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2.
Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology ; 112(2):369-405, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837704

ABSTRACT

While the Supreme Court has defined certain constitutional protections for incarcerated individuals, the Court has never clearly defined the due process rights of immigrant detainees in the United States. Instead, the Supreme Court defers to the due process protections set by Congress when enacting U.S. immigration law. Increasingly, the federal courts defer to Congress and the Executive 's plenary power over immigration law and enforcement. This has resulted in little intervention in immigration matters by the federal courts, causing the difference between immigration detention and criminal incarceration to diminish in both organization and appearance. Immigration detention, however, is a form of civil detention and is legally distinct from criminal incarceration. This distinction is important because the federal courts traditionally approach civil detention with a scrutinizing eye. Civil detainees receive certain Fifth Amendment protections not available to the criminally convicted, namely that their detention cannot amount to punishment. The consequences of lacking a clear definition of immigrant detainees ' due process rights became far more apparent during the COVID-19 pandemic. As COVID-19 infections spread and detention and confinement conditions became more perilous, immigrant detainees relied on habeas corpus petitions to challenge the conditions of their confinement and seek release. However, several federal courts concluded that habeas was an inappropriate vehicle through which to challenge conditions of immigration detention, reflecting a long-standing circuit split within the criminal incarceration context. This Comment argues that courts that denied habeas petitions for release of immigrant detainees during the COVID-19 pandemic incorrectly analogized immigration detention to post-conviction criminal incarceration. This Comment suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need for the federal courts to take a more principled approach to analyzing the substantive due process rights of immigrant detainees by drawing analogies to a different stage of the criminal adjudication process: pretrial detention.

3.
Journal of Modern Rehabilitation ; 16(1):77-84, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1836162

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Myofascial Release Therapy (MRT) on cardiorespiratory functions in patients with COVID-19. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 patients with COVID-19 (intervention group=20, controls=16) were included in the present study. The patients in the intervention group participated in a single session of suboccipital, anterior thoracic and sternal, anterior cervical, and diaphragm myofascial release techniques, plus respiratory physiotherapy. The controls just received respiratory physiotherapy. Before-after assessments included recording heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, blood oxygen saturation, chest expansion, and breathing comfort. Results: There was a significant reduction in the heart rate and ease of breathing in the intervention group (P=0.04, P=0.02;respectively);also, the diastolic blood pressure increased significantly in the control group (P=0.02). Compared to the controls, the ease of breathing decreased significantly in the intervention group (P=0.03). Conclusion: Myofascial release techniques of the neck, thoracic, and diaphragm, along with respiratory physiotherapy, could immediately affect heart rate and ease of breathing and prevent increasing diastolic blood pressure. If a patient with COVID-19 is stable, pulmonary physiotherapists may consider using these techniques while monitoring cardiopulmonary function. © 2021 The Authors.

4.
Encyclopedia ; 1(1):206, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1834742

ABSTRACT

DefinitionTissue integrity depends on biological tissue stiffness. Tissue integrity can protect both against age-related diseases and against severity of COVID-19. The disruption of tight junctions and increase of tissue permeability with advancing age can be related with age-related diseases as well as with age-dependent COVID-19. Release of tightly bound water from collagen fibrils leads to the increase of extracellular matrix stiffness and to the associated with matrix stiffness increased tissue permeability. The link between arterial stiffness and oxidative stress has been reported and is expected to be studied in more detail in the future. Trehalose can be suggested for retardation of tightly bound water release and subsequent extracellular matrix crosslinking by advanced glycation end products. Increase in tissue permeability can be blocked by polyphenols that inhibit ICAM-1 expression and mitigate cytoskeleton reorganization. NF-κB activation as a result of increased stiffness and cytoskeleton reorganization can cause both cardiovascular pathologies and COVID-19. Increased cholesterol content in cell membrane leads to increased virus entry into cell and increase of cholesterol is linked with cardiovascular diseases. Statins and chitosan are known as cholesterol-lowering substances. Nrf2 inhibits NF-κB activation and NF-κB inhibits Nrf2 pathway.

