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1.
Pulmonary Circulation ; 13(1), 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2173426

ABSTRACT

We evaluated pressure-based right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and diastolic isovolumetric relaxation time constant (Tau) from continuously (up to 30 days) invasive measured right ventricular pressures in mechanically ventilated patients with severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We retrospectively calculated beat-to-beat ejection fraction from right ventricular pressures and dp/dt maximum and minimum in 39 patients treated between October 1st, 2020 and June 30th, 2021. After performing a stepwise logistic regression with survival as a dependent variable, we divided the patients into survivors and nonsurvivors based on their 60-day mortality. Independent outcome variables were the values of RVEF and Tau over time after insertion of the right ventricular probe along with right ventricular systolic and diastolic pressures (RVSP) and the estimated pulmonary artery diastolic pressure (ePAD). RVEF increased significantly over time in the survivors (estimate: 0.354;95% confidence interval, CI: 0.18-0.53;p < 0.001) but remained unchanged in the nonsurvivors. Tau increased significantly in the nonsurvivors (estimate: 0.001;95% CI: 0.0004-0.0018;p < 0.002) but not in the survivors. On the last measurement day, RVSP and ePAD were significantly lower while RVEF was significantly higher in the survivors compared to the nonsurvivors. In COVID-19 ARDS patient's, calculation of beat-to-beat RVEF and Tau from continuously invasive measured right ventricular pressures seems to unravel contrary trends in RVEF with an increase in the surviving and a decrease in the nonsurviving patients. Tau remained unchanged in the surviving but increased in the nonsurviving patients over time.

2.
Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences ; 18:25-30, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2170131

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Severe anxiety disorders experienced by patients with chronic kidney failure always increase up to 68.7% in undergoing hemodialysis therapy. Management of patients with kidney failure is basically by doing hemodialysis. One of the psychological measures to reduce the anxiety of patients undergoing hemodialysis is to perform progressive muscle relaxation. Aim: Knowing the effect of progressive muscle relaxation techniques on anxiety in patients undergoing hemodialysis. related to nurses' knowledge about IPC application with 20 questions. Meanwhile, the implementation of IPC is carried out using a checklist from IPC surveillance conducted by infection prevention control nurse (IPCN). Three hundred thirty-six nurses observations were obtained from this study. Data analysis used descriptive and inferential regression to investigate the characteristics, knowledge, and implementation of IPC. Results: The results showed that almost all nurses in private hospitals had received training related to the application of IPC. Most nurses' knowledge is good, although all components have not reached maximum values. There are still several IPC components, such as patient placement, environmental, and PPE usage, that still need to be improved. No significant relationship was found between knowledge and the application of IPC in the COVID-19 ward. Conclusion: It is necessary to conduct intensive training that involves observation of essential domains of IPC for both nurses and IPCN. This study had some implications on clinical practice that components of IPC training need to more emphasize on observation skills. Further study is needed to investigate the availability of facilities in the treatment room, organizational support, and internal factors to fully capture the IPC implementation. © 2022 UPM Press. All rights reserved.

3.
Social Policy and Society ; 22(1):106-121, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2160122

ABSTRACT

Public health measures to address the COVID-19 pandemic have disrupted welfare regimes around the world. The Australian government suspended activation requirements for millions of social security clients and substantially increased payment levels. Both measures go against the dominant policy logic over the past several decades in Australian social policy. When these changes were made, many advocates and academics called for a permanent increase in the rate of payment and a relaxation of activations requirements. The Australian Government insisted the stimulus package was temporary and that there would be a gradual return to the pre-pandemic policy settings. In this article, we examine what was learned during this natural experiment of unconditional higher payments, which temporarily lifted millions of households out of poverty. We argue that a return to pre-pandemic policy settings should not go unchecked as there remains an opportunity to consider alternative approaches to the welfare-work nexus in Australia.

