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1.
Journal of Laboratory Physicians ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1967690

ABSTRACT

Background Rapid antigen detection tests of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) play a crucial role in the control of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Data about the real diagnostic performance of such tests is still insufficient and hence their evaluation is of high priority. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of BIOCREDIT COVID-19 antigen test alone and in combination with either C-reactive protein (CRP) or neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in comparison to real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Additionally, we investigated the selection criteria of the suspect for best performance of the antigen test. Materials and Methods Paired nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs were collected from 200 suspected COVID-19 subjects for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by RT-qPCR and for antigen detection by BIOCREDIT test. Simultaneously, for all suspect, clinical presentations were recorded as well as CRP level and NLR were determined. Results Among 200 tested NP swabs, 125 (62.5%) were RT-PCR positive. Overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of BIOCREDIT test were 34.4, 98.7, and 58.5%, respectively. Sensitivity of the BIOCREDIT test was higher in COVID-19 suspect, with high viral load (100%), severely ill (56.2%), with fever alone (40%), elevated CRP (41.1%), and high NLR (36.2%). In combination with NLR or CRP, sensitivity of BIOCREDIT test increased to 89.4 and 81.6%, respectively, while its specificity decreased to 67 and 59%, respectively. Conclusion The overall low sensitivity of BIOCREDIT/COVID-19 antigen test does not permit its use as a single diagnostic test for COVID-19. However, its use should be restricted only if it is combined with either CRP or NLR in suspect with certain criteria.

2.
Sens Int ; 3: 100197, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967113

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 is a dreadful pandemic of the 21st century that has created fear among people, affected the whole world, and taken thousands of lives. It infects the respiratory system and causes flu-type symptoms. According to the WHO reports, 2,082,745 deaths and 96,267,473 confirmed cases were perceived all around the globe till January 22, 2021. The significant roots of transmission are inhalation and direct contact with the infected surface. Its incubation period is 2-14 days and remains asymptomatic in most people. However, no treatment and vaccine are available for the people, so preventive measures like social distancing, wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), and frequent hand-washing are the practical and only options for cure. It has affected every sector of the world, whether it is trade or health all around the world. There is high demand for diagnostic tools as high-scale and expeditious testing is crucial for controlling disease spread; thus, detection methods play an essential role. Like flu, Covid-19 is also detected through RT-PCR, as the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested, but it is time taking and expensive method that many countries cannot afford. A vaccine is a crucial aspect of eradicating disease, and for SARS-CoV-2), plasma therapy and antibiotics therapy are used in the early spreading phase. The later stage involves forming a vaccine based on spike protein, N-protein, and whole-viral antigen that effectively immunizes the population worldwide until herd immunity can be achieved. In this review, we will discuss all possible and developed techniques for identifying SARS-CoV-2 and make a comparison of their specificity, selectivity, and cost; thus, we choose an appropriate method for fast, reliable, and pocket-friendly detection.

3.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 21: 100462, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966923

ABSTRACT

Background: The Omicron wave of COVID-19 in England peaked in January 2022 resulting from the rapid transmission of the Omicron BA.1 variant. We investigate the spread and dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in the population of England during February 2022, by region, age and main SARS-CoV-2 sub-lineage. Methods: In the REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study we obtained data from a random sample of 94,950 participants with valid throat and nose swab results by RT-PCR during round 18 (8 February to 1 March 2022). Findings: We estimated a weighted mean SARS-CoV-2 prevalence of 2.88% (95% credible interval [CrI] 2.76-3.00), with a within-round effective reproduction number (R) overall of 0.94 (0·91-0.96). While within-round weighted prevalence fell among children (aged 5 to 17 years) and adults aged 18 to 54 years, we observed a level or increasing weighted prevalence among those aged 55 years and older with an R of 1.04 (1.00-1.09). Among 1,616 positive samples with sublineages determined, one (0.1% [0.0-0.3]) corresponded to XE BA.1/BA.2 recombinant and the remainder were Omicron: N=1047, 64.8% (62.4-67.2) were BA.1; N=568, 35.2% (32.8-37.6) were BA.2. We estimated an R additive advantage for BA.2 (vs BA.1) of 0.38 (0.34-0.41). The highest proportion of BA.2 among positives was found in London. Interpretation: In February 2022, infection prevalence in England remained high with level or increasing rates of infection in older people and an uptick in hospitalisations. Ongoing surveillance of both survey and hospitalisations data is required. Funding: Department of Health and Social Care, England.