5.
Global Journal of Medical Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Update ; 16(8):11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822702

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic which spread from Wuhan China toward the latter part of 2019 has resulted in 216,303,376 confirmed cases and 4,498,451deaths deaths to date. The novelty and lack of a definitive treatment protocol for the virus and the acute respiratory distress syndrome it produces has resulted in patients being placed on artificial ventilation and most often never recovering therefrom. Very little is known about the pathophysiology of the virus and the biological mechanisms in which it disrupts to bring about the now identified wide array of clinical features which are not solely isolated to the respiratory tract. It is now an established fact however, that one of the major pathways implicated and on which often results in the death and or severe complications in COVID-19 patients is the cytokine storm. The use of new drugs to combat such a cytokine storm is thus important considering the current global COVID-19 situation so as to stop the further progression of the disease in patients and decrease both morbidity and mortality by crippling a major mechanism which hastens death in the hosts. It is, therefore, vital that a systematic analysis and review of the various therapeutic agents are undertaken to select the best drug for the treatment of patients with cytokine storm. This research aims to relate the best therapeutic regimens currently available precisely and concisely to physicians so as to ensure the best possible treatment modality is selected for each patient. An extensive review of the literature was done on the following databases: Google scholar, Trip database, EMBASE, PubMed, and PubMed Central. The keywords and the Boolean operators used for searches were "COVID-19" OR "SARS-CoV-2" AND "Therapeutics" OR "drug therapy" AND "Cytokine Release Syndrome." The discovery and the use of such drugs, namely, Tocilizumab and potent corticosteroids such as dexamethasone and methylprednisolone in the maximum daily doses of 6 mg and 250 mg, respectively, have shown positive outcome to combat cytokine storm in severe COVID-19 patients. The rationale behind the use of these drugs being to suppress the immune system and thus decrease the detrimental cytokine cascade induced in severely ill COVID-19 patients will be instrumental in the treatment and prevention of severe complication. It is vital for the various drugs under trial and implemented in emergency use to be compared and studied so as to best select the drug which can be incorporated into a treatment regimen which is both effective and has diminished adverse effects.

6.
Clinical Schizophrenia and Related Psychoses ; 15, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822351

ABSTRACT

Background: There have been many patients with neurological manifestations reported in medical literature following a COVID-19 infection. We conducted a literature review to identify patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who presented with Neurocysticercosis (NCC) and associated seizure disorders/ epilepsy. Currently, there is a new variant of the COVID-19 virus strain invading South Africa and no indication when this pandemic will end and what kind of tardive sequelae may occur going forward. Case: We searched the medical literature looking for all publications regarding NCC, Status Epilepticus (SE), Epileptic Seizures (ES), and Epilepsy (Ep), in patients infected by COVID-19. Based on the therapeutic response of our series, we propose a novel approach for patients presenting NCC, epilepsy and associated with COVID-19. We have hypothesized on the pathogenesis of ES and SE from the NCC/Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS), SARS-CoV-2/CRS, including the role played by gut microbiota from the enteric nervous system (gut hormones, gut metabolites, inflammatory factors, neuroactive substances, and microbiota-derived products) to the medulla oblongata/hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis via microbiota gut brain axis in ES, Ep and associated depression, plus the mechanism of hyperferritinemia on the overall process. This article is the first publication approaching this comorbidity as far as we know.

7.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 36(5):631, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822051
8.
FASEB Journal ; 35(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1821960

ABSTRACT

Introduction and Objectives Novel SARS-CoV-2 virus has been implicated in prompting a bold immune response that leads to severe Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recent studies have shown that SARSCoV-2-infected monocytes and macrophages are stimulated to produce an overabundance of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines to generate a cytokine storm. Cytokines in excess can contribute to local tissue inflammation and the pathogenesis of COVID-19. However, the mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 signal macrophage-derived inflammatory response remains unclear. In the present study, we used RAW 264.7 cells, a wellcharacterized macrophage model, to study the in vitro effects of SARS-CoV-2 on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and its potential role in the signal transduction of cytokine production. Methods The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on ROS and cytokine generation in macrophages was assessed by treating RAW 264.7 cells with SARS-CoV-2 heat inactivated virus (0-20 million viral particles) or recombinant proteins for 24 hours. 2',7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein (2',7'-DCF) fluorescence analysis was utilized to quantify ROS generation within the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. Cell culture medium was sampled to quantify the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To assess the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on mitochondrial function, cells were treated with SARS-CoV-2 heat inactivated virus (0-20 million viral particles) for 24 hrs. Mitochondria-derived superoxide was measured using the MitoSOX™ red mitochondrial superoxide indicator. Results Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 viral particles or recombinant proteins stimulated ROS production. Mitochondria-derived superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production were increased in response to inactivated SARS-CoV-2 viral particles and recombinant protein exposure. The increased ROS generation is linked to macrophage activation induced by SARS-CoV-2 exposures. Along with the ROS generation, increased TNF production was observed. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that both SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins and heat-inactivated viral particle exposures cause significant generation of ROS and cytokines by RAW 264.7 cells. ROS generation and the subsequent cytokine release apparently play a significant role in the pathogenesis associated with the SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. The imbalanced cellular defense system against oxidative stress commonly associated with aging could explain the increased occurrence of more severe SARS-CoV-2 illness in seniors and in patients with underlying health conditions. Based on the results from this study, we propose that antioxidants such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine, resveratrol, or Vitamin E in combination with antiinflammatory drug could be used to control excess ROS and cytokines in patients with severe COVID-19.

