIS-C, and we identify neutrophil activation and degranulation signatures. Mechanistically, we determine that SARS-CoV-2 immune complexes are sufficient to trigger NETosis. Our findings suggest hyperinflammatory presentation during MIS-C could be mechanistically linked to persistent SARS-CoV-2 antigenemia, driven by uncontrolled neutrophil activation and NET release in the vasculature.

7.
Zool Res ; 43(6): 1041-1062, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111387

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes diverse clinical manifestations and tissue injuries in multiple organs. However, cellular and molecular understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection-associated pathology and immune defense features in different organs remains incomplete. Here, we profiled approximately 77 000 single-nucleus transcriptomes of the lung, liver, kidney, and cerebral cortex in rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta) infected with SARS-CoV-2 and healthy controls. Integrated analysis of the multi-organ dataset suggested that the liver harbored the strongest global transcriptional alterations. We observed prominent impairment in lung epithelial cells, especially in AT2 and ciliated cells, and evident signs of fibrosis in fibroblasts. These lung injury characteristics are similar to those reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, we found suppressed MHC class I/II molecular activity in the lung, inflammatory response in the liver, and activation of the kynurenine pathway, which induced the development of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Analysis of the kidney dataset highlighted tropism of tubule cells to SARS-CoV-2, and we found membranous nephropathy (an autoimmune disease) caused by podocyte dysregulation. In addition, we identified the pathological states of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the cerebral cortex, providing molecular insights into COVID-19-related neurological implications. Overall, our multi-organ single-nucleus transcriptomic survey of SARS-CoV-2-infected rhesus macaques broadens our understanding of disease features and antiviral immune defects caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, which may facilitate the development of therapeutic interventions for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/veterinary , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome , Viral Load/veterinary
8.
Ups J Med Sci ; 1272022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2121083

ABSTRACT

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) marks the birth of a new era in physiology and medicine. Within foreseeable future, we will know exactly what genes are expressed - and at what levels - in all the different cell types and subtypes that make up our bodies. We will also learn how a particular cell state, whether it occurs during development, tissue repair, or disease, reflects precise changes in gene expression. While profoundly impacting all areas of life science, scRNAseq may lead to a particular leap in vascular biology research. Blood vessels pervade and fulfill essential functions in all organs, but the functions differ. Innumerable organ-specific vascular adaptations and specializations are required. These, in turn, are dictated by differential gene expression by the two principal cellular building blocks of blood vessels: endothelial cells and mural cells. An organotypic vasculature is essential for functions as diverse as thinking, gas exchange, urine excretion, and xenobiotic detoxification in the brain, lung, kidney, and liver, respectively. In addition to the organotypicity, vascular cells also differ along the vascular arterio-venous axis, referred to as zonation, differences that are essential for the regulation of blood pressure and flow. Moreover, gene expression-based molecular changes dictate states of cellular activity, necessary for angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and immune cell trafficking, i.e. functions necessary for development, inflammation, and repair. These different levels of cellular heterogeneity create a nearly infinite phenotypic diversity among vascular cells. In this review, I summarize and exemplify what scRNAseq has brought to the picture in just a few years and point out where it will take us.


Subject(s)
Endothelial Cells , Neovascularization, Pathologic , Humans , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Neovascularization, Pathologic/genetics , Neovascularization, Pathologic/metabolism , Brain , Liver , Sequence Analysis, RNA
9.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 901848, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109795