4.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; : 104248, 2022 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966307

ABSTRACT

Background: It was formerly thought that patients with a history of active cancer were more likely to acquire COVID-19; however, new research contradicts this belief due to the impact of economic stress, malnutrition, fear of hospitalization, or therapeutic discontinuation. A cohort-based study was undertaken in Indian regional cancer centre to understand cancer-covid link in patients. Method: A total of 1565 asymptomatic patients were admitted based on thermal screening and evaluation from the screening form from June 2020 to November 2020. The RT-PCR technology was used to assess the COVID 19, and patients who tested positive for COVID 19 were transported to a hospital designated by the government for COVID 19 patients. Patients who tested negative for the COVID 19 virus were transferred to the normal cancer unit to complete their treatment. Patients who tested positive for COVID 19 were referred to the COVID hospital, where their findings were analyzed and correlated with patient age, gender, and cancer stage. Findings: Out of 1565 patients, 54 patients (3.4%) tested positive. Most of the patients are in 45-59 years age group. As female patients admitted were more in number than males, so predominance of disease is higher in female. 3 patients were symptomatic after admission and 2 were severe and were admitted to the ICU with ventilations. 8 patients died in Cancer and one patient died in COVID 19. Interpretation: As only 3.4% patients tested positive and only one patient out of 54 had died, so cancer is found not to be a comorbid condition towards COVID 19 patients in the Indian population studied.Funding: This project is not funded.

5.
International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Research ; 10(2):364-369, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1965168

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic is causing a significant flare-up, seriously affecting the wellbeing and life of many individuals all around the world. One of the significant stages in battling COVID-19 is the capacity to recognize the tainted patients early and put them under exceptional consideration. In the proposed model we used deep learning-based exception Net under transfer learning paradigm. We trained the proposed model using chest-X rays collected from the open-source dataset (COVID-19 Dataset) using K10 cross-validation. We further calculated the severity in the covid classified images by the model using radiologist ground truth. We achieved an accuracy of 96.1% in the classification, and we are able to calculate the severity of the COVID-19 within the range of 75-100 % risk. Our proposed model successfully classified the COVID chest x-rays with severity measure. © 2022 by Vadthe Narasimha and Dr. M. Dhanalakshmi.