9.
Diabetologie Metabolismus Endokrinologie Vyziva ; 24(2):74-77, 2021.
Article in Czech | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1820638

ABSTRACT

Recent finding from molecular biologyl have shown that for the penetration of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus into host cells, a key role is played by protease serine 2, the activity of which is dependent on androgens. The important role of androgens is also evidenced by clinical observations that men in some age categories are infected by this novel coronavirus up to two times more frequently than women. In addition, men with androgenic alopecia tend to have a more serious clinical course, while men with androgen deprivation as a result of prostate cancer treatments tend to have milder courses. This is in line with the fact that preadolescent children are only rarely sickened with a serious form of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Even though these observations may be explained by other factors, many authors have hypothesized that lowered androgen levels and blocking their activity using anti-androgen medication may moderate the course of the viral infection in intermediately to critically affected cases. Clearly, it would be important for androgen deprivation to block not just gonadal androgens, but also adrenal androgens. The secretion of adrenal androgens can be reduced with corticoids, so recommended treatments using dexamethasone to patients with more serious COVID-19 disease do not just inhibit the cytokine storm, but also hinder the secretion of adrenal androgens.

10.
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals ; 13(1):4-17, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1820630

ABSTRACT

Excipients are critically important in converting active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) into drug products that have optimal stability, bioavailability, manufacturability, duration of action, and therapeutic benefits. They will play even greater roles in the future to enable drug targeting, delivery of biotech products and vaccines, gene therapy, continuous manufacturing, 3D printing, and so forth. This commentary describes the author’s experience in teaching a graduate course on excipients at St. John’s University to train students on optimal selection and appropriate use of excipients in formulating dosage forms and development of drug delivery systems. The course is offered in 15 two-hour sessions over a semester, and the course materials are divided into 13 modules on chemistry of different classes of polymeric and non-polymeric excipients and their application in dosage form development, including the use as solubilizing agents, lyophilizing agents, cryoprotectants, buffers, biodegradable materials, and carriers for amorphous solid dispersions and 3D printing. The development of coprocessed excipients, the need for new excipients, and the regulatory aspects of excipients are also covered. The course includes presentations by guest speakers from the industry, and the students also watch virtual presentations from experts that are publicly available from the internet. It is a popular course at St. John’s University taken by all graduate students in the pharmaceutics program. It is recommended that such courses are introduced in other pharmacy schools and academic institutions. The course may be adapted to meet specific needs of different academic programs. Professional associations, such as AAPS and CRS, industry groups like IPEC, and the pharmaceutical industry may be able to help in introducing such courses by providing lecture materials and guest lecturers.

11.
Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ; 53(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1817311

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020 has been reported in most countries around the world since its origins in Wuhan, China. As of September 2021, there have been over 229 million cases of COVID-19 reported worldwide, with over 4.7 million COVID-19–associated deaths. Body: The devastating second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India has seen a rise in various extrapulmonary manifestations. One of key components in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is downregulation of ACE-2, which is expressed on many organs and counterbalances the pro-inflammatory effects of ACE/angiotensin-II axis. This leads to influx of inflammatory cells into alveoli, increased vascular permeability and activation of prothrombotic mediators. Imaging findings such as ground glass opacities, interlobular septal thickening, vascular dilatation and pulmonary thrombosis correlate well with the pathogenesis. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the systemic complications of COVID-19 are caused by either direct viral invasion or effect of cytokine storm leading to inflammation and thrombosis or a combination of both. Gaining insights into pathobiology of SARS-CoV-2 will help understanding the various multisystemic manifestations of COVID-19. To date, only a few articles have been published that comprehensively describe the pathophysiology of COVID-19 along with its various multisystemic imaging manifestations.

12.
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology ; 36(5):632, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816588
13.
Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery ; 35(2):A7, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1815947

ABSTRACT

The work led to the formulation of a powder of calcium phosphate coated liposomes containing cyclosporine A (CsA). The formulation was designed to reduce the dose of CsA to be administered following lung transplantation. Potentially this formulation can be used also to contain the inflammatory process due to SARS-CoV-2. Calcium phosphate (CaP) is a material found in bones and teeth and considered non-toxic and biocompatible and this coating could reduce the recognition by alveolar macrophages and increase the cell uptake. Moreover, CaP is insoluble at physiological pH (7.4), while it solubilizes easily at pH below 5. This could favor drug release in the cell after pinocytosis and in inflamed tissues, while reducing drug release at physiological pH [1]. The liposomes produced were evaluated in terms of size, surface charge and drug loading. The presence of the CaP coating was verified by calcium titration, variation of the zeta potential and by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The highest loading was obtained in the formulation containing CsA at 7% (w/w). Cholesterol was added to liposomes at two different concentrations in order to improve the stability of the nanostructure and reduce the drug leakage. However, cholesterol did not bring any improvement to the formulation. The inhalation powder produced by spray drying with the best aerosolization performance (fine particle fraction of coated liposomes powder 33.69 - 1.6% and 50.50- 0.6% for the uncoated liposomes powder) was obtained using a 1:3 weight ratio between liposomes and excipients using mannitol as bulking agent and 15% L-leucine. Key Message: This work aimed to develop a respirable dry powder for inhalation containing CsA for the local treatment of lung immune diseases. CsA was efficiently loaded into CaP-coated liposomes and transformed into a respirable powder by spray-drying. The inhaled immunosuppressive product would offer multiple advantages related to drug deposition at the target site. Furthermore, the coating of the liposomes governs the release of the drug which will occur only at only at biological acidic conditions.

14.
Qatar Medical Journal ; 2022(2):1-2, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1811102

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe COVID-19 is thought to be caused by immune overdrive and cytokine storm. One of the cytokine storm syndromes frequently induced by infections is secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) which can be assessed using H-score. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the rate of patients with COVID-19 who meet HLH criteria based on H-score and the association of H-score with poor outcomes. Methods: In a prospective cohort study of 19 patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU stay from March to May, 2020, we collected demographic and clinical data that focused on H-score's variables and COVID-19 outcomes. H-score ≥ 169 was used to determine the percentage of patients who met the HLH criteria. Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Spearman rho tests and multiple regression analyses were carried out to evaluate the associated factors. The optimal H-score cut-off to predict poor COVID-19 outcome (need for intubation ± ECMO) was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: In 669 patients with severe COVID-19 with a mean ± SD age of 50.3 ± 12.8 years, which comprised 95% men;66% required intubation, 4% ECMO, and 16% died. Only 2% had an H-score ≥ 169. Patients with poor outcomes had a higher mean (SD) H-score than those without;intubation (96.0 [50.0] vs 75.0 [35.0], p < 0.01), ECMO (113.0 [25.0] vs 93.0 [50.0], p < 0.01) and death (98.0 [62.0] vs 93.0 [48.0], p < 0.01). Factors associated with H-score were diabetes (β coeff = − 10.4, p < 0.01), abdominal pain (β coeff = 19.1, p < 0.01), duration of COVID-19 symptoms (β coeff = − 0.7, p = 0.049), and days before ICU admission (β coeff = − 1.2, p = 0.01). H-score showed a fair ability to discriminate COVID-19 outcomes (AUC 0.61, 95% CI 0.54–0.67). An H-score of 85 was the optimal cut-off with a sensitivity 69% and 1-specificity 53%. Conclusion: Despite its association with severity in COVID-19, H-score's ability to predict poor outcomes was only fair, indicating differences in the cytokine storm faced in COVID-19 compared with that during secondary HLH. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Qatar Medical Journal is the property of Hamad bin Khalifa University Press (HBKU Press) and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

15.
Indian Journal of Respiratory Care ; 11(1):52-58, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1810701

ABSTRACT

Background: Atypical category of COVID-19 could not be differentiated from tuberculosis (TB) in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest because of similar imaging features. This study aims to distinguish between the HRCT features of TB and atypical COVID-19. Methodology: Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) was performed in all the 54 COVID-positive patients, showing atypical COVID features that are suspicious of TB on the HRCT chest. Atypical imaging features such as a tree in bud nodules, patchy consolidations, cavitation with surrounding consolidation, discrete nodules, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and pleural effusion were analyzed in 50 IGRA-negative patients. Results: We found trees in bud nodules (93%) and consolidations (56%) involving predominantly lower lobes, i.e., superior and posterobasal segments. Discrete nodules and cavitation with surrounding consolidation were seen involving predominantly upper lobes (78 and 57% cases, respectively), i.e., apicoposterior and lingular segments of the left upper lobe. The maximum number (67%) of right paratracheal enlarged nodes and bilateral pleural effusions (71%) were found in IGRA-negative COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: It is not always possible to differentiate features of atypical COVID-19 from TB based on HRCT chest alone because of similar appearances and distribution of tree in bud nodules, consolidation, cavitation, and lymphadenopathy in HRCT chest. Since both bilateral and unilateral pleural effusions may be seen in TB, it is impossible to differentiate COVID-19 from TB based on pleural effusion. Therefore, exclusion of TB will need supportive, relevant laboratory investigations (Sputum acid fast bacilli, cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test, and IGRA) for appropriate diagnosis and management.