4.
Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2158193

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has negatively affected life worldwide and caused catastrophic loss of life. It has also been harming the economic activities of businesses, and airline companies are among the sectors most affected by this situation. One of the goals for survival in such a situation is to make the best in airline revenue management (ARM). The most helpful model for ARM is Expected Marginal Seat Revenue (EMSR), widely used in the literature and industry. In this study, the simple and effective models that simulated EMSRa, EMSRb, and EMSRc were developed, called EMSR Total Revenue Control (EMSRtrc). The proposed three models aim to keep the simplicity of the original EMSR models while creating a new perspective and methodology. The developed EMSRtrc models were tested with numerical examples and compared with EMSRa, EMSRb, and EMSRc models proposed previously in the literature. Numerical examples show that the developed EMSRtrc models perform better than the EMSRa, b, and c. For the minimum revenue category, the developed EMSRtrc models exhibit outstanding performance. The results show that the proposed models guarantee a higher minimum revenue of 9.900, 11.619, and 2.537%, respectively. The EMSRtrc models have generated higher revenue and achieved a higher load factor rate of up to 98% simultaneously. Considering the third numerical example, the approximate number of empty seats is 1.3 for the EMSRtrc-(a), 2.65 for the EMSRtrc-(b), and 7.85 for the EMSRtrc-(c). The overall results demonstrate that the proposed model is an effective tool for ARM. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1):791, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2162329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Caring for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) challenges nurses and causes them to experience stress and anxiety. From this perspective, it is of utmost importance to develop quick and effective intervention strategies to prevent numerous complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the progressive muscle relaxation technique, using the demonstration method on the stress and anxiety of nurses who care for COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in 2021. Forty-six nurses working in two referral hospitals with wards for COVID-19 patients in Tehran, Iran recruited by convenience sampling method and then randomly assigned to experimental or control groups. The nurses in the experimental group educated the progressive muscle relaxation by the demonstration method, and they were encouraged to practice it. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 was utilized to measure the stress and anxiety levels in the nurses. RESULTS: Before the intervention, the levels of stress in the experimental and control groups were 13.91 ± 2.41 vs. 14.34 ± 2.74 (p = 0.571), and their anxiety was 13.34 ± 3.41 vs. 12.78 ± 2.21 (p = 0.510), respectively. After the intervention, the levels of stress in the experimental and control groups were 10.95 ± 2.01 vs. 14.17 ± 2.34 (p < 0.001), and their anxiety was 9.47 ± 2.37 vs. 12.91 ± 1.85 (p < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, the levels of stress and anxiety in the experimental group significantly diminished after intervention (p < 0.001), but no significant changes were observed in the control group (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Concerning the effectiveness of the progressive muscle relaxation technique in relieving the stress and anxiety of the nurses caring for COVID-19 patients, it is suggested to include this relaxation technique in nursing courses.

6.
Work ; 73(3): 769-775, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Burnout is a state of emotional, physical, and mental exhaustion caused by excessive stress. Burnout weakens the energy of an individual which reduces productivity and leaves this individual helpless, hopeless, cynical, and resentful. Thus, an early diagnosis of this syndrome has to be done and ways to prevent the level of progression and complication of burnout syndrome has to be planned. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of self-supervised Jacobson's relaxation technique along with Bhastrika Pranayama in reducing the level of burnout among the work-from-home IT professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: Thirty participants with burnout syndrome were randomly divided into two groups (15 participants in each group) using random allocation. The experimental group received Jacobson's relaxation technique along with Bhastrika Pranayama, whereas the control group received diaphragmatic breathing exercises and chest expansion exercises. Pre-test and post-test values using Maslach Burnout Inventory were used to interpret the results. RESULTS: Data collected were analyzed statistically by the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. It shows that there is a significant reduction in the level of burnout in the experimental group when compared to the control group at a p-value of 0.001. CONCLUSION: From the results, it is concluded that Jacobson's relaxation technique along with diaphragmatic breathing exercises showed significant improvement in the reduction of burnout levels.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Burnout, Professional/etiology , Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Breathing Exercises
7.
Comput Ind Eng ; 174: 108808, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104548

ABSTRACT

The vast nationwide COVID-19 vaccination programs are implemented in many countries worldwide. Mass vaccination is causing a rapid increase in infectious and non-infectious vaccine wastes, potentially posing a severe threat if there is no well-organized management plan. This paper develops a mixed-integer mathematical programming model to design a COVID-19 vaccine waste reverse supply chain (CVWRSC) for the first time. The presented problem is based on minimizing the system's total cost and carbon emission. The uncertainty in the tendency rate of vaccination is considered, and a robust optimization approach is used to deal with it, where an interactive fuzzy approach converts the model into a single objective problem. Additionally, a Lagrangian relaxation (LR) algorithm is utilized to deal with the computational difficulty of the large-scale CVWRSC network. The model's practicality is investigated by solving a real-life case study. The results show the gain of the developed integrated network, where the presented framework performs better than the disintegrated vaccine and waste supply chain models. According to the results, vaccination operations and transportation of non-infectious wastes are responsible for a large portion of total cost and emission, respectively. Autoclaving technology plays a vital role in treating infectious wastes. Moreover, the sensitivity analyses demonstrate that the vaccination tendency rate significantly impacts both objective functions. The case study results prove the model's robustness under different realization scenarios, where the average objective function of the robust model is less than the deterministic model ones' in all scenarios. Finally, some insights are given based on the obtained results.

