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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(3): 1322-1333, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20242962

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Com a emergência do SARS-CoV-2 foi disponibilizado uma grande quantidade de ferramentas de diagnóstico. Neste contexto, a falta de vacina, de tratamento e o grande número de casos graves e morte, possibilitou a aprovação emergencial de diversos testes, que ainda necessitam de estudos populacionais para seu registro definitivo. Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão de literatura para avaliar as metodologias de diagnóstico disponíveis no Brasil, de acordo com a realidade local de saúde, explorando o momento epidemiológico a complexidade do teste e a finalidade da sua aplicação. Metodologia: Trata-se de um estudo bibliográfico, descritivo do tipo revisão de literatura. Foram utilizadas as seguintes bases de dados científicos para buscas: PUBMED, MEDLINE, LILACS E COCHRANE LIBRARY, através de descritores selecionados na plataforma DECS. Resultados: O cenário de diversos ensaios, baseados em diferentes metodologias, como os testes baseados em RNA viral, em detecção de antígenos virais ou de anticorpos, associados ao conhecimento da história natural do vírus, possibilita uma análise crítica do melhor diagnóstico de acordo com a clínica do paciente, os epidemiológicos, o objetivo do diagnóstico e a acurácia do ensaio. Atualmente, há mudança no padrão imunológico da população e a descrição de tipos e subtipos de SARS-CoV-2 com mudanças gênicas, que podem levar a mudanças na acurácia diagnóstica ou a re-emergência em surtos de doença grave. Conclusão: Ainda é incerto o caminho evolutivo da história natural da Covid-19 e os ensaios diagnósticos estão em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento, validação e produção e cada tipo de teste tem suas próprias vantagens e desvantagens distintas inerentes a plataforma tecnológica de origem e uma combinação de tipos de testes usados em momentos diferentes pode ser útil para a condução clínica dos pacientes e no controle da pandemia por SARS-CoV-2.


Introduction: With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, a large number of diagnostic tools were made available. In this context, the lack of vaccine, treatment and the large number of severe cases and death, allowed the emergency approval of several tests, which still require population studies for their definitive registration. Objective: To carry out a literature review to evaluate the diagnostic methodologies available in Brazil, according to the local health reality, exploring the epidemiological moment, the complexity of the test and the purpose of its application. Methodology: This is a bibliographic, descriptive study of the literature review type. The following scientific databases were used for searches: PUBMED, MEDLINE, LILACS AND COCHRANE LIBRARY, through selected descriptors on the DECS platform. Results: The scenario of several tests, based on different methodologies, such as tests based on viral RNA, on detection of viral antigens or antibodies, associated with knowledge of the natural history of the virus, allows a critical analysis of the best diagnosis according to the patient's clinical, epidemiological, diagnostic objective and assay accuracy. Currently, there is a change in the immune pattern of the population and the description of types and subtypes of SARS-CoV-2 with genetic changes, which can lead to changes in diagnostic accuracy or the re-emergence in outbreaks of severe disease. Conclusion: The evolutionary path of the natural history of Covid-19 is still uncertain and diagnostic assays are at different stages of development, validation and production and each type of test has its own distinct advantages and disadvantages inherent in the technology platform of origin and a combination of types of tests used at different times can be useful for the clinical management of patients and in the control of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Introducción: Con la aparición del SARS-CoV-2, se dispuso de un gran número de herramientas diagnósticas. En este contexto, la falta de vacuna, tratamiento y el gran número de casos graves y muerte, permitieron la aprobación de urgencia de varias pruebas, que aún requieren estudios poblacionales para su registro definitivo. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión bibliográfica para evaluar las metodologías diagnósticas disponibles en Brasil, de acuerdo con la realidad sanitaria local, explorando el momento epidemiológico, la complejidad de la prueba y la finalidad de su aplicación. Metodología: Se trata de un estudio bibliográfico, descriptivo, del tipo revisión de literatura. Para las búsquedas se utilizaron las siguientes bases de datos científicas PUBMED, MEDLINE, LILACS Y COCHRANE LIBRARY, a través de descriptores seleccionados en la plataforma DECS. Resultados: El escenario de varias pruebas, basadas en diferentes metodologías, como pruebas basadas en el ARN viral, en la detección de antígenos virales o anticuerpos, asociado al conocimiento de la historia natural del virus, permite un análisis crítico del mejor diagnóstico de acuerdo con la clínica del paciente, epidemiológica, objetivo diagnóstico y precisión de la prueba. Actualmente, hay un cambio en el patrón inmunológico de la población y la descripción de tipos y subtipos de SARS-CoV-2 con cambios genéticos, que pueden conducir a cambios en la precisión diagnóstica o la reaparición en brotes de enfermedad grave. Conclusiones: El camino evolutivo de la historia natural del Covid-19 es aún incierto y los ensayos de diagnóstico se encuentran en diferentes etapas de desarrollo, validación y producción y cada tipo de prueba tiene sus propias ventajas y desventajas distintas inherentes a la plataforma tecnológica de origen y una combinación de tipos de pruebas utilizadas en diferentes momentos puede ser útil para el manejo clínico de los pacientes y en el control de la pandemia de SARS- CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Systematic Reviews as Topic , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Health Services Research , Antibodies/analysis , Antigens/analysis
2.
Hum Fertil (Camb) ; : 1-6, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235921