6.
Pamukkale Medical Journal ; 14(3):706-716, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1965067

ABSTRACT

Purpose: We aimed to determine the number of possible and precise cases among the patients hospitalized in our clinic and to examine the differences between the sociodemographic, clinical, chest CT and laboratory findings of these two groups. Materials and methods: The data of all patients hospitalized at the department of pulmonology service between March 13 as the date of the first case and May 5 with probable and definitive COVID-19 were evaluated retrospectively. Patient ward files and hospital data management system were examined. Chest CT findings of the patients were interpreted by two radiologists separately according to the CO-RADS classification blinded to clinical and PCR test results of the patients and then consensus was achieved with joint evaluation. Results: A total of 99 patients, 38 RT-PCR positive, 61 RT-PCR negative, were included in the study. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio(NLR) values and lymphocyte count were lower at a statistically significant level in positive patients(respectively p=0.038, p=0.041). Similarly, CRP values were observed to be lower at a statistically significant level in positive patients(p=0.029). When the patients with RT-PCR(+) and RT-PCR(-) but with positive chest CT findings according to CO-RADS staging were compared, the values of WBC, LDH and CRP level was observed to be high were statistically significant in the group with RT-PCR(-) but positive chest CT findings. Conclusion: In the presence of clinical findings, without waiting for RT-PCR positivity, the probability of COVID-19 disease will increase if there are elevated WBC, CRP and LDH findings with CT findings(stage 4-5 according to CO-RADS).Alternate :Amaç: Kliniğimizde takip edilen kesin COVID-19 vakalar ile olası COVID-19 vakalar arasındaki sosyodemografik, klinik, BT ve laboratuvar bulgularının farklarını incelemeyi amaçladık. Gereç ve yöntem: Ílk vaka tarihi olan 13 Mart 2020 ile 5 Mayıs 2020 arasında, olası ve kesin COVID-19 tanısıyla Göğüs Hastalıkları servisinde yatan tüm hastaların verileri retrospektif olarak incelendi. Hastaların toraks BT bulguları, hastaların klinik ve PCR test sonuçlarına körleştirilen iki farklı radyolog tarafından CO-RADS sınıflamasına göre ayrı ayrı yorumlandı ve daha sonra ortak değerlendirme ile konsensüs sağlandı. Klinik, laboratuvar ve görüntüleme bulguları ile çoklu regresyon modellemesi yapıldı. Bulgular: Çalışmaya 38 RT-PCR pozitif, 62 RT-PCR negatif olmak üzere toplam 99 hasta dahil edildi. Nötrofil/lenfosit oranı (NLR) ve lenfosit sayısı, RT-PCR pozitif hastalarda istatistiksel olarak anlamlı düzeyde daha düşüktü (sırasıyla p = 0.038, p = 0.041). Benzer şekilde, pozitif hastalarda CRP değerlerinin istatistiksel olarak anlamlı düzeyde düşük olduğu gözlendi (p = 0.029). RT-PCR (+) ile RT-PCR (-) ancak toraks BT ‘si CO-RADS evrelemesine göre pozitif olan hastaların karşılaştırmalarında, RT-PCR (-) ancak toraks BT pozitif olan grupta anlamlı şekilde WBC, LDH ve CRP değerlerinin daha yüksek olduğu görüldü (sırasıyla p=0.001, p=0.033, p=0.004). Öksürük, WBC, LDH, CRP değerleri ve toraks BT skoru kullanılarak geliştirilen modelde en yüksek AUC değeri elde edilmiş, RT-PCR pozitifliğini ayırt etmede başarılı olabileceği görüldü (AUC=0.725, 95% CI: 0.619-0.830) Sonuç: Klinik bulgular varlığında RT-PCR pozitifliğini beklemeden COVID-19 uyumlu BT bulguları (CO-RADS'ye göre evre 4-5) ile yüksek WBC, CRP VE LDH varsa COVID-19 olasılığı artacaktır.

7.
Genetika ; 54(1):427-438, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1963294

ABSTRACT

Early, rapid and reliable identification of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is crucial for successful control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is considered the gold standard for molecular diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical performances of the three authorized tests - the Abbott Real Time SARS-CoV-2 (ACOV) assay (Abbott Molecular Inc., North Chicago, IL), GeneFinderTM COVID-19 Plus RealAmp (GeneFinder) Kit (OSANG Healthcare Co., Ltd, Dongan-gu Anyang, Korea) and the Biomerieux ARGENER SARS-COV-2 R-GENER real-time detection (ARGENE) kit (bioMerieux SA., Marcyl'Etoile, France) and to determine whether the selection of targeted genes has an impact on test's specificity. In this study, we included 155 nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) from adult individuals with symptoms or suspected of COVID-19, aged from 17 to 91 years, previously tested by the ACOV and subsequently tested by the GeneFinder and the ARGENE. In this comparative analysis, we found that the GeneFinder assay detected the most cases of COVID-19 infection, followed by the ACOV assay, and then by ARGENE. Positive agreement ranged from 74.74% to 95.41%, with the strongest agreement observed between the GeneFinder and ACOV assays - 95.41% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 89.37%-98.36%) indicating an excellent agreement between these two tests and the lowest agreement between the GeneFinder and ARGENE assay - 74.74% (95% CI: 65.08%-81.41%). The negative percent agreement was 100% (GeneFinder/ACOV, GeneFinder/ARGENE and ACOV/ARGENE). Only 3.2% of cases were false-negative using the ACOV test, while 18.0% of samples were false-negative using the ARGENE assay to detect SARS-CoV-2. Combined usage of the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 and the GeneFinder assays can be applied to maximize SARS-CoV-2 detection accuracy.