ABSTRACT

Due to fast transmission and various circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, a significant increase of coronavirus 2019 infection cases with acute respiratory symptoms has prompted worries about the efficiency of current vaccines. The possible evasion from vaccine immunity urged scientists to identify novel therapeutic targets for developing improved vaccines to manage worldwide COVID-19 infections. Our study sequenced pooled peripheral blood mononuclear cells transcriptomes of SARS-CoV-2 patients with moderate and critical clinical outcomes to identify novel potential host receptors and biomarkers that can assist in developing new translational nanomedicines and vaccine therapies. The dysregulated signatures were associated with humoral immune responses in moderate and critical patients, including B-cell activation, cell cycle perturbations, plasmablast antibody processing, adaptive immune responses, cytokinesis, and interleukin signaling pathway. The comparative and longitudinal analysis of moderate and critically infected groups elucidated diversity in regulatory pathways and biological processes. Several immunoglobin genes (IGLV9-49, IGHV7-4, IGHV3-64, IGHV1-24, IGKV1D-12, and IGKV2-29), ribosomal proteins (RPL29, RPL4P2, RPL5, and RPL14), inflammatory response related cytokines including Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF, TNFRSF17, and TNFRSF13B), C-C motif chemokine ligands (CCL3, CCL25, CCL4L2, CCL22, and CCL4), C-X-C motif chemokine ligands (CXCL2, CXCL10, and CXCL11) and genes related to cell cycle process and DNA proliferation (MYBL2, CDC20, KIFC1, and UHCL1) were significantly upregulated among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. 60S Ribosomal protein L29 (RPL29) was a highly expressed gene among all COVID-19 infected groups. Our study suggested that identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) based on disease severity and onset can be a powerful approach for identifying potential therapeutic targets to develop effective drug delivery systems against SARS-CoV-2 infections. As a result, potential therapeutic targets, such as the RPL29 protein, can be tested in vivo and in vitro to develop future mRNA-based translational nanomedicines and therapies to combat SARS-CoV-2 infections.

10.
Comput Biol Med ; 151(Pt A): 106298, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104650

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Recently, it has been reported that cepharanthine (CEP) is highly likely to be an agent against Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In the present study, a network pharmacology-based approach combined with RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), molecular docking, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to determine hub targets and potential pharmacological mechanism of CEP against COVID-19. METHODS: Targets of CEP were retrieved from public databases. COVID-19-related targets were acquired from databases and RNA-seq datasets GSE157103 and GSE155249. The potential targets of CEP and COVID-19 were then validated by GSE158050. Hub targets and signaling pathways were acquired through bioinformatics analysis, including protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis and enrichment analysis. Subsequently, molecular docking was carried out to predict the combination of CEP with hub targets. Lastly, MD simulation was conducted to further verify the findings. RESULTS: A total of 700 proteins were identified as CEP-COVID-19-related targets. After the validation by GSE158050, 97 validated targets were retained. Enrichment results indicated that CEP acts on COVID-19 through multiple pathways, multiple targets, and overall cooperation. Specifically, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway is the most important pathway. Based on PPI network analysis, 9 central hub genes were obtained (ACE2, STAT1, SRC, PIK3R1, HIF1A, ESR1, ERBB2, CDC42, and BCL2L1). Molecular docking suggested that the combination between CEP and 9 central hub genes is extremely strong. Noteworthy, ACE2, considered the most important gene in CEP against COVID-19, binds to CEP most stably, which was further validated by MD simulation. CONCLUSION: Our study comprehensively illustrated the potential targets and underlying molecular mechanism of CEP against COVID-19, which further provided the theoretical basis for exploring the potential protective mechanism of CEP against COVID-19.

11.
Brief Funct Genomics ; 21(6): 423-432, 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087742

ABSTRACT

The elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines have attracted much attention during the treatment of COVID-19 patients. The conclusions of current observational studies are often controversial in terms of the causal effects of COVID-19 on various cytokines because of the confounding factors involving underlying diseases. To resolve this problem, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis by integrating the GWAS data of COVID-19 and 41 cytokines. As a result, the levels of 2 cytokines were identified to be promoted by COVID-19 and had unsignificant pleiotropy. In comparison, the levels of 10 cytokines were found to be inhibited and had unsignificant pleiotropy. Among down-regulated cytokines, CCL2, CCL3 and CCL7 were members of CC chemokine family. We then explored the potential molecular mechanism for a significant causal association at a single cell resolution based on single-cell RNA data, and discovered the suppression of CCL3 and the inhibition of CCL3-CCR1 interaction in classical monocytes (CMs) of COVID-19 patients. Our findings may indicate that the capability of COVID-19 in decreasing the chemotaxis of lymphocytes by inhibiting the CCL3-CCR1 interaction in CMs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines , Humans , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , COVID-19/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Genome-Wide Association Study , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
12.
Gigascience ; 112022 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have disclosed the genome, transcriptome, and epigenetic compositions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the effect of viral infection on gene expression of the host cells. It has been demonstrated that, besides the major canonical transcripts, the viral genome also codes for noncanonical RNA molecules. While the structural characterizations have revealed a detailed transcriptomic architecture of the virus, the kinetic studies provided poor and often misleading results on the dynamics of both the viral and host transcripts due to the low temporal resolution of the infection event and the low virus/cell ratio (multiplicity of infection [MOI] = 0.1) applied for the infection. It has never been tested whether the alteration in the host gene expressions is caused by aging of the cells or by the viral infection. FINDINGS: In this study, we used Oxford Nanopore's direct cDNA and direct RNA sequencing methods for the generation of a high-coverage, high temporal resolution transcriptomic dataset of SARS-CoV-2 and of the primate host cells, using a high infection titer (MOI = 5). Sixteen sampling time points ranging from 1 to 96 hours with a varying time resolution and 3 biological replicates were used in the experiment. In addition, for each infected sample, corresponding noninfected samples were employed. The raw reads were mapped to the viral and to the host reference genomes, resulting in 49,661,499 mapped reads (54,62 Gbs). The genome of the viral isolate was also sequenced and phylogenetically classified. CONCLUSIONS: This dataset can serve as a valuable resource for profiling the SARS-CoV-2 transcriptome dynamics, the virus-host interactions, and the RNA base modifications. Comparison of expression profiles of the host gene in the virally infected and in noninfected cells at different time points allows making a distinction between the effect of the aging of cells in culture and the viral infection. These data can provide useful information for potential novel gene annotations and can also be used for studying the currently available bioinformatics pipelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanopore Sequencing , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Kinetics , RNA , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 920865, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071086