ABSTRACT

Following the temporary closure of fertility clinics in 2020 in many countries across the world, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has meant that the sector has had to rapidly adapt to novel ways of operating. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of universal real-time polymerase chain reaction testing at an IVF clinic within a UK tertiary referral centre. Between March and December 2020, we performed 2,401 SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests on 1,215 individual patients, of which eight were positive (0.3%). Appropriate positive case identification allowed for delay in treatment initiation or cancellation as applicable. This has allowed our unit to continue to operate safely and efficiently.

3.
Medical Visualization ; 25(1):14-26, 2021.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245198

ABSTRACT

Research goal. Comparative characteristics of the dynamics of CT semiotics and biochemical parameters of two groups of patients: with positive RT-PCR and with triple negative RT-PCR. Reflection of the results by comparing them with the data already available in the literature. The aim of the study is to compare the dynamics of CT semiotics and biochemical parameters of blood tests in two groups of patients: with positive RT-PCR and with triple negative RT-PCR. We also reflect the results by comparing them with the data already available in the literature. Materials and methods. We have performed a retrospective analysis of CT images of 66 patients: group I (n1 = 33) consists of patients who had three- time negative RT-PCR (nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 RNA) during hospitalization, and group II (n2 = 33) includes patients with triple positive RT-PCR. An important selection criterion is the presence of three CT examinations (primary, 1st CT and two dynamic examinations - 2nd CT and 3rd CT) and at least two results of biochemistry (C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, prothrombin time, procalcitonin) performed in a single time interval of +/- 5 days from 1st CT, upon admission, and +/- 5 days from 3st CT. A total of 198 CT examinations of the lungs were analyzed (3 examinations per patient). Results. The average age of patients in the first group was 58 +/- 14.4 years, in the second - 64.9 +/- 15.7 years. The number of days from the moment of illness to the primary CT scan 6.21 +/- 3.74 in group I, 7.0 (5.0-8.0) in group II, until the 2nd CT scan - 12.5 +/- 4, 87 and 12.0 (10.0-15.0), before the 3rd CT scan - 22.0 (19.0-26.0) and 22.0 (16.0-26.0), respectively. In both groups, all 66 patients (100%), the primary study identified the double-sided ground-glass opacity symptom and 36 of 66 (55%) patients showed consolidation of the lung tissue. Later on, a first follow-up CT defined GGO not in all the cases: it was presented in 22 of 33 (67%) patients with negative RT-PCR (group I) and in 28 of 33 (85%) patients with the positive one (group II). The percentage of studies showing consolidation increased significantly: up to 30 of 33 (91%) patients in group I, and up to 32 of 33 (97%) patients in group II. For the first time, radiological symptoms of "involutional changes" appeared: in 17 (52%) patients of the first group and in 5 (15%) patients of the second one. On second follow-up CT, GGO and consolidations were detected less often than on previous CT: in 1 and 27 patients of group I (3% and 82%, respectively) and in 6 and 30 patients of group II (18% and 91%, respectively), although the consolidation symptom still prevailed significantly . The peak of "involutional changes" occurred on last CT: 31 (94%) and 25 (76%) patients of groups I and II, respectively.So, in the groups studied, the dynamics of changes in lung CT were almost equal. After analyzing the biochemistry parameters, we found out that CRP significantly decreased in 93% of patients (p < 0.001) in group I;in group II, there was a statistically significant decrease in the values of C-reactive protein in 81% of patients (p = 0.005). With an increase in CT severity of coronavirus infection by one degree, an increase in CRP by 41.8 mg/ml should be expected. In group I, a statistically significant (p = 0.001) decrease in fibrinogen was recorded in 77% of patients;and a similar dynamic of this indicator was observed in group II: fibrinogen values decreased in 66% of patients (p = 0.002). Such parameters as procalcitonin and prothrombin time did not significantly change during inpatient treatment of the patients of the studied groups (p = 0.879 and p = 0.135), which may indicate that it is inappropriate to use these parameters in assessing dynamics of patients with a similar course of the disease. When comparing the outcomes of the studied groups, there was a statistically significant higher mortality in group II - 30.3%, in group I - 21.2% (p = 0.043). Conclusion. According to our data, a course of the disease does not significantly differ in the groups o patients with positive RT-PCR and three-time negative RT-PCR. A negative RT-PCR analysis may be associated with an individual peculiarity of a patient such as a low viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in the upper respiratory tract. Therefore, with repeated negative results on the RNA of the virus in the oro- and nasopharynx, one should take into account the clinic, the X-ray picture and biochemical indicators in dynamics and not be afraid to make a diagnosis of COVID-19.Copyright © 2021 ALIES. All rights reserved.

