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1.
Virol J ; 19(1): 77, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879243

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To retain the spread of SARS-CoV-2, fast, sensitive and cost-effective testing is essential, particularly in resource limited settings (RLS). Current standard nucleic acid-based RT-PCR assays, although highly sensitive and specific, require transportation of samples to specialised laboratories, trained staff and expensive reagents. The latter are often not readily available in low- and middle-income countries and this may significantly impact on the successful disease management in these settings. Various studies have suggested a SARS-CoV-2 loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay as an alternative method to RT-PCR. METHODS: Four previously published primer pairs were used for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the LAMP assay. To determine optimal conditions, different temperatures, sample input and incubation times were tested. Ninety-three extracted RNA samples from St. George's Hospital, London, 10 non-extracted nasopharyngeal swab samples from Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, and 92 non-extracted samples from Queen Elisabeth Central Hospital (QECH), Malawi, which have previously been tested for SARS-Cov-2 by quantitative reverse-transcription RealTime PCR (qRT-PCR), were analysed in the LAMP assay. RESULTS: In this study we report the optimisation of an extraction-free colourimetric SARS-CoV-2 LAMP assay and demonstrated that a lower limit of detection (LOD) between 10 and 100 copies/µL of SARS-CoV-2 could be readily detected by a colour change of the reaction within as little as 30 min. We further show that this assay could be quickly established in Malawi, as no expensive equipment is necessary. We tested 92 clinical samples from QECH and showed the sensitivity and specificity of the assay to be 86.7% and 98.4%, respectively. Some viral transport media, used routinely to stabilise RNA in clinical samples during transportation, caused a non-specific colour-change in the LAMP reaction and therefore we suggest collecting samples in phosphate buffered saline (which did not affect the colour) as the assay allows immediate sample analysis on-site. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 LAMP is a cheap and reliable assay that can be readily employed in RLS to improve disease monitoring and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 474, 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping is critical to the monitoring of antiretroviral treatment. Data on HIV-1 genotyping success rates of different laboratory specimen types from multiple sources is still scarce. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we determined the laboratory genotyping success rates (GSR) and assessed the correlates of genotyping failure of 6837 unpaired dried blood spot (DBS) and plasma specimens. Specimens from multiple studies in a resource-constrained setting were analysed in our laboratory between 2016 and 2019. RESULTS: We noted an overall GSR of 65.7% and specific overall GSR for DBS and plasma of 49.8% and 85.9% respectively. The correlates of genotyping failure were viral load (VL) < 10,000 copies/mL (aOR 0.3 95% CI: 0.24-0.38; p < 0.0001), lack of viral load testing prior to genotyping (OR 0.85 95% CI: 0.77-0.94; p = 0.002), use of DBS specimens (aOR 0.10 95% CI: 0.08-0.14; p < 0.0001) and specimens from routine clinical diagnosis (aOR 1.4 95% CI: 1.10-1.75; p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: We report rapidly decreasing HIV-1 genotyping success rates between 2016 and 2019 with increased use of DBS specimens for genotyping and note decreasing median viral loads over the years. We recommend improvement in DBS handling, pre-genotyping viral load testing to screen samples to enhance genotyping success and the development of more sensitive assays with well-designed primers to genotype specimens with low or undetectable viral load, especially in this era where virological suppression rates are rising due to increased antiretroviral therapy roll-out.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Genotype , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Specimen Handling , Viral Load
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 773704, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775978

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Quality-assured antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) depends upon the knowledge and skills of laboratory staff. In many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including Pakistan, such types of knowledge and skills are limited. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use openaccess online courses to improve the knowledge of laboratory staff involved in the detection and reporting of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Methodology: Seven online modules comprising 22 courses aimed at strengthening the laboratory detection of Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) were developed. The courses were uploaded onto the website www.parn.org.pk. Participants had an option of selecting courses of their interest. Online registration and completion of a pre-course assessment (pre-test) were essential for enrolment. However, participation in post-course assessment (post-test) was optional. The number of registered participants and the proportion of participants who completed each course were computed. A paired t-test was used to assess the increase between mean pre- and post-test scores. The association between the participants working in public vs. private laboratories and course completion rates were determined using the chi-square test. Results: A total of 227 participants from Pakistan (March 2018 to June 2020) were registered. The largest number of registered participants and the highest completion rate were noted for AST and biosafety courses, while quality-related courses attracted a lower interest. A comparison of pre- and post-test performance using the paired mean score for the individual courses showed a statistically significant (the value of p < 0.05) improvement in 13/20 assessed courses. A higher course completion rate was observed in participants from public vs. private sector laboratories (56.8 vs. 30.8%, the value of p = 0.005). Conclusions: Our study suggests a promising potential for open online courses (OOCs) toward addressing knowledge gaps in laboratory practice in resource limited settings.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Education, Distance , Professional Competence , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Humans , Internet , Laboratories , Pakistan
4.
Future Virology ; : 4, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1765638

ABSTRACT

HIV-NAT has held the Bangkok International Symposium on HIV Medicine annually since 1998. It provides the latest advances in HIV medicine to professional healthcare workers in the Asia-Pacific region. This year's symposium (the 24th) was held virtually, from 19 to 21 January 2022. There were a total of 27 sessions divided over 3 days. The Symposium started in the afternoon following industrial symposia and ended at 18:00. Various topics were presented by experts from Australia, India, Malaysia, The Netherlands, Singapore, Switzerland, Thailand, UK and USA. COVID-19 has changed healthcare delivery and artificial intelligence is changing medical practice so sessions on these topics were included in the symposium.

5.
Global Health ; 18(1): 5, 2022 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643164

ABSTRACT

Diagnostic testing for the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection remains a challenge around the world, especially in low-middle-income countries (LMICs) with poor socio-economic backgrounds. From the beginning of the pandemic in December 2019 to August 2021, a total of approximately 3.4 billion tests were performed globally. The majority of these tests were restricted to high income countries. Reagents for diagnostic testing became a premium, LMICs either cannot afford or find manufacturers unwilling to supply them with expensive analytical reagents and equipment. From March to December 2020 obtaining testing kits for SARS-CoV-2 testing was a challenge. As the number of SARS-CoV-2 infection cases increases globally, large-scale testing still remains a challenge in LMICs. The aim of this review paper is to compare the total number and frequencies of SARS-CoV-2 testing in LMICs and high-income countries (HICs) using publicly available data from Worldometer COVID-19, as well as discussing possible interventions and cost-effective measures to increase testing capability in LMICs. In summary, HICs conducted more SARS-CoV-2 testing (USA: 192%, Australia: 146%, Switzerland: 124% and Canada: 113%) compared to middle-income countries (MICs) (Vietnam: 43%, South Africa: 29%, Brazil: 27% and Venezuela: 12%) and low-income countries (LICs) (Bangladesh: 6%, Uganda: 4% and Nigeria: 1%). Some of the cost-effective solutions to counteract the aforementioned problems includes using saliva instead of oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swabs, sample pooling, and testing high-priority groups to increase the number of mass testing in LMICs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Developing Countries , Humans
6.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(3)2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613990

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected tuberculosis (TB) care delivery in high burden countries. We therefore conducted a retrospective study to assess the impact of COVID-19 on TB case detection and treatment outcomes at the Chest Clinic at Connaught Hospital in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Overall, 2300 presumptive cases were tested during the first three quarters of 2020 (intra-COVID-19) versus 2636 in 2019 (baseline), representing a 12.7% decline. Testing declined by 25% in women, 20% in children and 81% in community-initiated referrals. Notwithstanding, laboratory-confirmed TB cases increased by 37.0% and treatment success rate was higher in 2020 (55.6% vs. 46.7%, p = 0.002). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that age < 55 years (aOR 1.74, 95% CI (1.80, 2.56); p = 0.005), new diagnosis (aOR 1.69, 95% CI (1.16, 2.47); p = 0.007), pulmonary TB (aOR 3.17, 95% CI (1.67, 6.04); p < 0.001), HIV negative status (aOR 1.60, 95%CI (1.24, 2.06); p < 0.001) and self-administration of anti-TB drugs through monthly dispensing versus directly observed therapy (DOT) (aOR 1.56, 95% CI (1.21, 2.03); p = 0.001) independently predicted treatment success. These findings may have policy implications for DOTS in this setting and suggest that more resources are needed to reverse the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on TB program activities in Sierra Leone.