16.
Polymers ; 14(8):1504, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810089

ABSTRACT

In terms of drug delivery, the attractive properties of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) and its aliphatic polyesters, poly(ethylene adipate) (PEAd) and poly(butylene adipate) (PBAd), render them ideal co-formulants for the preparation of modified-release pharmaceutical formulations. Furthermore, we have previously demonstrated that by adding a “softer” aliphatic polyester onto the macromolecular chain of PLA, i.e., PEAd or PBAd, resulting in the formation of the PLA’s copolymers (PLA-co-PEAd and PLA-co-PBAd, in 95/5, 90/10, 75/25 and 50/50 weight ratios), the hydrolysis rate is also severely affected, leading to improved dissolution rates of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). In the present report, we communicate our findings on the in vitro modified release of the chronobiotic hormone melatonin (MLT), in aqueous media (pH 1.2 and 6.8), from poly(L-lactic acid) and the aforementioned copolymer matrix tablets, enriched with commonly used biopolymers, such as hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC K15), lactose monohydrate, and sodium alginate. It was found that, depending on the composition and the relevant content of these excipients in the matrix tablets, the release of MLT satisfied the sought targets for fast sleep onset and sleep maintenance. These findings constitute a useful background for pursuing relevant in vivo studies on melatonin in the future.

17.
Molecules ; 27(8):2560, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810042

ABSTRACT

Herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) infection causes a significant life-long disease. Long-term side effects of antiviral drugs can lead to the emergence of drug resistance. Thus, propolis, a natural product derived from beehives, has been proposed to prevent or treat HSV-2 infections. Unfortunately, therapeutic applications of propolis are still limited due its poor solubility. To overcome this, a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system was employed. An ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) was encapsulated in nanoparticles composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and chitosan using a modified oil-in-water single emulsion by using the solvent evaporation method. The produced nanoparticles (EEP-NPs) had a spherical shape with a size of ~450 nm and presented satisfactory physicochemical properties, including positively charged surface (38.05 ± 7.65 mV), high entrapment efficiency (79.89 ± 13.92%), and sustained release profile. Moreover, EEP-NPs were less cytotoxic on Vero cells and exhibited anti-HSV-2 activity. EEP-NPs had a direct effect on the inactivation of viral particles, and also disrupted the virion entry and release from the host cells. A significant decrease in the expression levels of the HSV-2 replication-related genes (ICP4, ICP27, and gB) was also observed. Our study suggests that EEP-NPs provide a strong anti-HSV-2 activity and serve as a promising platform for the treatment of HSV-2 infections.

19.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:856327, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809401

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been declared a public health emergency of international concerns. Cytokine storm syndrome (CSS) is a critical clinical symptom of severe COVID-19 patients, and the macrophage is recognized as the direct host cell of SARS-CoV-2 and potential drivers of CSS. In the present study, peramivir was identified to reduce TNF-alpha by partly intervention of NF-kappaB activity in LPS-induced macrophage model. In vivo, peramivir reduced the multi-cytokines in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), alleviated the acute lung injury and prolonged the survival time in mice. In human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs), peramivir could also inhibit the release of TNF-alpha. Collectively, we proposed that peramivir might be a candidate for the treatment of COVID-19 and other infections related CSS.

20.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10:862495, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809350

ABSTRACT

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a systemic inflammatory response resulting in overexpression of cytokines in serum and tissues, which leads to multiple-organ failure. Due to rapid aggravation of symptoms, timely intervention is paramount;however, current therapies are limited in their capacity to address CRS. Here, we find that the intravenous injection of highly purified detonation-synthesized nanodiamonds (DND) can act as a therapeutic agent for treating CRS by adsorbing inflammatory cytokines. Highly purified DNDs successfully inactivated various key cytokines in plasma from CRS patients with pneumonia, septic shock, and coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic (COVID-19). The intravenous injection of the DND samples in a mouse sepsis model by cecal ligation and puncture significantly improved survival rates and prevented tissue damage by reducing the circulating inflammatory cytokines. The results of this study suggest that the clinical application of highly purified DND can provide survival benefits for CRS patients by adsorbing inflammatory cytokines.

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