4.
Turkish Journal of Biochemistry / Turk Biyokimya Dergisi ; : 1, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-20244016

ABSTRACT

The present study investigates the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the vaginal swabs of female patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based on a positive real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test on a combined throat and nasopharyngeal swab.This study included 48 female patients hospitalized in two tertiary hospitals diagnosed with COVID-19 based on a positive RT-PCR test of the combined throat and nasopharyngeal swab samples, along with clinical and radiological findings. The IBM SPSS software package was used for the statistical analysis of the study data.SARS-CoV-2 positivity was detected in only one patient (2.08 %) in the present study from RT-PCR tests of vaginal swab samples. This patient was a 64-year-old, postmenopausal woman who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in a RT-PCR test of a vaginal swab sample six days after having tested positive in an RT-PCR test of a combined throat and nasopharyngeal swab. The patient's partner also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in an RT-PCR of a combined throat and nasopharyngeal swab.The present study is the first to report the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in vaginal secretions in Türkiye. The authors believe there is a need for studies investigating the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the semen samples of the male partners of female patients to establish whether the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in vaginal secretions can play a role in the transmission of the virus. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Turkish Journal of Biochemistry / Turk Biyokimya Dergisi is the property of De Gruyter and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

5.
Journal of Public Health and Development ; 21(2):102-111, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20242247

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to determine the epidemiological and clinical attributes of COVID-19 patients in the least developed province of Balochistan, Pakistan. The information was obtained from the daily situation report by the Health Department, Government of Balochistan, Pakistan. We investigated the reports of 4177 patients confirmed by RT-PCR tests. Demographic, epidemiological and risk factors data along with comorbidities and clinical signs were recorded. Out of 4500 suspected cases, 4177 cases were directed for the confirmation of COVID-19. A sum of 2177 patients was confirmed to have COVID-19 and 2000 individuals tested negative for the illness. Out of 4177 patients, 2000 patients recovered but 177 patients died because of COVID-19. In current statistics, most males were affected by COVID-19 as 3243 (77.69%) were males and 934 (22.36%) were females. A total of 90.81% of individuals had fever, 88.97% had a cough, 81% had body throbs, and 89.66% had a sore throat. Shortness of breath was observed in 97.06% and 44.09 % had comorbidity. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the outcome of patients was associated with gender and symptoms. The district Quetta had the maximum number of COVID-19 cases and deaths. COVID-19 cases and case casualty proportion are low in Balochistan. Whether this is because of failure to do more tests is still to be discovered. Males and individuals of older age are more impacted, and fatalities were higher in cases with co-morbid conditions. Balochistan has a feeble medical care framework and many asymptomatic cases, and needs more rigid screening activities. © 2023, Mahidol University - ASEAN Institute for Health Development. All rights reserved.