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the differences between the vector vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) and mRNA-based vaccine mRNA-1273 (Moderna) in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AIRD), and to explore the cell-cell interactions between high and low anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels in patients with rheumatic arthritis (RA) using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Methods: From September 16 to December 10, 2021, we consecutively enrolled 445 participants (389 patients with AIRD and 56 healthy controls), of whom 236 were immunized with AZD1222 and 209 with mRNA-1273. The serum IgG antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain was quantified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay at 4-6 weeks after vaccination. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from RA patients at 4-6 weeks after vaccination for scRNA-seq and further analyzed by CellChat. ScRNA-seq of PBMCs samples from GSE201534 in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database were also extracted for analysis. Results: The anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity rate was 85.34% for AIRD patients and 98.20% for healthy controls. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG level was higher in patients receiving mRNA-1273 than those receiving AZD1222 (ß: 35.25, 95% CI: 14.81-55.68, p=0.001). Prednisolone-equivalent dose >5 mg/day and methotrexate use in AIRD patients, and non-anti-tumor necrosis factor-α biologics and Janus kinase inhibitor use in RA patients were associated with inferior immunogenicity. ScRNA-seq revealed CD16-monocytes were predominant in RA patients with high anti-SARS-CoV2-IgG antibodies, and enriched pathways related to antigen presentation via MHC class II were found. HLA-DRA and CD4 interaction was enhanced in high anti-SARS-CoV2-IgG group. Conclusions: mRNA-1273 and AZD1222 vaccines exhibited differential immunogenicity in AIRD patients. Enriched pathways related to antigen presentation via MHC class II in CD16-monocytes might be associated with higher anti-SARS-CoV2-IgG level in RA patients and further study is warranted.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA , mRNA Vaccines
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 967356, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065510

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like cognitive impairment, a kind of Neuro-COVID syndrome, is a reported complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the specific mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we integrated single-nucleus RNA-sequencing data to explore the potential shared genes and pathways that may lead to cognitive dysfunction in AD and COVID-19. We also constructed ingenuity AD-high-risk scores based on AD-high-risk genes from transcriptomic, proteomic, and Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) data to identify disease-associated cell subtypes and potential targets in COVID-19 patients. We demonstrated that the primary disturbed cell populations were astrocytes and neurons between the above two dis-eases that exhibit cognitive impairment. We identified significant relationships between COVID-19 and AD involving synaptic dysfunction, neuronal damage, and neuroinflammation. Our findings may provide new insight for future studies to identify novel targets for preventive and therapeutic interventions in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Cognitive Dysfunction/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Proteomics , RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA
15.
Acta Cardiologica ; 77:17, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062409