8.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964107

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: As the pandemic months progress, more and more evidence shows that the placenta acts as a "barrier" to SARS-CoV-2, although rare cases of vertical transmission have been described. (2) Methods: In an attempt to investigate whether the symptoms' severity was related to different placental histological characteristics and the immune microenvironment, we subdivided 29 placentas from 29 mothers positive for SARS-CoV-2 into two groups, depending on the symptomatology (moderate/severe vs. asymptomatic/mild), performing immunohistochemical investigations for CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes, as well as for CD68 + macrophage. We also evaluated the immuno-expression of the ACE2 receptor at the placental level. These two groups were compared to a control group of 28 placentas from 28 SARS-CoV-2-negative healthy mothers. (3) Results: The symptoms (likely to be related to viremia) were statistically significantly correlated (p < 0.05) with histopathological changes, such as maternal malperfusion, decidual arteriopathy, blood vessel thrombus of fetal relevance. Furthermore, the immuno-expression of ACE2 was significantly lower in SARS-CoV-2-positive groups vs. control group (p = 0.001). (4) Conclusions: There is still much to study and discover regarding the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and histological changes in placentas and how the latter might contribute to various neonatal clinical outcomes, such as prematurity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Journal of Health Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1962651

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease is a respiratory tract disorder which causes pneumonia-like symptoms in severe patients and mild flu-like symptoms in mild symptomatic cases first noticed in Wuhan, China. DNA sequencing and further analysis shows it to be 79% like the 2002 SARS-CoV and 50% like the 2012 MERS-CoV. It was also observed that the novel coronavirus’s spike protein was larger and very different from its previously known strains. For diagnosis, multiple strategies were developed and real time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was determined to be the best technique. The CT scan was also found effective majorly for the continuous assessment of the disease. Treatment strategies used in previous outbreaks were looked into and put to trial like convalescent plasma therapy. Vaccine development using various genetic engineering strategies are going on across the world. To contain the spread of the disease, countries with positive cases were put under lockdown to break the chain of spread. These lockdowns forced industries, offices, schools, religious places, stadiums, travel, and many more to close which impacted the economies of all the major countries. Lesser human interaction and more use of social media has impacted the social aspects of human life. Cases of domestic violence and mental stress increased among households. Economic stimulus package was announced by various countries to curb the socio-economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. © 2022 SAGE Publications.

11.
Journal of Travel Medicine ; 28(7), 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1961086

ABSTRACT

This paper presents 2 COVID-19 cases, one with severe pneumonia and another with sequenced Delta variant, despite two doses of vaccination. The first case is A 59-year-old Caucasian American male with Glucose-6-Phosphate-Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency had received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines. He presented to CIWEC on 9 May 2021 having completed his trek in the Everest area up to 5500 m with cough, shortness of breath, diarrhoea, fatigue and fevers for 6 days. On admission, he was febrile at 39 degrees C, pulse 108/min, with oxygen saturation of 86% in room air that declined rapidly. He had crepitations over bilateral lung fields. Chest X-ray showed COVID-19 pneumonia. RT-PCR and BioFire tests from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were positive. He required oxygen via high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) followed by Venturi mask due to HFNC intolerance. He received monoclonal antibody cocktail of Bamlanivimab and Etesevimab (personally acquired), Remdesivir, Dexamethasone, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), antibiotics and paracetamol. After 9 days, he had an oxygen saturation of 94-95% in room air. The d-dimer was high at 16 000 ng/ml initially and stayed high till discharge. Doppler bilateral lower limbs showed acute thrombus in the right calf muscular vein. LMWH was continued at discharge followed by oral Rivaroxaban for 3 months. He was asymptomatic with normal d-dimer during follow up on June 17. The second case is a 61-year-old Caucasian American hypertensive male, aspiring Everest summiteer, with history of mRNA-1273 vaccinations on 12 January and 8 February 2021, in the USA presented to CIWEC on 12 May 2021 after helicopter evacuation from Everest Base Camp with headache and runny nose for 1 day. His COVID-19 antigen test and RT-PCR were positive. Vitals and systemic examination were normal apart from nasal and throat congestion. He was discharged for hotel self-isolation. He did well and flew back home on 25 May 2021 after testing negative. Whole genomic sequencing (Allpex Seegene Covid Multiplex Screening Assay) done at Intrepid Nepal laboratory in Kathmandu showed the Delta variant B.1.617.2.