6.
Journal of Clinical and Scientific Research ; 12(1):45-50, 2023.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-20241845

ABSTRACT

Background: Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels have been studied in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19). Methods: We studied the utility of treatment with tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients (n=19) with a negative nasopharyngeal swab real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2 who had suggestive computed tomography (CT) findings, namely, COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) 4,5. Results: Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that serum IL 6 at a cut-off of >56.9 pg/L was a predictor of mortality in nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR negative patients with suggestive CT findings. Tocilizumab had no significant effect on the mortality. Conclusions: In nasopharyngeal swab RT-PCR negative patients with suggestive chest CT findings, elevated serum IL-6 levels > 56.9 pg/L predicted mortality. However, treatment with tocilizumab had no effect on mortality.

7.
Pamukkale Medical Journal ; 15(4):804-812, 2022.
Article in Turkish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20240817

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The present study aims to compare the results of the COVID-19 rapid antigen test (ExacTest™ COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test in samples of people suspected of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Materials and methods: Among the samples submitted between January 2022 and March 2022 with suspicion of COVID-19, 299 samples subject to simultaneous COVID-19 RADT (Rapid Antigen Detection Test) and RT- PCR were evaluated retrospectively. The Real-Time PCR test was studied with the DS CORONEX COVID-19 Multiplex Real time-qPCR Test Kit (DS Nano and Biotechnology Product Tracing and Tracking Co., Turkey) and the rapid antigen test was studied by the immunochromatographic method with ExacTest™ COVID-19 Antigen Rapid Test Cassette kit (General Diagnostica inc., California, USA). Ag-RDT test results were evaluated with the fluorescent immunoassay analyzer (FIATEST Analyzer, Hangzhou Alltest Biotech Co., Ltd. China). Results: RT-PCR test was positive in 53 (17.7%) samples. The RADT's sensitivity was found 88.7 (95% Cl 77.0-95.7), specificity 98.0 (95% Cl 95.3-99.3), positive predictive value 90.4 (95% Cl 79.7-95.8), negative predictive value 97.6 (95% Cl 95.0-98.8), and accuracy 96.3 (95% Cl 93.5-98.2). Sample sensitivities of patients under and over 18 years of age have been identified as 75 (95% Cl 19.4-99.4) and 89.8 (95% Cl 77.8-96.6), respectively. The sensitivity of patients with and without symptoms was 95.5 (95% Cl 77.2-99.9) and 83.9 (95% Cl 66.3-94.6), respectively. For samples with a cycle threshold (Ct) of <20, 20-<25, 25-<30 and 30-<35, the concordance of testing was 100%, 92.9%, 78.9% and 80%, respectively. Conclusion: The rapid antigen kit studied complies with the use criteria recommended by the World Health Organization and is quite useful for the rapid diagnosis of symptomatic patients in COVID-19. © 2022, Pamukkale University. All rights reserved.

8.
Zhongguo Yufang Shouyi Xuebao / Chinese Journal of Preventive Veterinary Medicine ; 44(11):1189-1195, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20238824

ABSTRACT

To develop a multiplex fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR for the detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) and swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), in this study, specific primers/probes were designed based on the conserved regions of M, M and N gene sequences of PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV, respectively. After optimization of the reaction conditions, a multiplex fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR for PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV was established. The results of specificity assay showed that the method was positive for detection of PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV, and negative for detection of porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine rotavirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, porcine pseudorabies virus, porcine circovirus type 2, porcine parvovirus, classical swine fever virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. The results of sensitivity assay showed that the detection limit of this method for PEDV, PDCoV, and SADS-CoV plasmids standard was 1.0x101 copies/L, and had a good linear relationship with their Ct values in the range of 101 copies/L to 106 copies/L. The results of repeatability assay showed that the coefficients of variation (CVs) of intra- and inter-assay reproducibility ranged from 0.33% to 2.53%, indicating good repeatability and stability. To evaluate the effects of the developed method, 100 clinical samples collected from different parts of Henan province were used for detection of these three viruses and compared with those of single RT-PCR and standard methods. The results of multiplex fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR showed that the positive rates of PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV were 38% (38/100), 14% (14/100) and 5% (5/100), respectively. There was no mixed infection. The coincidence rate with the standard detection methods of PEDV and PDCoV was 100%, and the sensitivity was higher than that of single RT-PCR. In this study, a specific, sensitive and rapid multiplex fluorescent quantitative RTPCR method was established for the first time, which could be used for the differential detection of PEDV, PDCoV and SADS-CoV, and laid a foundation for the differential diagnosis and control of porcine diarrheal diseases.