8.
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering ; 401, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2095196

ABSTRACT

A central feature of pandemics is the emergence and decay of localized infection waves. While traditional SIR models for infectious diseases can reproduce such waves, they fail to capture two key features. First, SIR models are unable to represent short-duration super-spreader events which often trigger infection waves in a community. Second, SIR models predict exponential decay to an asymptotic state after the infection wave peaks. In contrast, observations suggest a slower algebraic decay. In this paper, we develop models for the basic reproduction number R0 to capture these features. To generate quantitative estimates for R0 during super-spreader events, we reconcile the SIR framework with the Wells-Riley model for airborne disease transmission. We also show that algebraic decay emerges naturally if models are modified to account for the behavioral tendency towards relaxing precautions as the infected fraction decreases. This approach merges for the first time behavioral with physicochemical aspects.(c) 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

9.
Psychology of Music ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2082978

ABSTRACT

People tend to participate in musical activities-whether it is making or listening to music-for reasons that are related to basic psychological needs. This study explored whether the coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19) has changed the reasons for participating in musical activities and examined the relationship between these reasons and well-being during as well as before the pandemic. In total, 246 people (between 18 and 35 years) completed a survey during the pandemic, which contained questions relating to the reasons for participating in musical activities-namely the promotion of identity and agency, mood regulation, relaxation and company, enjoyment-and to subjective and eudaimonic well-being before and after the outbreak of the pandemic. Results showed that during the pandemic compared with before, people more often chose music to promote identity and agency, mood regulation, and relaxation and company. Two of the reasons that were invoked more often-namely identity and agency and mood regulation-positively predicted eudaimonic and subjective well-being, respectively, during the pandemic as well as before. Thus, people's reasons for participating in musical activities during the pandemic compared with before changed in a direction consistent with increasing both eudaimonic and subjective well-being.

10.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A184, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064027

ABSTRACT

Aims Literature describes that most neonates with SARS-CoV-2 infection are asymptomatic or present with mild symptoWe describe an ex-preterm twin infant, born at 31+5 with birthweight 1600g, who deteriorated with COVID pneumonitis at 34 weeks corrected gestational age. They were an inpatient in a level 3 neonatal centre, with an uncomplicated stay prior to becoming unwell and had never been ventilated in their early neonatal course. Methods They acquired postnatal covid on day 24 of life, and deteriorated over the next 72 hours, escalating from high flow to CPAP then BiPAP, and finally requiring intubation. They were empirically commenced on antibiotics and required sedation and muscle relaxation to manage their worsening respiratory failure. Given their acute respiratory decompensation in the context of COVID, and with negative extended virology and bacterial testing otherwise, they were managed on a presumptive diagnosis of COVID pneumonitis. CXRs were consistent with this diagnosis. Despite further escalation in their ventilation strategies, including high frequency oscillatory ventilation and inhaled nitric oxide, they continued to deteriorate with severe hypoxic respiratory failure. Inotropic support was required to maintain cardiac stability. There was extensive MDT discussion between NICU, PICU and the Infectious Diseases teaDue to the severity of their condition, Remdesivir was commenced and the parents were fully informed of the trial nature of the drug and the guarded prognosis. Hydrocortisone was also commenced. Results Due to ongoing deterioration, the patient was transferred to PICU for ongoing care and consideration of ECMO. However, the infant stabilised and the hydrocortisone that had been commenced was switched to methylprednisolone. The Remdesivir was discontinued after 2 doses due to a worsening in LFTs. The situation was further complicated by COVID isolation guidelines while keeping family centred care at the heart of our approach, working within infection control policies and managing a relatively unfamiliar pathology in the neonatal population. Conclusion The infant progressed well and was extubated onto nasal cannula oxygen on day 40 of life and repatriated to our neonatal unit on day 41 at 37+4 corrected gestational age. They had an uneventful stay in our SCBU, establishing feeding, until discharge with home oxygen at 41+1 weeks corrected gestational age.

