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1.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1085(1):012004, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2051201

ABSTRACT

Many educational buildings still do not have proper ventilation systems, are not sustainable in use, and contribute to the spread of Covid-19 viruses. The biggest challenge for the future is to provide attractive, useable, healthy, and sustainable educational buildings in the Netherlands. But is this challenge realistic? Old buildings are usually demolished and replaced by new ones because the government hardly gives any compensation for building renovation or transformation. This leads to the demolition of many school buildings even though the application of new raw materials is not circular and has an impact on our climate and environment. Furthermore, many pre-war buildings are heritage that have a positive impact on neighbourhoods. It is unclear who is responsible for educational buildings, renovation, and financing all the ambitions. The government, the municipality or the school foundation? Problems will soon be exacerbated. At this moment the environmental impact (MilieuPrestatieGebouwen MPG) has no legal base however, this will rapidly change in the age of a circular economy and the upcoming renovation wave. Atelier PRO architects designs many educational buildings and they noticed a change of attitude in conceptualizing educational buildings the last years in the forerunner municipality Amsterdam. Based on these cases and experiences atelier PRO learned their lessons about the ideal renovation towards attractive, healthy and sustainable educational buildings.

2.
Sustainability ; 14(17):10478, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2024172

ABSTRACT

A considerable amount of construction and demolition wood waste (CDWW) is generated, mostly landfilled, contributing to severe environmental effects. The management of CDWW is a significant challenge as it is a hazardous contaminated waste. In this context, the circular economy (CE) concept is a solution as it comprises waste minimisation and efficient recovery of resources. Although much research is found in the literature on CDWW end-of-life management, research on CE implementation considering every life cycle stage is still scarce. In this review, we endeavour to integrate CE in CDWW to identify the waste management strategies involved in the life cycle phases. The databases were searched from 2009 to 2020 and were analysed using CiteSpace version 5.7.R1 software. Forty-nine articles were identified, and the six life cycle stages were explored. The analysis shows that CE for wood waste is essential and has greater growth potential. While the LCA studies are limited to environmental viewpoints, combining economic and social perspectives is necessary for sustainable development. Overall, based on the research findings, a theoretical framework was proposed. This study, as a consequence, promotes the application of recycled wood into multiple valuable products and thus encourages waste management to boost CE and sustainability.

3.
4th International Conference on Cities Identity Through Architecture and Arts, CITAA 2020 ; : 251-264, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013878

ABSTRACT

The paper reflects on how the identity and authenticity of art cities, with special regard to those that are considered as best practices in the field of heritage protection, can be undermined by processes of tourist gentrification stimulated by the global interest they exercise because of their recognized universal value. The neighborhood of San Lorenzo within the World Heritage Site of Florence (Italy) is presented as a case study of a historic community whose socio-economic fabric has deeply changed over the years due to increasing overtourism. The paper focuses on the action research “San Lorenzo Laboratory”, coordinated by the Department of Architecture of the University of Florence, which aims to define, on a participatory basis, a shared strategy for the socially sustainable regeneration of the neighborhood, leveraging the redesign of public space and the reuse of an abandoned historical complex—the former monastery of Sant'Orsola. The results of the Laboratory, which took the form of requests and design concepts derived from discussions between experts, citizens, and stakeholders, have been delivered to the public institutions concerned and are intended to pave the way for a development and management model for the entire historic center, alternative to the tourist monoculture. The paper concludes by highlighting how the first effects of the initiative can be seen today in some policies and measures implemented by the City Council in response to the social and economic crisis triggered by the Covid-19 pandemic. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

4.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9672, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994197

ABSTRACT

In accordance with the new recovery plan, Next Generation EU (NGEU), and the need to speed up the transition of cities towards a new sustainable model, this paper provides an overview of the outcomes of the PEDRERA project, which is focused on the development of a novel tool able to calculate multiple key performance indicators that can support renovation actions at the district level, according to a Positive Energy District (PED) concept. The new tool is programmed in Python programming language and is useful to evaluate several strategies for the renovation of existing building stock. It moves from a quick list of input according to several Public Private Partnership (PPP) models, in addition to other potential business models. Furthermore, the design of the model is supported by a step-by-step methodology in order to deal with a “financial appraisal” that is interactive in each context, customizable for each stakeholder, and user-friendly. The paper describes this innovative tool and reports on the stronger potential that this model can offer when it runs in a QGIS software environment and interacts with a PostgreSQL database, as demonstrated in two case studies located in Spain.