9.
Indonesian Journal of Health Administration ; 10(2):219-231, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-20237139

ABSTRACT

Background: Covid-19 (Corona Virus Disease-19) emerged at the end of December 2019, and the current gold standard for Covid-19 testing is molecular-based virus detection with Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Rapid Molecular Test (RMT). In the early of this pandemic, Indonesia, especially Papua, still had difficulty in examining Covid-19. Aims: This study aimed to identify the Covid-19 molecular-based testing capacity of laboratories from various regencies representing five customary areas of Papua in the early pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study with purposive sampling method collected primary data and secondary data from the Papua Provincial and Regency Covid-19 Response Acceleration Task Force and the representative hospitals in five customary areas of Papua (Saireri, Ha anim, Mee Pago, Lapago, Mamta) in May-June 2020. Results: The Covid-19 molecular-based testing capacity in Papua has yet to be maximum in the early pandemic. Conclusion: The Covid-19 molecular-based testing capacity has yet to reach its maximum capacity in the beginning of the pandemic. Regency, which applies the GeneXpert test, is recommended to supply RT-PCR. RT-PCR can be procured in several cities/regencies within one customary area, and samples of the specimens can be delivered more quickly in the same area. © 2022, Airlangga University. All rights reserved.

10.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 15(5):1511-1519, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20235864

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Quality indicators are important parameters to enhance the quality of the clinical laboratory services. Due to the extensive testing processes, errors cannot be completely avoided in a clinical laboratory. To minimize errors, however, adequate training, QC checks, and regular procedure evaluations are beneficial. Objective(s): The objective of the study was to establish and evaluate quality indicators on an ongoing basis as an effort to increase quality. Method(s): This retrospective study, different quality indicators in a molecular laboratory in northern Gujarat were assessed over the course of a year (September 2020-August 2021). Data of total 8176 samples were summarized. Each Quality indicator was examined at the end of the month after being divided into the pre, analytical, and post-analytical stages, respectively. Result(s): As summarization of total 8176 samples, we found a cumulative error rate for all quality indicators of 346 (4.23%). Preanalytical errors were the most common 180 (2.20%), followed by analytical errors 114 (1.39%), and post analytical errors 52 (0.63%). Conclusion(s): There is no question that by continuously striving to develop the outcome of these quality indicators through the adoption of corrective measures over time, the quality of laboratory services and patient care would be improved.Copyright © 2023, Dr Yashwant Research Labs Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

11.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 11(B):314-319, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan plays a role in detecting and assessing the progression of COVID-19. It can evaluate the response to the therapy given. In diagnosis, the CT scan of the chest may complement the limitations of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Several recent studies have discussed the importance of CT scans in COVID-19 patients with false-negative RT-PCR results. The sensitivity of chest CT scan in the diagnosis of COVID-19 is reportedly around 98%. AIM: This study aimed to determine the compatibility of CT scan of the thorax with RT-PCR in suspected COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research was conducted in the Radiology Department of the Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital Makassar from April to December 2020 with 350 patients. The method used was a 2 x 2 table diagnostic test. RESULT(S): The study included 188 male patients (53.7%) and 162 female patients (46.2%). The most common age group was 46-65 years (35.4%). The most common types of lesions were ground-glass opacity (163 cases), consolidation (128 cases), and fibrosis (124 cases), mostly found in the inferior lobe with a predominantly peripheral or subpleural distribution. The sensitivity of the CT scan to the PCR examination was 86%, and the specificity was 91%. CONCLUSION(S): Thoracic CT scan was a good modality in establishing the diagnosis of COVID-19. CT scan of the chest with abnormalities could confirm the diagnosis in 88% of cases based on RT-PCR examination. It excluded the diagnosis in 91% based on the RT-PCR examination. The accuracy of the thoracic CT scan was 88% with RT-PCR as the reference value.Copyright © 2023 Sri Asriyani, Albert Alexander Alfonso, Mirna Muis, Andi Alfian Zainuddin, Irawaty Djaharuddin, Muhammad Ilyas.