11.
Journal of the Intensive Care Society ; 23(1):207, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2042949

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Diaphragm dysfunction has been described as being responsible for weaning failure with an incidence of 23-80%. It has also been associated with difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation, prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay and increased ICU and hospital mortality.1 This case report describes the use of bedside ultrasound to diagnose diaphragm dysfunction, assess the severity of dysfunction, refer to specialist care and monitor disease progression in patient with COVID-19 pneumonitis with difficulty weaning from mechanical ventilation. Main body: A 59 year-oldmale with no known past medical history was admitted to our ICU with respiratory failure due to COVID-19 pneumonitis. He had received continuous positive pressure ventilation with oxygen supplementation on the medical high dependency unit for 15 days prior to deteriorating and requiring invasive ventilation in ICU. In ICU, the patient was mandatory ventilated using lung protective ventilation strategies for 26 days before he was switched to pressure support ventilation for attempts to wean him from mechanical ventilation. During the initial phase of his ICU admission, he was severely hypoxaemic and required deep sedation as well as muscle relaxation for a total of 370 hours. Prone positioning was required on 4 occasions before he was stable in the supine position. Once attempts to liberate him from mechanical ventilation were being made, pressure support was gradually reduced along with PEEP and FiO2. Progress with this reduction in support was slow due to marked tachypnoea and a dyssynchronous respiratory pattern. It was also noted that he had poor air entry in his right base with corresponding right lower zone opacities on his chest x-ray. At this stage a bedside ultrasound was used to investigate the cause of weaning difficulty and consequently, the diagnosis of right diaphragmatic paralysis was made. This was a new finding, as his admission chest x-ray did not show a raised hemidiaphragm. This diagnosis led to an increased focus on physical rehabilitation and mobilisation with tolerance of his tachypnoea and respiratory pattern as we now appreciated this didn't represent ongoing underlying parenchymal lung disease. We also made a referral to the respiratory team in order to facilitate longer-term rehabilitation and follow up. The patient was successfully extubated after intense physical rehabilitation, post extubation he remained tachypnoeic and still required supplemental oxygen at the point of hospital discharge. A follow up diaphragm ultrasound 6 months after discharge did not show any improvement in the right diaphragmatic function, he remains dyspnoeic on exertion and still occasionally uses ambulatory supplemental oxygen. Conclusion: Ultrasound assessment revealed an unexpected cause of weaning difficulty in our patient that allowed us to individualise his weaning plan and rehabilitation. This case shows that bedside intensivist performed ultrasound can accurately evaluate diaphragmatic function in patients who are difficult to wean from mechanical ventilation. Brief description of ultrasound video: The diaphragm was scanned using low frequency curvilinear ultrasound probe. There is lack of diaphragmatic excursion and absent thickening of the right hemidiaphragm on subcostal and intercostal views. M-mode evaluation and 'sniff test' confirms diaphragmatic paralysis.

12.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023369

ABSTRACT

Stroke survivors with aphasia (SsWA) tend to experience high levels of anxiety and stress, leading to an increased risk of recurrent strokes. Mindfulness and/or relaxation that does not require language outputs could reduce psychosocial stress; however, these approaches work best if they consist of a range of techniques and are modified to suit the needs of SsWA. Using a mixed-methods approach, we examined the feasibility and acceptability of a set of tailored mindfulness and relaxation techniques for SsWA. Nine SsWA were recruited (six men and three women, median age = 51 years). Four relaxation and mindfulness techniques which had been tailored for SsWA were filmed into a DVD/YouTube video and were given to participants together with a practice diary for home practice once daily for 5 weeks. The participants joined focus group discussions and completed a feasibility scale 5 weeks later. The participants perceived these techniques as easy, user-friendly and acceptable for SsWA in general. Although practised less often than instructed, many participants reported benefits of regular practice. The perceived relevance of these techniques to the participants' own situations and the intention to continue varied. Future research could encourage the regular practice of self-help interventions by incorporating behavioural change techniques such as using prompts and cues.

13.
ACSM'S Health & Fitness Journal ; 26(5):3-3, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2021414

ABSTRACT

The article offers fitness news briefs on topics including announcement of annual rankings highlighting key health and fitness measures for the 100 largest cities in the United States by the ACSM's American Fitness Index;and different recovery strategies for optimizing exercise performance and recovery potential of a mind and body.

14.
Health Education and Health Promotion ; 10(1):1-12, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1989889

ABSTRACT

Aims: This study aimed to assess the impact of Benson's Relaxation Technique (PRT) on psychological distress and sleep quality among older people's during COVID 19 pandemic. Instrument & Methods: A quasi‐experimental research design was used to achieve the aim of this study. 95 elders, recruited randomly as follows;50 from Geriatric social club in Zagazig City, 20 from El‐Resala geriatric house in Zagazig City, and 25 from geriatric home in Met Ghamr City. Three tools were utilized for data collection, namely, Interview questionnaire sheet, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) for measuring depression, anxiety as well as stress, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) for measuring sleep quality. Findings: More than three‐quarters of the participants had chronic diseases. The majority had unsatisfactory knowledge about Benson's Relaxation Technique at the pre‐intervention phase. Two thirds of elders had severe depression level;slightly less than two thirds had severe anxiety, about three quarters had severe stress at the pre‐intervention phase with statistical significant reduction post intervention phase. The majority had poor sleep quality (97.9%) at the pre‐intervention phase, which decreased at the post‐intervention phase to 50.5%. Conclusion: This study concluded that. Benson's Relaxation Technique have great effect on psychological distress and sleep quality of elderly people. Gero‐psychiatric nurses should encourage elderly people to apply BRT for enhancement of their psychological wellbeing. © 2022, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

15.
Erciyes Medical Journal ; 44(4):416-422, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1988603

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine factors that may affect anesthesia and surgical complications, difficult airway, and the need for intensive care unit (ICU) care in cleft lip and cleft palate (CLCP) surgeries. Materials and Methods: The study was a retrospective review of the records of 617 patients who underwent CLCP surgery between 2015–2019. Results: The number of anesthesia complications was higher in patients with difficult mask ventilation. Surgical complications were more common in patients >1 year of age. Isolated cleft palate (CP) surgery;presence of a concomitant disease, syndrome, or micrognathia;age >1 year;and the CP subtype were associated with a higher rate of difficult intubation. Isolated cleft palate, concomitant disease, syndrome, micrognathia, difficult intubation, difficult mask ventilation, and anesthesia complications were associated with ICU admission. Conclusion: The CP subtype was associated with a higher rate of difficult intubation and ICU hospitalization even in patients who were nonsyndromic and/or >1 year of age. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the anesthesia and surgical management of these patients.

16.
Pharmaceutisch Weekblad ; 157(8):21, 2022.
Article in Dutch | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1975931
17.
Journal of Intellectual Property Rights ; 27(3):163-170, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1970381

ABSTRACT

In October 2020, South Africa and India proposed a plan to protect developing nations' interests and ensure a seamless supply of COVID-19 vaccinations. While rich countries have made rapid progress with their immunization programmes, many poor and underdeveloped countries have been left behind to fend for themselves due to patent protection. With the frightening rate at which COVID-19 cases have been emerging, the global population requires immediate and equitable access to life-saving vaccines. In this paper a methodological systematic review of IPR waiver related journal papers and newsletters published from 2019-2021 was performed. Search was conducted through significant scientific databases for relevant publications for this systematic review. This paper discusses to waive IPR in the COVID-19 pandemic, which has received both criticism and praise. Some opponents oppose the IPR waiver because it eliminates rewards for pharmaceutical corporations' R & D efforts. Vaccine development necessitates specialized requirements which cost a lot of money. Along with this, pharmaceutical corporations will be hesitant to take the lead in the future if a situation similar to COVID-19 arises. However, those in favour believe that an IPR waiver can reduce the barriers to countries producing their own vaccines, particularly for the lowest-income nations. Whether the reasoning is correct or incorrect, the timely & equitable distribution of COVID-19 immunizations is critical to the abolition of this pandemic. © 2022, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources. All rights reserved.

18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969250

ABSTRACT

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, health education programs and workplace health promotion (WHP) could only be offered under difficult conditions, if at all. In Germany for example, mandatory lockdowns, working from home, and physical distancing have led to a sharp decline in expenditure on prevention and health promotion from 2019 to 2020. At the same time, the pandemic has negatively affected many people's mental health. Therefore, our goal was to examine audiovisual stimulation as a possible measure in the context of WHP, because its usage is contact-free, time flexible, and offers, additionally, voice-guided health education programs. In an online survey following a cross-sectional single case study design with 393 study participants, we examined the associations between audiovisual stimulation and mental health, work engagement, and burnout. Using multiple regression analyses, we could identify positive associations between audiovisual stimulation and mental health, burnout, and work engagement. However, longitudinal data are needed to further investigate causal mechanisms between mental health and the use of audiovisual stimulation. Nevertheless, especially with regard to the pandemic, audiovisual stimulation may represent a promising measure for improving mental health at the workplace.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Occupational Health , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Education , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Work Engagement , Workplace/psychology
19.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 4052-4059, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966471