5.
Energies ; 15(15):5389, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1993959

ABSTRACT

Buildings account for 40% of the European Union’s energy consumption. Deep energy renovation of residential buildings is key for decarbonization and energy poverty alleviation. However, renovation is occurring at far below the needed pace and depth. In this context, building renovation one-stop shops, which bring all project phases under one roof and provide advice, support, and finance to households, are highlighted as a promising solution. Nevertheless, this model is still absent or under-developed in most European countries and remains understudied in the scientific literature. Therefore, the present research goals are as follows: (i) to provide a critical review of emerging one-stop shop models;(ii) to streamline the deployment of building renovation digital one-stop shops by piloting a sequential multi-staged approach for Portuguese households and proposing it for replication elsewhere;and (iii) to compare case-study insights with other one-stop shops and discuss the notion in the context of the European Renovation Wave. In total, for the Portuguese case-study, five steps were conducted. The first three—stakeholder mapping, expert interviews, and customer journey—aimed to gather intel on the local energy renovation market. The results from these stages informed the design of the platform (fourth step). Finally, a post-launch market consultation survey gathered user feedback (fifth step). Insights from this study suggest that digital one-stop shops, while providing a helpful tool to close information gaps and activate specific audiences, may be insufficient on their own. As such, a more comprehensive set of instruments supporting households is needed to accelerate building renovation.

6.
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1891305

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to focus on the sustainability of prefabricated medical emergency buildings (PMEBs) renovation after the epidemic, to address the problem that large numbers of PMEBs may be abandoned for losing their original architectural functions. This study develops an evaluation system to identify and measure sustainable factors for PMEBs’ renovation schemes. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of PMEBs’ renovation scheme was conducted based on cloud model evaluation method and selected the renovation scheme in line with sustainable development. The study promotes evaluation methods and decision-making basis for the renovation design of global PMEBs and realizes the use-value of building functions again. Design/methodology/approach: By referring to the existing literature, design standards and expert visiting a set of evaluation index systems which combines the renovation of the PMEBs and the sustainability concept has been established, which calculates the balanced optimal comprehensive weight of each indicator utilizing combination weighting method, and quantifies the qualitative language of different PMEBs’ renovation schemes by experts through characteristics of the cloud model. This paper takes Huoshenshan hospital a representative PMEB during the epidemic period as an example, to verify the feasibility of the cloud model evaluation method. Findings: The research results of this paper are that in the PMEBs’ renovation scheme structural reformative (T11) and corresponding nature with the original building (T13) have the most important influence;the continuity of architectural cultural value (T22) and regional development coherence (T23) are the key factors affecting the social dimension;the profitability of renovated buildings (T34) is the key factor affecting the economic dimension;the environmental impact (T41), resource utilization (T42) and ecological technology (T43) are the key factors in the environmental dimension. Originality/value: This study contributes to the existing body of knowledge by supplementing a set of scientific evaluation methods to make up for the sustainability measurement of PMEBs’ renovation scheme. The main objective was to make renovated PMEBs meet the needs of urban sustainable development, retain the original cultural value of the buildings, meanwhile enhance their social and economic value and realize the renovation with the least impact on the environment. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