12.
Zagazig University Medical Journal ; 29(3):864-870, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-20232265

ABSTRACT

Background: Viral respiratory tract infections are the most common triggers of wheezing illnesses in children. Though rare, COVID-19 infection in children may trigger a viral-induced wheeze that requires distinguishing from other viral and asthma triggers. Objectives: The current study aimed to assess the role of COVID-19 in causation of viral induced wheeze in pediatrics age group in our locality. Methods: The study included 30 pediatrics cases = 2 months attending the Emergency Room and Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University Hospital. According to the inclusion criteria for the study, patients were aged from 2 - 144 months with mean age (21.1±35.3 month). They were 13 females (43.3%) and 17 males (56.7%). Twelve patients had positive family history of asthma (40.0%). The standard technique for confirming COVID-19 is the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: 30 children hospitalized with wheezing, 24 patients (80%) presented with difficult breathing, 18 patients (60%) were feverish, and 17 patients (56.7%) had cough. Running nose was noted in 9 patients (30%), grunting was observed in only one patient (3.3%). The mean O2 saturation of all patients was 91.8±2.6 and ranged from (92-95%). GIT manifestation was reported in 13.3%. The two confirmed cases has positive PCR test for Covid-19, a 7 year old male and a 5 year old female. Positive family history of COVID-19 was reported in both cases, neither of them has blood eosinophilia, they were on regular controller medication. Patients presented with wheeze, cough, difficult breathing, with no grunting or GIT manifestation. They were treated for 2 to 3 days by O2, inhaled B agonists plus short course of systemic steroids. Conclusion: Covid-19 is uncommon cause of viral induced wheeze among our patients. Only two cases of covid-19 related asthma exacerbation were reported in our study. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Zagazig University Medical Journal is the property of Association of Arab Universities and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(33): 80855-80862, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232635

ABSTRACT

The first aim of study was to quantify the viral load in the wastewater samples by RT-qPCR testing in Lahore population to estimate the number of patients affected and predict the next resurgence of COVID-19 wave in the city. The second aim of the study was to determine the hotspot areas of Lahore which remained positive more often for virus with high viral load. In this study, n = 420 sewage samples were collected on an average of two weeks intervals from 30 different sewage water disposal stations (14 sampling events) from Sept 2020 to March 2021. RNA was extracted and quantified by RT-qPCR without concentrating the virus in samples. Number of positive disposal sites (7-93%), viral load from sewage samples (100.296 to 103.034), and estimated patients (660-17,030) ranged from low to high according to the surge and restrain of 2nd and 3rd COVID-19 waves in the country. The viral load and estimated patients were reported high in January 2021 and March 2021 which were similar to the peak of 2nd and 3rd waves in Pakistan. Site 18 (Niaz Baig village DS) showed the highest viral load among all sites. Findings of the present study helped to estimate the number of patients and track the resurgence in COVID-19 waves in Lahore particularly, and in Punjab generally. Furthermore, it emphasizes the role of wastewater-based epidemiology to help policymakers strengthen the quarantine measures along with immunization to overcome enteric viral diseases. Local and national stake holders should work in collaboration to improve the environmental hygiene to control the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Sewage , Wastewater
14.
Arch Razi Inst ; 78(2): 737-742, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231701

ABSTRACT

Following the epidemics caused by the transmission of the common virus between humans and animals (COVID-19), coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the third and most deadly strain of RNA virus that can cause respiratory, digestive, and nervous system problems, and there are many unknown complications. This study included 170 clinical samples of nasopharyngeal swaps (100 patients and 70 controls for both males and females). RT-PCR was performed, and blood samples were taken for biochemical analyses. They were obtained from Iraqi patients aged 25 to 92 years old. Between November 2021 and March 2022, COVID-19 patients were admitted to Dar al-salam Hospital, Alyarmok Teaching Hospital, and Alshefaa Hospital. AFIAS D-Dimer, AFIAS ferritin, and NycoCard CRP tests were performed on the patients and were classified depending on the severity of their infection (mild or moderate, severe and critical). The results showed a significant increase in ferritin in critically ill patients (545.58 ± 57.71). A significant increase of D-dimer was found with different severity with highly significant in the critical group (3.93 ± 0.79). With varying degrees of severity, a substantial rise in CRP was discovered with highly significant in the critical group (96.27 ± 14.55) between the severity group (p-value <0.001). Also, COVID-19 individuals in the age range (50 - 60) tended to be more severe than younger people, whereas the effect of gender is not significant in any patient group. The biochemical factors, including D-Dimer, ferritin, and CRP, are effective in the disease's occurrence of symptoms and severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Ferritins , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 13(10)2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231667