ABSTRACT

Background/Introduction: Recovered COVID-19 patients often display cardiac dysfunction, even after a relatively mild infection. Purpose: We present an in-depth physiological and histological timeline of the cardiac consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection using a hamster model. Methods: We used several methods, including transthoracic echocardiography, RNA sequencing on in vitro cultures, and in-situ hybridization techniques, complemented with histological analysis. Results: We analysed cardiac function by echocardiography over a period of 35 dpi. Already by 14 dpi and continuing at 35 dpi, infected hamsters presented with an increased E/E', decreased MV deceleration time, and an increased isovolumetric contraction time as compared to control, indicating the presence of diastolic dysfunction. Histologically, cardiomyocytes were enlarged already by 4 dpi and remained enlarged over 5 weeks. We observed the presence of fibrin-rich microthrombi at 4 dpi, which were resolved by 14 dpi. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was present in cardiac pericytes, accompanied by reduced pericyte coverage of capillaries at 4 dpi and 14 dpi, which mostly recovered by 35 dpi. At 14 dpi, the reduced pericyte coverage coincided with increased vascular permeability, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infection of pericytes affects microvascular integrity. SARS-CoV-2 infection of pericytes in vitro induced the expression of genes involved in viral defence, and affected genes involved in pericyte contractility and extracellular matrix proteins. Loss of cardiac pericytes was observed in cardiac biopsies from patients recovered from SARSCoV- 2 infection. Conclusion(s): Overall, our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a phenotype similar to ischemia-reperfusion, without overt ischemia. We propose that partial occlusion by microthrombi and microvascular dilation caused by pericyte loss induces regional variations in blood flow, and results in a stiffer ;swollen' heart that shows diastolic dysfunction.

16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 150(4): 739-747, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061405

ABSTRACT

Mast cells (MCs) are widely recognized as central effector cells during type 2 inflammatory reactions and thought to also play a role in innate immune responses, wound healing, and potentially cancer. Circulating progenitor cells mature to MCs in peripheral tissues, where they exhibit phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. This diversity likely originates from differences in MC development imprinted by microenvironmental signals. The advent of single-cell transcriptomics reveals MC diversity beyond differences in proteases that were classically used to identify MC phenotypes. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on MC progenitor differentiation and characteristics, and MC heterogeneity seen in health versus disease, that are drastically advanced through single-cell profiling technologies. This powerful approach can provide detailed cellular maps of tissues to decipher the complex cellular functions and interactions that may lead to identifying candidate factors to target in therapies.


Subject(s)
Hypersensitivity , Transcriptome , Cell Differentiation , Humans , Hypersensitivity/metabolism , Mast Cells/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Stem Cells
17.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):1670-A0500, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058478

ABSTRACT

Purpose : Diabetes predisposes an individual to severe COVID-19. Diabetic cornea is also known to have impaired wound healing, increasing the chances of infection. Earlier, we reported the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect conjunctival cells, and the presence of viral RNA and proteins was also detected in the corneas of COVID-19 donors. In this study, we evaluated the effect of diabetes on corneal innate immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection and sought to determine the underlying mechanisms. Methods : Human primary corneolimbal epithelial cells (HCECs) were isolated from the corneas of three diabetic and three non-diabetic donors. In vitro studies were performed by infecting HCECs with SARS-CoV-2-USA-WA1/2020 strain at MOI 0.5. Viral replication was assessed by viral genome copy number. RNAseq analysis was performed to determine genes/pathways altered by diabetic vs non-diabetic HCECs. qPCR was used to assess the expression of innate inflammatory and antiviral genes. Western blot was performed to detect the protein expression of antiviral signaling molecules. Results : The primary HCECs were found permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection, as evidenced by increased viral replication which peaked at day 3 p.i. along with an induction of pSTAT1. Interestingly, HCECs from diabetic cornea had higher viral RNA on all three days post-infection. SARS-CoV-2 infected HCECs exhibited induced expression of inflammatory genes and their levels were relatively higher in diabetic cells. RNA-seq analysis revealed significant differences in diabetic vs. non-diabetic SARS-CoV-2 infected cells with alteration in genes regulating viral response, inflammation, and injury. The most affected down-regulated genes are related to lipid metabolism, ferroptosis, and oxidative stress. Conclusions : Our study demonstrates increased SARS-CoV-2 replication and differential innate antiviral and inflammatory response in HCECs from diabetic corneas. These results indicate that diabetes is a potential risk for enhanced infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 for the ocular surface.