12.
Integrated Ferroelectrics ; 228(1):183-191, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1960724

ABSTRACT

To quickly and efficiently detect the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and prevent and control the spread of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a highly sensitive duplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) detection method has been established. In this study, the specificity of primers and probes were designed, respectively, according to the ORF1ab gene and N gene sequence of SARS-COV-2, and fluorescent probes were labeled with carboxyl fluorescein (FAM) and green fluorescent protein (VIC). The duplex RT-PCR method for detecting SARS-COV-2 with TaqMan probe was established, which has a limit of detection of 10 copies/µL, and the linear detection range of ORF1ab and N gene were 1.0 × 101-1.0 × 105 copies/µL and 1.0 × 101-1.0 × 106 copies/µL, respectively, realizing the simultaneous detection of ORF1ab and N genes in simulated SARS-COV-2 samples. The method has high sensitivity, accurate quantification, simple operation, and cost-saving, which can be used for rapid and efficient quantitative detection of SARS-COV-2.

13.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0086122, 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962110

ABSTRACT

Widely available and reliable testing for SARS-CoV-2 is essential for the public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We estimated the diagnostic performance of reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) performed on saliva and the SD Biosensor STANDARD Q antigen test performed on nasopharyngeal swab compared to the reference standard, nasopharyngeal swab (NP) RT-PCR. We enrolled participants living and/or seeking care in health facilities in North Lima, Peru from November 2020 to January 2021. Consenting participants underwent same-day RT-PCR on both saliva and nasopharyngeal swab specimens, antigen testing on a nasopharyngeal swab specimen, pulse oximetry, and standardized symptom assessment. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for the nasopharyngeal antigen and saliva RT-PCR compared to nasopharyngeal RT-PCR. Of 896 participants analyzed, 567 (63.3%) had acute signs/symptoms of COVID-19. The overall sensitivity and specificity of saliva RT-PCR were 85.8% and 98.1%, respectively. Among participants with and without acute signs/symptoms of COVID-19, saliva sensitivity was 87.3% and 37.5%, respectively. Saliva sensitivity was 97.4% and 56.0% among participants with cycle threshold (CT) values of ≤30 and >30 on nasopharyngeal RT-PCR, respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity of nasopharyngeal antigen were 73.2% and 99.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of the nasopharyngeal antigen test was 75.1% and 12.5% among participants with and without acute signs/symptoms of COVID-19, and 91.2% and 26.7% among participants with CT values of ≤30 and >30 on nasopharyngeal RT-PCR, respectively. Saliva RT-PCR achieved the WHO-recommended threshold of >80% for sensitivity for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, while the SD Biosensor nasopharyngeal antigen test did not. IMPORTANCE In this diagnostic validation study of 896 participants in Peru, saliva reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) had >80% sensitivity for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 among all-comers and symptomatic individuals, while the SD Biosensor STANDARD Q antigen test performed on nasopharyngeal swab had <80% sensitivity, except for participants whose same-day nasopharyngeal RT-PCR results showed cycle threshold values of <30, consistent with a high viral load in the nasopharynx. The specificity was high for both tests. Our results demonstrate that saliva sampling could serve as an alternative noninvasive technique for RT-PCR diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. The role of nasopharyngeal antigen testing is more limited; when community transmission is low, it may be used for mass screenings among asymptomatic individuals with high testing frequency. Among symptomatic individuals, the nasopharyngeal antigen test may be relied upon for 4 to 8 days after symptom onset, or in those likely to have high viral load, whereupon it showed >80% sensitivity.

14.
Lab Med ; 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961109

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is a serious threat to human life, and early diagnosis and screening can help control the COVID-19 pandemic. The high sensitivity of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay is the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19, but there are still some false-negative results. Rapid antigen detection (RAD) is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a screening method for COVID-19. This review analyzed the characteristics of RDT and found that although the overall sensitivity of RAD was not as high as that of RT-PCR, but RAD was more sensitive in COVID-19 patients within 5 days of the onset of symptoms and in COVID-19 patients with Ct ≤ 25. Therefore, RAD can be used as an adjunct to RT-PCR for screening patients with early COVID-19. Finally, this review provides a combined diagnostic protocol for RAD and nucleic acid testing with the aim of providing a feasible approach for COVID-19 screening.

15.
International Conference on Advances in Electrical and Computer Technologies, ICAECT 2021 ; 881:727-738, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958934

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is one of the most dangerous virus that has been separated among the entire world. At the beginning stage of COVID-19 virus, the RT-PCR is the only testing method to detect the virus. Later, the medical professions analyze the different medical scanning approaches for the detecting of COVID-19. The computer tomography (CT) and chest X-ray (CXR) images are well-suited for detecting the virus. In image processing algorithms, there is lots of deep learning (DL) algorithms are employed for identifying the diseases which are affected in the human body. Hence, the paper presents the deep learning approach of COVID-19 detection by using the CT/CXR medical images. Here, the pre-trained MobileNetV2 is fully loaded with training dataset of COVID-19 images. Initially, the testing medical images are preprocessed by DnCNN algorithm to get the residual image of the corresponding medical image and forwarded to the feature extraction unit, and finally, the classifier finds the COVID-19, non-COVID-19, and pneumonia from the testing dataset. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

16.
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ; 36(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958494

ABSTRACT

Background: The World Health Organization recommended that expanding COVID-19 laboratory testing is one of the disease mitigation mechanisms. In Ethiopia, even though here are few advanced diagnostic laboratories, most of the COVID-19 RT-PCR based diagnostic laboratory service was provided by public laboratories. This situation creates a major gap in the availability of COVID-19 laboratory testing for the wide public majority, and one of the main challenges in the control and prevention of the disease. Objective: to assess the existing potentials for the expansion of COVID-19 RT-PCR based diagnostic services in private advanced medical laboratories through public-private partnership approaches in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from May to July 2020, among eight private advanced laboratories in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire and on-site observation were made to assess their experiences on molecular laboratory based diagnostic services, perceived challenges, and their readiness to deliver RT-PCR based COVID-19 laboratory services on the level of trained laboratory personnel and molecular laboratory setups. Besides, discussion with government officials on the feasibility of COVID-19 RT-PCR diagnostic services through public-private partnership was made. The collected data were entered and analysed using SPSS version 20 statistical software. The study was approved by the institutional review board of the College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, and Ethiopian Public Health Institute. Results: Among eight advanced private laboratories, five of the laboratories had previous experience in molecular laboratory testing which includes viral load testing for HIV/AIDS (5/8,). Regarding COVID-19 service readiness, one laboratory had excellent grades towards starting COVID-19 testing;four private laboratories graded as very good and had great interest to provide COVID-19 testing with very minimal support and arrangement with government body. Cost of molecular tests (6/8,), lack of reliable suppliers (6/8,), lack of technical advisors (5/8,) and policy related issues (4/8) were the major perceived challenges to arrange molecular laboratory testing. Currently Five out of eight, private laboratories are providing RT-PCR based COVID-19 testing services to the public. Conclusion: In the COVID-19 pandemic era, there is high possibility of expanding COVID-19 diagnostics services in private diagnostic laboratories through mutual benefit and public centred discussion between private laboratories and government bodies through public-private partnership in Ethiopia. This kind of partnership could be a lesson to be considered for any future possible outbreaks, happen to act both public and private Laboratories synergistically © 2022. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development.All Rights Reserved.

17.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957582

ABSTRACT

We are yet to completely understand the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 which is a highly infectious disease and research exploring the same is lacking. Hence, a community-based cross-sectional study was conducted aiming to assess the intra-familial transmission pattern among the rural residents of Ahmedabad, Gujarat in relation to possible determinants with special focus on viral load as an important determinant. A cross-sectional study was done where 195 families were visited. Families having at least one infected case, were interviewed. Information about their socio-demographic profile and secondary transmission of case/s were recorded. Out of 195, 114 families confirmed to having at least one infected case within the family. About 38.6% (44/114) of the index cases were asymptomatic, which was much higher among low viral load index cases. Index cases with high, moderate and low viral load had transmitted the infection with an average of 3.3, 1.5, 0.4 secondary cases per index case respectively. About one third of COVID-19 infected cases was asymptomatic and was capable of spreading the disease within families. Secondly, index cases with higher viral load had higher transmission potential to generate more secondary cases compared to low viral load.

18.
BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil ; 14(1): 112, 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the global spread of COVID-19 infection caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 virus (SARS-CoV-2), all the national and international sports events were ceased early in 2020. The sport activities have been reinstated since then, albeit without spectators. However, several governments have established a variety of risk-mitigation measures to gradually reintroduce the spectators to stadiums. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the implementation of a strict health protocol to ensure the resumption of professional football with spectators and to access its effectiveness in limiting the spread of COVID-19 infections within the community. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study involving football players, match officials, local organizing committee members, working in close coordination, and over 16,000 spectators in the state of Qatar. We examined data from the Amir Cup final (December 18th, 2020), which was played under a strict protocol that included extensive reverse transcription-Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for players and match officials, as well as the utility of COVID-19 rapid antigen and antibody testings as screening tools for spectators to ensure their safe return to the stadiums. In addition, we reviewed the guidelines and protocols that were put in place to organize Qatar's Amir Cup Football Final, which drew over 16,000 spectators in the stadium. RESULTS: A total of 16,171 spectators undertook rapid antigen and antibody tests for the Amir cup final (from December16-December18, 2020). Fifteen Spectators (n = 15) returned with a positive result for COVID-19 infection during the final event (positivity rate = 0.12%). All players underwent RT-PCR testing 48 h before the match. None of the players tested positive for COVID-19 infections. 1311 individuals reported having symptoms related to COVID-19 post final of Amir Cup. These spectators were tested for COVID-19 RT-PCR with an overall positivity rate (positive/reactive) to be 0.42% (69/16171). CONCLUSION: This report shows a meagre incidence rate of COVID-19 infections during and post-Amir Cup football final. Based on the low infectivity rate reported during and post the Amir Cup, we propose that supervised and controlled resumption of football matches with spectators can be carried out safely following a strict testing and tracing protocol. Similar infection control policies can be replicated with a higher number of spectators.

19.
Clin Case Rep ; 10(7): e6113, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955891

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 gold standard assessment tool remained the RT-PCR of upper respiratory tract specimen extracted by the nasopharyngeal swab. A positive result would decrease through a three-week course and eventually be undetectable. The maximum duration of viral shedding is 83 days. Besides, COVID-19 RT-PCR remained positive for 74 days in a patient suffering from lymphoma. In this study, we have presented a 56-year-old male patient, a known case of lymphoma since 2015, who experienced many episodes of chemotherapy with a five-month positive RT-PCR COVID-19 laboratory test and finally was intubated and then died of opportunistic pulmonary infections. COVID-19 patients with concurrent lymphoma failed to remove the virus thoroughly, despite providing appropriate treatment regimens.

20.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(4): 411-414, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957588

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization designated Omicron (B.1.1.529 lineage) of SARS-CoV-2 as a new variant of concern on November 26, 2021. The risk to public health conferred by the Omicron variant is still not completely clear, although its numerous gene mutations have raised concerns regarding its potential for increased transmissibility and immune escape. In this study, we describe the development of two single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays targeting the G339D or T547K mutations of the spike protein to screen for the Omicron variant. A specificity test revealed that the two assays successfully discriminated the Omicron variant from the Delta and Alpha variants, each with a single nucleotide mismatch. In addition, a sensitivity test showed that the G339D and T547K assays detected at least 2.60 and 3.36 RNA copies of the Omicron variant, respectively, and 1.59 RNA copies of the Delta variant. These results demonstrate that both assays could be useful for detecting and discriminating the Omicron variant from other strains. In addition, because of the rapid and unpredictable evolution of SARS-CoV-2, combining our assays with previously developed assays for detecting other mutations may lead to a more accurate diagnostic system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genotyping Techniques , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Genotype , Humans , Nucleotides , RNA , RNA, Viral/genetics
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