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Two years into the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, populations with less built-up immunity continued to devise ways to optimize social distancing measures (SDMs) relaxation levels for outbreaks triggered by SARS-CoV-2 and its variants to resume minimal economics activities while avoiding hospital system collapse. Method: An age-stratified compartmental model featuring social mixing patterns was first fitted the incidence data in second wave in Hong Kong. Hypothetical scenario analysis was conducted by varying population mobility and vaccination coverages (VCs) to predict the number of hospital and intensive-care unit admissions in outbreaks initiated by ancestral strain and its variants (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron). Scenarios were "unsustainable" if either of admissions was larger than the maximum of its occupancy. Results: At VC of 65%, scenarios of full SDMs relaxation (mean daily social encounters prior to COVID-19 pandemic = 14.1 contacts) for outbreaks triggered by ancestral strain, Alpha and Beta were sustainable. Restricting levels of SDMs was required such that the optimal population mobility had to be reduced to 0.9, 0.65 and 0.37 for Gamma, Delta and Omicron associated outbreaks respectively. VC improvement from 65% to 75% and 95% allowed complete SDMs relaxation in Gamma-, and Delta-driven epidemic respectively. However, this was not supported for Omicron-triggered epidemic. Discussion: To seek a path to normality, speedy vaccine and booster distribution to the majority across all age groups is the first step. Gradual or complete SDMs lift could be considered if the hybrid immunity could be achieved due to high vaccination coverage and natural infection rate among vaccinated or the COVID-19 case fatality rate could be reduced similar to that for seasonal influenza to secure hospital system sustainability.

20.
Comput Biol Med ; 148: 105849, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: For the emerging significance of mental stress, various research directives have been established over time to understand better the causes of stress and how to deal with it. In recent years, the rise of video gameplay has been unprecedented, further triggered by the lockdown imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Several researchers and organizations have contributed to the practical analysis of the impacts of such extended periods of gameplay, which lacks coordinated studies to underline the outcomes and reflect those in future game designing and public awareness about video gameplay. Investigations have mainly focused on the "gameplay stress" based on physical syndromes. Some studies have analyzed the effects of video gameplay with Electroencephalogram (EEG), Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), etc., without concentrating on the relaxation procedure after video gameplay. METHODS: This paper presents an end-to-end stress analysis for video gaming stimuli using EEG. The power spectral density (PSD) of the Alpha and Beta bands is computed to calculate the Beta-to-Alpha ratio (BAR). The Alpha and Beta band power is computed, and the Beta-to-Alpha band power ratio (BAR) has been determined. In this article, BAR is used to denote mental stress. Subjects are chosen based on various factors such as gender, gameplay experience, age, and Body mass index (BMI). EEG is recorded using Scan SynAmps2 Express equipment. There are three types of video gameplay: strategic, puzzle, and combinational. Relaxation is accomplished in this study by using music of various pitches. Two types of regression analysis are done to mathematically model stress and relaxation curve. Brain topography is rendered to indicate the stressed and relaxed region of the brain. RESULTS: In the relaxed state, the subjects have BAR 0.701, which is considered the baseline value. Non-gamer subjects have an average BAR of 2.403 for 1 h of strategic video gameplay, whereas gamers have 2.218 BAR concurrently. After 12 minutes of listening to low-pitch music, gamers achieved 0.709 BAR, which is nearly the baseline value. In comparison to Quartic regression, the 4PL symmetrical sigmoid function performs regression analysis with fewer parameters and computational power. CONCLUSION: Non-gamers experience more stress than gamers, whereas strategic games stress the human brain more. During gameplay, the beta band in the frontal region is mostly activated. For relaxation, low pitch music is the most useful medium. Residual stress is evident in the frontal lobe when the subjects have listened to high pitch music. Quartic regression and 4PL symmetrical sigmoid function have been employed to find the model parameters of the relaxation curve. Among them, quartic regression performs better in terms of Akaike information criterion (AIC) and R2 measure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Video Games , Communicable Disease Control , Electroencephalography , Humans , Pandemics
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