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing a disease called COVID-19, is a class of acute respiratory syndrome that has considerably affected the global economy and healthcare system. This virus is diagnosed using a traditional technique known as the Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test. However, RT-PCR customarily outputs a lot of false-negative and incorrect results. Current works indicate that COVID-19 can also be diagnosed using imaging resolutions, including CT scans, X-rays, and blood tests. Nevertheless, X-rays and CT scans cannot always be used for patient screening because of high costs, radiation doses, and an insufficient number of devices. Therefore, there is a requirement for a less expensive and faster diagnostic model to recognize the positive and negative cases of COVID-19. Blood tests are easily performed and cost less than RT-PCR and imaging tests. Since biochemical parameters in routine blood tests vary during the COVID-19 infection, they may supply physicians with exact information about the diagnosis of COVID-19. This study reviewed some newly emerging artificial intelligence (AI)-based methods to diagnose COVID-19 using routine blood tests. We gathered information about research resources and inspected 92 articles that were carefully chosen from a variety of publishers, such as IEEE, Springer, Elsevier, and MDPI. Then, these 92 studies are classified into two tables which contain articles that use machine Learning and deep Learning models to diagnose COVID-19 while using routine blood test datasets. In these studies, for diagnosing COVID-19, Random Forest and logistic regression are the most widely used machine learning methods and the most widely used performance metrics are accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC. Finally, we conclude by discussing and analyzing these studies which use machine learning and deep learning models and routine blood test datasets for COVID-19 detection. This survey can be the starting point for a novice-/beginner-level researcher to perform on COVID-19 classification.

16.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239924

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2020, multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) have emerged and spread worldwide. Tracking their evolution has been a challenge due to the huge number of positive samples and limited capacities of whole-genome sequencing. Two in-house variant-screening RT-PCR assays were successively designed in our laboratory in order to detect specific known mutations in the spike region and to rapidly detect successively emerging VOCs. The first one (RT-PCR#1) targeted the 69-70 deletion and the N501Y substitution simultaneously, whereas the second one (RT-PCR#2) targeted the E484K, E484Q, and L452R substitutions simultaneously. To evaluate the analytical performance of these two RT-PCRs, 90 negative and 30 positive thawed nasopharyngeal swabs were retrospectively analyzed, and no discordant results were observed. Concerning the sensitivity, for RT-PCR#1, serial dilutions of the WHO international standard SARS-CoV-2 RNA, corresponding to the genome of an Alpha variant, were all detected up to 500 IU/mL. For RT-PCR#2, dilutions of a sample harboring the E484K substitution and of a sample harboring the L452R and E484Q substitutions were all detected up to 1000 IU/mL and 2000 IU/mL, respectively. To evaluate the performance in a real-life hospital setting, 1308 and 915 profiles of mutations, obtained with RT-PCR#1 and RT-PCR#2, respectively, were prospectively compared to next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. The two RT-PCR assays showed an excellent concordance with the NGS data, with 99.8% for RT-PCR#1 and 99.2% for RT-PCR#2. Finally, for each mutation targeted, the clinical sensitivity, the clinical specificity and the positive and negative predictive values showed excellent clinical performance. Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the emergence of variants-impacting the disease's severity and the efficacy of vaccines and therapies-has forced medical analysis laboratories to constantly adapt to the strong demand for screening them. Our data showed that in-house RT-PCRs are useful and adaptable tools for monitoring such rapid evolution and spread of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Hospitals , Mutation , COVID-19 Testing
17.
Vopr Virusol ; 68(2): 105-116, 2023 05 18.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238321

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The study of the mechanisms of transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is the basis for building a strategy for anti-epidemic measures in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding in what time frame a patient can spread SARS-CoV-2 is just as important as knowing the transmission mechanisms themselves. This information is necessary to develop effective measures to prevent infection by breaking the chains of transmission of the virus. The aim of the work is to identify the infectious SARS-CoV-2 virus in patient samples in the course of the disease and to determine the duration of virus shedding in patients with varying severity of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In patients included in the study, biomaterial (nasopharyngeal swabs) was subjected to analysis by quantitative RT-PCR and virological determination of infectivity of the virus. RESULTS: We have determined the timeframe of maintaining the infectivity of the virus in patients hospitalized with severe and moderate COVID-19. Based on the results of the study, we made an analysis of the relationship between the amount of detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA and the infectivity of the virus in vitro in patients with COVID-19. The median time of the infectious virus shedding was 8 days. In addition, a comparative analysis of different protocols for the detection of the viral RNA in relation to the identification of the infectious virus was carried out. CONCLUSION: The obtained data make it possible to assess the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 detection and viral load in patients with COVID-19 and indicate the significance of these parameters for the subsequent spread of the virus and the organization of preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronaviridae , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care
18.
Cureus ; 15(5): e38574, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237984