18.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(11): e24672, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047648

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic COVID-19 has caused a high mortality rate and poses a significant threat to the population of the entire world. Due to the novelty of this disease, the pathogenic mechanism of the disease and the host cell's response are not yet fully known, so lack of evidence prevents a definitive conclusion about treatment strategies. The current study employed a small RNA deep-sequencing approach for screening differentially expressed microRNA (miRNA) in blood and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) samples of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. METHODS: In this study, BALF and blood samples were taken from patients with ARDS (n = 5). Control samples were those with suspected lung cancer candidates for lung biopsy (n = 3). Illumina high-throughput (HiSeq 2000) sequencing was performed to identify known and novel miRNAs differentially expressed in the blood and BALFs of ARDS patients compared with controls. RESULTS: Results showed 2234 and 8324 miRNAs were differentially expressed in blood and BALF samples, respectively. In BALF samples, miR-282, miR-15-5p, miR-4485-3p, miR-483-3p, miR-6891-5p, miR-200c, miR-4463, miR-483-5p, and miR-98-5p were upregulated and miR-15a-5p, miR-548c-5p, miR-548d-3p, miR-365a-3p, miR-3939, miR-514-b-5p, miR-513a-3p, miR-513a-5p, miR-664a-3p, and miR-766-3p were downregulated. On the contrary, in blood samples miR-15b-5p, miR-18a-3p, miR-486-3p, miR-486-5p, miR-146a-5p, miR-16-2-3p, miR-6501-5p, miR-365-3p, miR-618, and miR-623 were top upregulated miRNAs and miR-21-5p, miR-142a-3p, miR-181-a, miR-31-5p, miR-99-5p, miR-342-5p, miR-183-5p, miR-627-5p, and miR-144-3p were downregulated miRNAs. Network functional analysis for Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), in ARDS patients' blood and BALF samples, showed that the target genes were more involved in activating inflammatory and apoptosis process. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, the transcriptome profile of ARDS patients would be a valuable source for understanding molecular mechanisms of host response and developing clinical guidance on anti-inflammatory medication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling
19.
Frontiers in Genetics ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043440

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has currently developed into a worldwide threat to humankind. Importantly, patients with severe COVID-19 are believed to have a higher mortality risk than those with mild conditions. However, despite the urgent need to develop novel therapeutic strategies, the biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of severe COVID-19 are poorly understood. Methods: Here, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from four patients with severe COVID-19, four patients with mild COVID-19, and four healthy controls were examined by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). We conducted gene expression analysis and Venn diagrams to detect specific differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in patients with severe disease compared with those with mild conditions. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was performed to identify the significant biological processes, and protein–protein interaction networks were constructed to extract hub genes. These hub genes were then subjected to regulatory signatures and protein–chemical interaction analysis for certain regulatory checkpoints and identification of potent chemical agents. Finally, to demonstrate the cell type-specific expression of these genes, we performed single-cell RNA-Seq analyses using an online platform. Results: A total of 144 DEGs were specifically expressed in severe COVID-19, and GO enrichment analysis revealed a significant association of these specific DEGs with autophagy. Hub genes such as MVB12A, CHMP6, STAM, and VPS37B were then found to be most significantly involved in the biological processes of autophagy at the transcriptome level. In addition, six transcription factors, including SRF, YY1, CREB1, PPARG, NFIC, and GATA2, as well as miRNAs, namely, hsa-mir-1-3p, and potent chemical agents such as copper sulfate and cobalt chloride, may cooperate in regulating the autophagy hub genes. Furthermore, classical monocytes may play a central role in severe COVID-19. Conclusion: We suggest that autophagy plays a crucial role in severe COVID-19. This study might facilitate a more profound knowledge of the biological characteristics and progression of COVID-19 and the development of novel therapeutic approaches to achieve a breakthrough in the current COVID-19 pandemic.

20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 995886, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043453

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD), a multisystem inflammatory syndrome that occurs in children, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) may share some overlapping mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in single-cell RNA sequencing between KD and COVID-19. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing in KD patients (within 24 hours before IVIG treatment) and age-matched fever controls. The single-cell RNA sequencing data of COVID-19, influenza, and health controls were downloaded from the Sequence Read Archive (GSE149689/PRJNA629752). In total, 22 single-cell RNA sequencing data with 102,355 nuclei were enrolled in this study. After performing hierarchical and functional clustering analyses, two enriched gene clusters demonstrated similar patterns in severe COVID-19 and KD, heightened neutrophil activation, and decreased MHC class II expression. Furthermore, comparable dysregulation of neutrophilic granulopoiesis representing two pronounced hyperinflammatory states was demonstrated, which play a critical role in the overactivated and defective aging program of granulocytes, in patients with KD as well as those with severe COVID-19. In conclusion, both neutrophil activation and MHC class II reduction play a crucial role and thus may provide potential treatment targets for KD and severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Neutrophils , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL