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1.
Advances in African Economic, Social and Political Development ; : 137-151, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2173700

ABSTRACT

Climate change has been identified as a major challenge to African countries given the prevalence of poverty, low infrastructural development, and the dependence of African countries on agriculture. The yearly rainfall pattern in Africa had been stable for most parts of the year. However, given the increasing variability in the duration and the intensity of the rains, dry season, the erratic and changing nature of weather systems like floods and extended periods of no rainfall affect farmers who rely on rainfall for their agricultural activity. Large-scale destruction of farmlands and villages by floods in Nigeria, Mali, Burkina Faso as well as many other countries in sub-Saharan Africa can be blamed for the dwindling food supply in the region. In an attempt to meet up with the food challenge, more virgin forests are being exploited leading to increased Green House Gases (GHGs) emissions. As a result, agriculture will certainly be affected as well as being a significant cause or major contributor to the incidence of climate change. Efforts had been put on rural development by African governments to reverse the effect of challenges posed by climate change. However, this had been limited by a sustained effect of worsening socioeconomic challenges, like the incidence of HIV-AIDS, COVID-19, other health challenges, food crises, hunger, and malnutrition. This scenario can be reduced with an effective adaptation strategy to climate change followed by a sound agricultural policy that will lead to the expansion of different channels of food access and an increase in food production. There is evidence that most of the small-holder African farmers are slow in adapting to variations in weather patterns resulting from climate change which affects the agricultural output. This calls for a comprehensive policy option that will turn the fortunes of the farmers towards improved agricultural productivity leading to increased access to food. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

2.
Journal of Climate Change ; 8(4):43-49, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2198489

ABSTRACT

In this study, we objectively focus on the relationship between the number of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and key climate variables. We found that the risk of COVID-19 was approximately doubled during warm summer months when the aerosol molecules are likely stimulated by temperature and rainfall. Given that India is currently emerging as the new epicenter for the third and fourth outbreaks of COVID-19, we selected four key hotspot states-Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu - to closely look into the impact of climate variables on the spread of COVID-19 infected cases during 2020 and 2021. We found that COVID-19 is most active in temperature between 27 degrees C and 32 degrees C, while it is active in monthly average rainfall between 250 mm and 350 mm. This study further confirms that, although temperature and rainfall are not the initial triggers of COVID-19, both variables seem to play significant roles in spreading COVID-19 in India, especially during the summer season of 2020 and 2021, when the Indian summer monsoon was stronger in these four states.

3.
Pure Appl Geophys ; : 1-22, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2173974

ABSTRACT

This article examines the role of the meteorological variable in the spread of the ongoing pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across India. COVID-19 has created an unprecedented situation for public health and brought the world to a standstill. COVID-19 had caused more than 1,523,242 deaths out of 66,183,029 confirmed cases worldwide till the first week of December 2020. We have examined the surface temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall over five cities: Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bengaluru, and Chennai, which were severely affected by COVID-19. It is found that the prevailing southwest (SW) monsoon during the pandemic has acted as a natural sanitizer in limiting the spread of the virus. The mean rainfall is  ~ 20-40 mm over the selected cities, resulting in an average decrease in COVID cases by ~ 18-26% for the next 3 days after the rainfall. The day-to-day variations of the meteorological parameters and COVID-19 cases clearly demonstrate that both surface temperature and relative humidity play a vital role in the indirect transport of the virus. Our analysis reveals that most COVID-19 cases fall within the surface temperature range from 24 to 30 °C and relative humidity range from 50% to 80%. At a given temperature, COVID-19 cases show a large dependency on the relative humidity;therefore, the coastal environments were more prone to infections. Wavelet transforms coherence analysis of the daily COVID-19 cases with temperature and relative humidity reveals a significant coherence within 8 days.

4.
Doboku Gakkai Ronbunshu. B1, Suikogaku = Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers. Ser. B1, Hydraulic Engineering ; 77(1), 2021.
Article in Japanese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2162821

ABSTRACT

In July 2020, the Kyushu region experienced record-breaking heavy rains from July 4-7, causing extreme floods in the Kuma and Chikugo Rivers. This was followed by atmospheric instability over a wide area from western Japan to the Tohoku region, resulting in heavy rainfall on July 13-14 in the Chugoku region, and on July 27-28 in the Tohoku region, and flooding of large rivers including the Go River and the Mogami River. In recent years, record-breaking torrential rainfall disasters have been occurring every year, and the heavy precipitation scale as well as the rainfall intensity has been increasing in space and time, resulting in spatio-temporal expansion of the damage. Furthermore, in 2020, the disaster occurred while the social activities had been restricted due to COVID-19 pandemic. The compilation and dissemination of disaster survey data and lessons are essential toward the sustainable development of society. Therefore, JSCE has planned a special issue on the July 2020 torrential rain disaster in order to share and disseminate disaster information and to contribute to the advancement of technology and science related to disaster prevention and mitigation.抄録 令和2年7月,九州地方では4日から7日にかけて記録的な大雨となり,球磨川や筑後川では記録的な洪水が発生した.その後も西日本から東北地方の広い範囲で大気が不安定となり,江の川,最上川など大河川においても氾濫が相次いだ.近年では,毎年のように記録的な豪雨災害が発生しており,降雨強度だけでなく降雨のスケールが時空間的に大きくなっており,被害が時空間的に拡大している.さらに,令和2年度は新型コロナウィルスによる感染症対策のため,人々の活動が制限される中での災害となった.災害調査データを取り纏め,情報発信することは今後の持続可能な社会を検討する上で不可欠である.土木学会論文集では,災害情報を共有・発信し,防災に関する技術および学術分野の進展に資するために令和2年7月豪雨災害に関する特集を企画した.

5.
Doboku Gakkai Ronbunshu. B1, Suikogaku = Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers. Ser. B1, Hydraulic Engineering ; 77(1), 2021.
Article in Japanese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2162820

ABSTRACT

Recordable heavy rainfall hit and caused severe floods from the Kuma River in Hitoyoshi and Kuma regions in July, 2020 due to an active frontal rain system. This paper aims to clarify challenges and issues in measures taken by core medical institutions against large-scale floods, which have been identified in the flood event in Kuma River in July 2020, based on the interview with the core medical institution in those regions. The paper then discusses directions for effective flood countermeasures of core medical institutions in order to have more robust Business Continuity Plan (BCP) for large-scale flood disasters.抄録 令和2年7月豪雨災害では,九州地方や東北地方などで大規模な出水となり,中でも九州地方では人的被害を含む甚大な被害が生じた.一方で,本災害は,新型コロナウイルス感染症(COVID-19)が全国的に流行する中で発生した最初の大規模水害であり,特殊な感染症への対応を継続しつつも,大規模な水害が発生した場合に地域の医療機能をどのように維持していくかが大きく問われた災害でもあった.本稿では,人吉・球磨地方における地域医療の拠点病院に対して令和2年7月豪雨災害での球磨川の氾濫に伴う浸水時の状況と対応についてヒアリングを行った結果を報告するとともに,これを踏まえた拠点医療機関の水害対策の課題と方向性について述べる.

6.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1107(1):012009, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160857

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has had a broad impact on several aspects of human life, one of which is the issue of food sufficiency. Due to social restrictions, the agricultural sector, which plays a role in producing food for humans, may be affected by the pandemic. These restrictions impact the availability of farm labor and the market, both agricultural inputs, and outputs. This three-year study examines the factors that influence the productivity and income of maize farmers in the dry sandy lands of Gumantar village, North Lombok, Indonesia, before and during the Covid-19 pandemic. The method used was descriptive quantitative with 50 respondents, determined by accidental sampling. The study results showed variations in land area ownership of respondent farmers, variations in crop productivity, and variations in the form of products sold, such as selling cobs and selling grains. Maize production was more affected by rainfall, fertilizer availability, and pest disturbances than the Covid-19 pandemic. However, the Covid-19 pandemic impacted the income of maize farmers due to restrictions on the mobility of maize buyers.

7.
Journal of King Saud University - Science ; : 102465, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2122624

ABSTRACT

In this study, I have conducted non-medical, non-clinical-care research that will enable immediate exploring of how environmental factors affect spread of COVID-19 in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). It focusses on climatic environmental factors that affect the distribution and population size of disease vectors and the relationship(s) between each of these environmental variables that provided from National Center for Metrology and COVID-19 infected cases from Ministry of Health in KSA. I used daily environmental data, including minimum, maximum, and averages temperatures (°C), rainfall amounts (mm), wind speed (KTS/Deg) and relative humidity (%) over the Riyadh region in Saudi Arabia. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient used to analyze the data. The results showed that average temperatures, minimum temperatures, and maximum temperatures were significantly correlated with a COVID-19 epidemic, (r = 0.527;0.509;0.530 respectively). A negative correlation was found with relative humidity (r= -0.475). These findings will be used as lessons learned as well as best practices in the future to help decision makers to understand the factors controlling COVID-19's spread in KSA.

8.
Zhongguo Jishui Paishui = China Water & Wastewater ; - (19):1, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2119129

ABSTRACT

The city-wide lockdown management was implemented in Shanghai from the end of March to the beginning of June in response to the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic. The sudden change of the way of work, lifestyle and industrial structure in the megacity would inevitably influence the characteristics of wastewater production, the composition of wastewater, the influent conditions, and operations of wastewater treatment plants(WWTPs). The main countermeasures of operation in typical WWTPs were analyzed, which could provide a reference for early-warning and precaution when similar situations occur in WWTPs in the future. In order to eliminate the interference caused by the hysteresis effect after the rain stops in the combined drainage system, the corresponding relationship between the rainfall conditions and the influent quantity and quality of WWTPs was studied.The new statistical standard was established for distinguishing"rainy days"or"count dry days". The contemporaneous data of WWTPs in Shanghai central area during dry season in the past three years was analyzed. It was found that the quantity and quality of the influent showed a reverse trend during Shanghai's city-wide lockdown period. The quantity of wastewater decreased by 6% in the corresponding period, and the concentration of COD and NH3-N decreased by 33% and 17%, respectively. The addition of a large amount of chlorine-containing disinfectants led to an increase in the concentration of residual chlorine in the influent of some WWTPs. Based on the analysis of treatment process and design parameters of the existing WWTPs, the operation mode of exploiting potentialities was finally adopted.WWTPs operated stably and the effluent quality could meet the discharge standards through measures such as strengthening pretreatment, prolonging sludge retention time, controlling the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the biological reaction section, and increasing the dosage of phosphorus removal agents.

9.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1098(1):012020, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2118178

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between Covid-19 mortality cases and environmental variables, namely PM2.5 concentration and weather variables, in Denpasar City, Indonesia. Regression models were used. The response variable was the monthly Covid-19 mortality from March 2020 to December 2021 and the predictor variables were the mean concentration of PM2.5, temperature, wind speed, rainfall and duration of sunshine. All data analyzed were provided by the Indonesian Government. Simple linear regression (SLR) and dynamic regression with ARIMA error models were used. Further, of the 22 monthly data, the first 19 months data were used to train the models and the remaining data were used as the test data. It is found that both wind speed and the interaction between PM2.5 concentration and wind speed have statistically significant relationships with Covid-19 mortality. The estimates of SLR and ARIMA (0,1,1) with interaction models show that on average, in case of 0.5 m/s wind speed, an increase of 1 𝜇g/m3 in the monthly mean of daily PM2.5 concentrations associates with 17.4 and 16.3 increase in the monthly Covid-19 mortality case, respectively. Although this study is observational, its findings suggest the importance of controlling PM2.5 concentration.

10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(30): 40378-40393, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115866

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate the impact of meteorological indicators (temperature, rainfall, and humidity) on total COVID-19 cases in Pakistan, its provinces, and administrative units from March 10, 2020, to August 25, 2020. The correlation analysis showed that COVID-19 cases and temperature showed a positive correlation. It implies that the increase in COVID-19 cases was reported due to an increase in the temperature in Pakistan, its provinces, and administrative units. The generalized Poisson regression showed that the rise in the expected log count of COVID-19 cases was 0.024 times for a 1 °C rise in the average temperature in Pakistan. Second, the correlation between rainfall and COVID-19 cases was negative in Pakistan. However, the regression coefficient between the expected log count of COVID-19 cases and rainfall was insignificant in Pakistan. Third, the correlation between humidity and the total COVID-19 cases was negative, which implies that the increase in humidity is beneficial to stop the transmission of COVID-19 in Pakistan, its provinces, and administrative units. The reduction in the expected log count of COVID-19 cases was 0.008 times for a 1% increase in the humidity per day in Pakistan. However, humidity and COVID-19 cases were positively correlated in Sindh province. It is required to create awareness among the general population, and the government should include the causes, symptoms, and precautions in the educational syllabus. Moreover, people should adopt the habit of hand wash, social distancing, personal hygiene, mask-wearing, and the use of hand sanitizers to control the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Humidity , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature
11.
Environment and Development Economics ; : 1-19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2031803

ABSTRACT

Insights on the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are critical for designing and implementing policies to alleviate the food security burden it may have caused, and for bolstering rural communities against similar macroeconomic shocks in the future. Yet estimating the causal effects of the pandemic is difficult due to its ubiquitous nature and entanglement with other shocks. In this descriptive study, we combine high-resolution satellite imagery to control for plot-level rainfall with household socio-economic panel data from 2014, 2016, 2019 and 2020, to differentiate the effect of the pandemic from climatic shocks on food security in Morogoro, Tanzania. We find evidence of decreased incomes, increased prices of staple foods, and increased food insecurity in 2020 relative to previous years, and link these changes to the pandemic by asking households about their perceptions of COVID-19. Respondents overwhelmingly attribute economic hardships to the pandemic, with perceived impacts differing by asset level.

12.
Lung India ; 39(5):488-489, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2030169
13.
Water ; 14(17):2612, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024375

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper is accurately framed in its title: Are pluvial and fluvial (river) floods on the rise? First, physical mechanisms that drive changes in hazard of pluvial and fluvial floods were examined. Then, a review of literature was undertaken on detection and an attribution of changes in hazard of pluvial and fluvial floods in observation records for past to present, as well as in model-based projections for the future. Various aspects, factors, processes and mechanisms, as well as various indices of interest were considered. There is quite a common, even if not scientifically justified, belief that, generally, floods are on the rise. However, in this paper, a balanced, knowledge-based assessment was undertaken, with discussion and interpretation, including caveats and indicating considerable departures from such a flat-rate statement. Observation records show that precipitation extremes have been intensifying on a global scale and for many regions. A formal detection and attribution analysis shows that intensification of rainfall events may have been influenced by greenhouse gas forcing of anthropogenic origin. Frequency and magnitude of pluvial floods is on the rise with increasing intense precipitation, while changes of river floods are more complex. High river discharges were found to increase in some regions, but to decrease in other regions, so that no general corollaries can be drawn at the global scale. Heavy rainfall events and pluvial floods are projected to become, almost ubiquitously, more frequent and more intense with progressing climate change, while frequency and magnitude of fluvial floods are likely to increase in many but not all regions.

14.
SciDev.net ; 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1998733

ABSTRACT

Cyril Ferrand, FAO resilience team leader for East Africa Swarms have “been damaging crops and pastures and crippling communities in the Greater Horn of Africa, Arabian Peninsula and Southwest Asia” since October, explained World Resources Institute climate programme research analyst Tina Huang. See PDF] FAO desert locust global forecast May-July 2020 The level of threat in West Africa could also change significantly in the next few weeks based on rainfall, winds and the locust situation in Arabia and East Africa, the FAO says. “The biggest challenge we are facing at the moment is the supply of pesticides and we have delays because global air freight has been reduced significantly,” says Cyril Ferrand, the FAO's resilience team leader for East Africa.

15.
SciDev.net ; 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1998707

ABSTRACT

Speed read Jordanians face water rationing as sources dry up Farmers are advised to only plant on half their land Dams are less than half full [AMMAN] Jordanians face the country’s worse water shortage in almost a decade due to the combined effect of weak rainfall and water overuse during COVID-19 lockdowns. [...]we wasted water by providing farmers with large additional quantities of irrigation, above their approved quota.” See PDF] Duraid Mahasneh, president of the Association for the Sustainability of Water, Environment and Renewable Energysaid the water problem in Jordan is more political than geographical. “Since 1948, the kingdom has received refugees due to the conflicts in the region, and at a time when the kingdom’s water suffices two million people, the current population requires distributing it among 10 million,” he said.

16.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9715, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994199

ABSTRACT

Land-use transition is one of the most profound human-induced alterations of the Earth’s system. It can support better land management and decision-making for increasing the yield of food production to fulfill the food needs in a specific area. However, modeling land-use change involves the complexity of human drivers and natural or environmental constraints. This study develops an agent-based model (ABM) for land use transitions using critical indicators that contribute to food deserts. The model’s performance was evaluated using Guilford County, North Carolina, as a case study. The modeling inputs include land covers, climate variability (rainfall and temperature), soil quality, land-use-related policies, and population growth. Studying the interrelationships between these factors can improve the development of effective land-use policies and help responsible agencies and policymakers plan accordingly to improve food security. The agent-based model illustrates how and when individuals or communities could make specific land-cover transitions to fulfill the community’s food needs. The results indicate that the agent-based model could effectively monitor land use and environmental changes to visualize potential risks over time and help the affected communities plan accordingly.

17.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society ; 103(7):E1650-E1657, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1974004

ABSTRACT

The October 2020 Virtual Symposium by the International Atmospheric Rivers Conference What: Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, the science of atmospheric rivers was well served by the organization of a virtual symposium joined by more than 100 researchers. In addition to conveying new science, significant lessons were learned on how to run virtual events. When: 5-9 October 2020 Where: Online. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society is the property of American Meteorological Society and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

18.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(14):9483-9497, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1954573

ABSTRACT

In this work we present airborne in situ trace gas observations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the sum of organic hydroperoxides over Europe during the Chemistry of the Atmosphere – Field Experiments in Europe (CAFE-EU, also known as BLUESKY) aircraft campaign using a wet chemical monitoring system, the HYdrogen Peroxide and Higher Organic Peroxide (HYPHOP) monitor. The campaign took place in May–June 2020 over central and southern Europe with two additional flights dedicated to the North Atlantic flight corridor. Airborne measurements were performed on the High Altitude and LOng-range (HALO) research operating out of Oberpfaffenhofen (southern Germany). We report average mixing ratios for H2O2 of 0.32 ± 0.25, 0.39 ± 0.23 and 0.38 ± 0.21 ppbv in the upper and middle troposphere and the boundary layer over Europe, respectively. Vertical profiles of measured H2O2 reveal a significant decrease, in particular above the boundary layer, contrary to previous observations, most likely due to cloud scavenging and subsequent rainout of soluble species. In general, the expected inverted C-shaped vertical trend with maximum hydrogen peroxide mixing ratios at 3–7 km was not found during BLUESKY. This deviates from observations during previous airborne studies over Europe, i.e., 1.64 ± 0.83 ppbv during the HOOVER campaign and 1.67 ± 0.97 ppbv during UTOPIHAN-ACT II/III. Simulations with the global chemistry–transport model EMAC partly reproduce the strong effect of rainout loss on the vertical profile of H2O2. A sensitivity study without H2O2 scavenging performed using EMAC confirms the strong influence of clouds and precipitation scavenging on hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Differences between model simulations and observations are most likely due to difficulties in the simulation of wet scavenging processes due to the limited model resolution.

19.
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences ; 22(7):2289-2316, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934500

ABSTRACT

We present a quantitative risk analysis (QRA) case study from the Kā Roimata o Hine Hukatere / Franz Josef Glacier and Te Moeka o Tuawe / Fox Glacier valleys, on the west coast of the South Island, Aotearoa / New Zealand. The glacier valleys are important tourist destinations that are subject to landslide hazards. Both valleys contain actively retreating glaciers;experience high rainfall;and are proximal to the Alpine Fault, which is a major source of seismic hazard on the west coast. We considered the life safety risk from rockfalls, soil/rock avalanches, and flows that either are seismically triggered or occur aseismically. To determine the range in risk values and dominant contributing variables to the risk, we modelled nine different risk scenarios where we incrementally changed the variables used in the risk model to account for the underlying uncertainty. The scenarios represent our central estimate of the risk, e.g. neither optimistic nor conservative, through to our upper estimate of the risk. We include in these estimates the impact time-variable factors, such as a recently reactivated landslide, have had on locally increasing risk and the time-elapsed since the last major earthquake on the nearby Alpine Fault. We disaggregated our risk results to determine the dominant drivers in landslide risk, which highlighted the importance of considering dynamic time-variable risk scenarios and the changing contributions to risk from aseismic versus seismic landslides. A detailed understanding of the drivers of landslide risk in each valley is important to determine the most efficient and appropriate risk management decisions.

20.
Remote Sensing ; 14(13):3140, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1934191

ABSTRACT

This study uses satellite imagery and geospatial data to examine the impact of floods over the main planting areas for double-cropping rice and grain crops in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. During summer 2020, a long-lasting 62-day heavy rainfall caused record-breaking floods over large areas of China, especially the Yangtze basin. Through close examination of Sentinel-1/2 satellite imagery and Copernicus Global Land Cover, between July and August 2020, the inundation area reached 21,941 and 23,063 km2, and the crop-affected area reached 11,649 and 11,346 km2, respectively. We estimated that approximately 4.66 million metric tons of grain crops were seriously affected in these two months. While the PRC government denied that food security existed, the number of Grains and Feeds imported from the U.S. between January to July 2021 increased by 316%. This study shows that with modern remote sensing techniques, stakeholders can obtain critical estimates of large-scale disaster events much earlier than other indicators, such as disaster field surveys or crop price statistics. Potential use could include but is not limited to monitoring floods and land use coverage changes.

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