ABSTRACT

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in mortality and morbidity worldwide. Many treatment modalities have been experimented with limited success. Therefore, the traditional system of medicine needs to be explored. Objective To evaluate the benefits of Unani regimensTiryaq-e-Arba and Unani Joshanda, as adjuvant therapy, were compared to standard treatment alone among reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed mild to moderate COVID-19 cases. Materials and methods An open-label, double-arm, randomized, controlled interventional clinical study was conducted among 90 RT-PCR-confirmed mild to moderate COVID-19 inpatients admitted to a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. Participants who fulfilled the criteria for inclusion were randomly assigned to two arms, with 43 subjects allocated to the Unani add-on arm and 47 subjects to the control arm receiving standard treatment alone. Results Clinical recovery was achieved in all patients of the Unani arm, while in the control arm, three (6.4%) patients deteriorated and had to be shifted to ICU following admission. In the intervention arm, a shorter duration of hospitalization was observed (mean 5.95 days {SD = 1.99}) than in the control arm (mean 7.62 days {SD, 4.06}); which was a statistically significant difference (p-value 0.017). The majority of the patients recovered within 10 days in the Unani add-on arm. The number of days taken for the reduction of symptoms was significantly less in the intervention arm (mean 5.14 days {SD, 2.39}) as compared with standard treatment (mean 6.53 days {SD, 3.06}) (p < 0.02). Renal and liver safety parameters were within the normal limits in both arms and no serious adverse event was reported. Conclusion Adding Unani formulations to standard treatment significantly reduced the duration of hospital stay and showed early recovery in COVID-19 patients compared with the control arm. It may be concluded that the synergistic effect of the Unani add-on with standard treatment gave more promising results in mild to moderate COVID-19 patients.

19.
Fujita Med J ; 9(2): 84-89, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236791

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To establish a point-of-care test for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we developed a dry loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. Methods: We carried out reverse transcription (RT)-LAMP using the Loopamp SARS-CoV-2 Detection kit (Eiken Chemical, Tokyo, Japan). The entire mixture, except for the primers, is dried and immobilized inside the tube lid. Results: To determine the specificity of the kit, 22 viruses associated with respiratory infections, including SARS-CoV-2, were tested. The sensitivity of this assay, determined by either a real-time turbidity assay or colorimetric change of the reaction mixture, as evaluated by the naked eye or under illumination with ultraviolet light, was 10 copies/reaction. No LAMP product was detected in reactions performed with RNA from any pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2. After completing an initial validation analysis, we analyzed 24 nasopharyngeal swab specimens collected from patients suspected to have COVID-19. Of the 24 samples, 19 (79.2%) were determined by real-time RT-PCR analysis as being positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Using the Loopamp SARS-CoV-2 Detection kit, we detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in 15 (62.5%) of the 24 samples. Thus, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of the Loopamp 2019-CoV-2 detection reagent kit were 78.9%, 100%, 100%, and 55.6%, respectively. Conclusions: The dry LAMP method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA is fast and easy to use, and its reagents can be stored at 4°C, solving the cold chain problem; thus, it represents a promising tool for COVID-19 diagnosis in developing countries.

20.
Virol J ; 20(1): 119, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A variety of open-system real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays for several acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 are currently in use. This study aimed to ensure the quality of omicron nucleic acid testing and to assess the comparability of cycle threshold (Ct) values derived from RT-PCR. METHODS: Five external quality assessment (EQA) rounds using the omicron virus-like particles were organized between February 2022 and June 2022. RESULTS: A total of 1401 qualitative EQA reports have been collected. The overall positive percentage agreement was 99.72%, the negative percentage agreement was 99.75%, and the percent agreement was 99.73%. This study observed a significant variance in Ct values derived from different test systems. There was a wide heterogeneity in PCR efficiency among different RT-PCR kits and inter-laboratories. CONCLUSION: There was strong concordance among laboratories performing qualitative omicron nucleic acid testing. Ct values from qualitative RT-PCR tests should not be used for clinical or epidemiological decision-making to avoid the potential for misinterpretation of the results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
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