7.
Vet Res Commun ; 46(3): 837-852, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888963

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current pandemic disease denominated as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several studies suggest that the original source of this virus was a spillover from an animal reservoir and its subsequent adaptation to humans. Of all the different animals affected, cats are one of the most susceptible species. Moreover, several cases of natural infection in domestic and stray cats have been reported in the last few months. Although experimental infection assays have demonstrated that cats are successfully infected and can transmit the virus to other cats by aerosol, the conditions used for these experiments have not been specified in terms of ventilation. We have, therefore, evaluated the susceptibility of cats using routes of infection similar to those expected under natural conditions (exposure to a sneeze, cough, or contaminated environment) by aerosol and oral infection. We have also evaluated the transmission capacity among infected and naïve cats using different air exchange levels. Despite being infected using natural routes and shed virus for a long period, the cats did not transmit the virus to contact cats when air renovation features were employed. The infected animals also developed gross and histological lesions in several organs. These outcomes confirm that cats are at risk of infection when exposed to infected people, but do not transmit the virus to other cats with high rates of air renovation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Disease Susceptibility/veterinary , Humans , Pandemics/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Generations Journal ; 45(2):1-12, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871544

ABSTRACT

Low-income older people in particular face a number of risks and precarities related to health, housing, and care. This article offers case studies from members of a city-wide advocacy group, Senior Housing Preservation-Detroit. Although the coalition's work began in raising awareness about risks arising from displacement due to HUD building contracts expiring, its work was altered by COVID-19. Thus the article outlines how community-based initiatives protected older residents from risks at the intersections of poverty, housing, and health amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Buildings ; 12(5):682, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871537

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the spatial renovation of university libraries in various countries has focused on readers’ needs and followed the trend to develop learning spaces as a primary spatial form. In this study, we reviewed six spatial dimensions affecting student users’ learning experience. Specifically, we built a theory- and practice-based conceptual analysis framework to measure users’ satisfaction with recent spatial renovations at three university libraries in Wuhan, China. We used SPSS statistical software to conduct multiple linear regression analyses of spatial satisfaction. The findings show that five spatial dimensions significantly affect students’ satisfaction with library space, namely, service facility availability, quality of interior design, physical environment elements, spatial diversity, and learning space controllability. Service facility availability is the most critical factor affecting spatial satisfaction. In this study, we present empirical, evidence-based space elements that enhance user satisfaction with library spaces, and provide targeted design suggestions for future library space renovation and the optimization of space allocation and expansion of space services at university libraries in China.

10.
Sustainability ; 14(9):22, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1855766

ABSTRACT

Evidence shows that people have a major impact on building performance. Occupants' impact is especially important in social housing, where their occupants may present greater vulnerabilities, and their needs are not always considered. This study aims to analyse the socio-demographic influence in social rental housing concerning hygrothermal comfort and energy consumption in a case study located in Vitoria, Spain during the first 4-month period of 2020 and 2021 (during and after COVID-19 lockdown). An innovative data management system is included, where the users and administration can see in real-time the temperature and consumption in the dwellings. A 2-phase method has been applied;phase 1 is associated with outdoor climate conditions, building properties and social profile. Phase 2 determined the results in energy consumption, indoor hygrothermal comfort and occupant energy-use pattern. The results show that the comfort levels and energy consumption vary according to the analysed social profiles, as well as the heating activation periods and domestic hot water system usage. In conclusion, socio-demographic characteristics of social housing households influence the hygrothermal comfort of their dwellings, occupants' behaviour and heating and domestic hot water energy consumption.

11.
Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship ; 34(1):46-60, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1830435

ABSTRACT

Data from assessment of library building use can aid in making important decisions, such as where a renovation would be most impactful, in addition to the actual impact of those types of renovations. This article examines space usage data collected at Valdosta State University’s Odum Library from 2017 to 2021. Renovations in two key areas occurred during that time. Patron counts were conducted using the Suma Space Usage software that was initially developed at North Carolina State University. Initial examination of this data shows a marked increase in use in areas where renovation occurred and a modest increase in overall library usage, after the renovation ended. Full and expected collection of data was interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
Applied Sciences ; 12(7):3385, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1785489

ABSTRACT

In recent decades, the issue of existing buildings’ energy retrofit has played a central role in the context of international and national territorial development policies, mainly due to the obsolescence state that characterizes the housing stock. Since the current need for energy renovation collides with the widespread low spending capacity of the owners, in recent years numerous fiscal incentives have been envisaged, aimed at promoting building initiatives for the improvement of energy performance indices. With reference to the Italian fiscal measure so-called Superbonus, introduced by the “Relaunch” Law Decree No. 34/2020, in the present research, a model for evaluating the economic benefits, in terms of the convenience of the operators involved, generated by energy requalification interventions, has been proposed. The analysis has been developed with regards to the Italian territory and to the prevailing building typology, by considering 110 provincial capitals and the main urban areas into which each city is divided (central, semi-central, and peripheral). Specifically, for each urban area of the Italian capitals considered, the market value differential between the after energy and before energy intervention situations has been firstly determined. Furthermore, assuming an ordinary profit margin of a generic investor interested in this type of investment, the break-even incentive, i.e., the percentage threshold able to ensure the condition of minimum convenience for an investor, has been estimated for each urban area.

13.
Buildings ; 12(3):321, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1760393

ABSTRACT

The building sector continues to play an essential role in reducing worldwide energy consumption. The reduced consumption is accompanied by stricter regulation for the thermotechnical design of the building envelope. The redefined nearly Zero Energy Building levels that will come into force for each member state will pressure designers to rethink the constructive details so that mandatory levels can be reached, without increasing the construction costs over an optimum level but at the same time reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The paper aims to illustrate the main conclusions obtained in assessing the thermo-energy performance of a steel-framed building representing a holistically designed modular laboratory located in a moderate continental temperate climate, characteristic of the south-eastern part of the Pannonian Depression with some sub-Mediterranean influences. An extensive numerical simulation of the main junctions was performed. The thermal performance was established in terms of the main parameters, the adjusted thermal resistances and global thermal insulation coefficient. Further on, the energy consumption for heating was established, and the associated energy rating was in compliance with the Romanian regulations. A parametric study was done to illustrate the energy performance of the investigated case in the five representative climatic zones from Romania. An important conclusion of the research indicates that an emphasis must be placed on the thermotechnical design of Light Steel Framed solutions against increased thermal bridge areas caused by the steel’s high thermal conductivity for all building components to reach nZEB levels. Nevertheless, the results indicate an exemplary behaviour compared to classical solutions, but at the same time, the need for an iterative redesign so that all thermo-energy performance indicators are achieved.

14.
Sustainability ; 14(5):3042, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1742677

ABSTRACT

Preventing environmental degradation and climate changes are some of the primary challenges of our civilization. Changes to the construction sector, which consumes vast amounts of raw materials, emits significant amounts of greenhouse gas and significant amounts of waste, are very important to reduce emissions and stop negative environmental changes. Regardless of the type of goal, an essential element to achieve it is understanding the purpose and tools necessary to implement appropriate and efficient solutions. This paper presents the survey results on understanding issues related to assessing construction products, including their environmental impact. The survey was conducted among professional groups related to construction, i.e., 181 investors, 522 contractors, and 116 sellers of construction products from various regions of Poland. Questions concerning thermal insulation materials and the external thermal insulation composite system (ETICS), the most widely used solution in the EU for the improvement of thermal performance of buildings, were asked. The obtained results indicate that the knowledge of the basic requirements of construction works under the Construction Products Regulation (CPR) is not too high (the share of correct answers was respectively 33.5%, 23.2%, and 16.2% in contractors, sellers, and investors groups). Similarly, the awareness of the tested, related to the environmental burden in terms of GWP of insulation materials and components of ETICS, should be assessed (49.7% of investors, 57.1% sellers of construction products, and 76.4% contractors indicated the thermal insulation material as the ETICS component with the highest environmental impact in terms of GWP). The obtained research results indicate the need for further education for evaluating construction products and sustainability.

15.
Sustain Cities Soc ; 77: 103548, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621040

ABSTRACT

Since the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, the normalization of the epidemic has posed great challenge to epidemic prevention and control in indoor environment. Ventilation systems are commonly used to prevent and control indoor transmission of disease. However, most naturally ventilated rooms are not efficient to prevent the spread of virus, i.e., classrooms. The goal of this work is to effectively adopt forced interference strategies (e.g., airflow deflector) applied to external windows to strengthen airflow diffusion performance (ADP) of natural ventilation. So far, no systematic study has been done to investigate the effectiveness of such airflow deflectors on its influence on natural ventilation and effectiveness of preventing the disease transmission in indoor environment. In this work, a case study was conducted based on cross-ventilated classrooms. Different settings of airflow deflectors (i.e., size and installation angle) were applied to the external windows. Air Diffusion Performance Index (ADPI) was utilized to evaluated airflow diffusion performance under different settings of the airflow deflectors. Then, the Wells-Riley model was applied to evaluate infection risk. According to the results, the infection risk can be reduced by 19.29% when infection source is located at the center of classroom and 17.47% when source is located near the side walls. This work would provide guidance for the design of classrooms ventilated with induced natural wind for epidemic prevention and control.

16.
Sustainability ; 13(24):13881, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1596594

ABSTRACT

Energy renovation of post-World War II private multifamily residential buildings has been identified to have a great deal of energy-saving potential but faces a great challenge across Europe, and especially in South Europe, due to fragmented property structures and longer return periods in energy efficiency investments. However, there is great deal of potential in activating demand aggregation in areas with homogeneous typologies. Local authorities play a key role in leading district-scale renovation but lack adequate methods for analysing and prioritizing areas from an integrated perspective, including social aspects. The methodology presented in this paper aims to support local authorities by providing a tool for the diagnosis and prioritization of homogeneous groups of residential buildings to address their renovation based on an analysis of their needs and opportunity factors. First, the methodology sets the universe of analysis;second, based on indicators, it provides comparative information within the municipality, which leads to a prioritization of areas for building renovations according to the state of the building and to the socio-economic profile of the residents;lastly, a detailed diagnosis of selected groups is performed, providing information to design the Renovation Action Plans accordingly. The application of the methodology in Basauri is presented in this paper.

17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534059

ABSTRACT

Children spend the majority of their time indoors, and a substantial portion of this time in the school environment. Air pollution has been shown to adversely impact lung development and has effects that extend beyond respiratory health. The goal of this study was to evaluate the indoor environment in public schools in the context of an ongoing urban renovation program to investigate the impact of school building renovation and replacement on indoor air quality. Indoor air quality (CO2, PM2.5, CO, and temperature) was assessed for two weeks during fall, winter, and spring seasons in 29 urban public schools between December 2015 and March 2020. Seven schools had pre- and post-renovation data available. Linear mixed models were used to examine changes in air quality outcomes by renovation status in the seven schools with pre- and post-renovation data. Prior to renovation, indoor CO measurements were within World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, and indoor PM2.5 measurements rarely exceeded them. Within the seven schools with pre- and post-renovation data, over 30% of indoor CO2 measurements and over 50% of indoor temperatures exceeded recommended guidelines from the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers. Following renovation, 10% of indoor CO2 measurements and 28% of indoor temperatures fell outside of the recommended ranges. Linear mixed models showed significant improvement in CO2, indoor PM2.5, and CO following school renovation. Even among schools that generally met recommendations on key guidelines, school renovation improved the indoor air quality. Our findings suggest that school renovation may benefit communities of children, particularly those in low-income areas with aging school infrastructure, through improvements in the indoor environment.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , Air Pollution , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Child , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Schools
18.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 35(3): 697-716, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340668

ABSTRACT

The built environment has been integral to response to the global pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In particular, engineering controls to mitigate risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and other newly emergent respiratory pathogens in the future will be important. Anticipating emergence from this pandemic, or at least adaptation given increasing administration of effective vaccines, and the safety of patients, personnel, and others in health care facilities remain the core goals. This article summarizes known risks and highlights prevention strategies for daily care as well as response to emergent infectious diseases and this parapandemic phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Civil Defense , Health Facilities/trends , Infection Control , Safety Management/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Civil Defense/methods , Civil Defense/organization & administration , Environment, Controlled , Hospital Design and Construction/methods , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2
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