7.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(6): 493-498, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603657

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a novel viral infectious disease that the World Health Organization (WHO) has announced to be a pandemic. This meta-analysis was aimed at providing evidence for the use of ivermectin to prevent COVID-19 among hospital workers in low-resource countries. Medical databases including African Journals online, Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE, COVID-19 research database (WHO), Clinicaltrials.gov, and SCOPUS were searched for studies on Ivermectin as a chemoprophylactic drug against COVID-19 among hospital personnel in settings with limited resources. Preprint servers such as bioRxiv and medRxiv as well as the gray literature were also searched. Studies adjudged to be eligible were identified using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses algorithm. Statistical analyses were done using Stata version 14.3. Seven studies were selected for the meta-analysis. The total sample size was 2652. There were two randomized controlled trials and five nonrandomized studies. Some studies dosed Ivermectin daily while some dosed it weekly. However, one of the studies dosed it monthly. The studies reported variable clinical benefits. I2 statistic was 92%, and random effect model was used. The pooled odd ratio was 0.11 (95% confidence interval 0.09-0.13). This implies that 89% of the participants benefited from taking Ivermectin as a form of preexposure chemoprophylaxis. Ivermectin has a significant clinical benefit as a preventive drug against COVID-19 for hospital personnel in settings with limited resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Chemoprevention/methods , Health Personnel , COVID-19/virology , Developing Countries , Humans , Ivermectin/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
J Crit Care ; 68: 31-37, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SpO2/FiO2 is a useful oxygenation parameter with prognostic capacity in patients with ARDS. We investigated the prognostic capacity of SpO2/FiO2 for mortality in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19. METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of a national multicenter cohort study in invasively ventilated patients with ARDS due to COVID-19. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. RESULTS: In 869 invasively ventilated patients, 28-day mortality was 30.1%. The SpO2/FiO2 on day 1 had no prognostic value. The SpO2/FiO2 on day 2 and day 3 had prognostic capacity for death, with the best cut-offs being 179 and 199, respectively. Both SpO2/FiO2 on day 2 (OR, 0.66 [95%-CI 0.46-0.96]) and on day 3 (OR, 0.70 [95%-CI 0.51-0.96]) were associated with 28-day mortality in a model corrected for age, pH, lactate levels and kidney dysfunction (AUROC 0.78 [0.76-0.79]). The measured PaO2/FiO2 and the PaO2/FiO2 calculated from SpO2/FiO2 were strongly correlated (Spearman's r = 0.79). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of patients with ARDS due to COVID-19, the SpO2/FiO2 on day 2 and day 3 are independently associated with and have prognostic capacity for 28-day mortality. The SpO2/FiO2 is a useful metric for risk stratification in invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Oximetry , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
9.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Point of care (POC) testing has enabled rapid coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis in resource-limited settings with limited laboratory infrastructure and high disease burden. However, the accessibility of the tests is not optimal in these settings. This scoping review mapped evidence on supply chain management (SCM) systems for POC diagnostic services to reveal evidence that can help guide future research and inform the improved implementation of SARS-CoV-2 POC diagnostics in resource-limited settings. METHODOLOGY: This scoping review was guided by an adapted version of the Arksey and O'Malley methodological framework. We searched the following electronic databases: Medline Ovid, Medline EBSCO, Scopus, PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Science and EBSCOHost. We also searched grey literature in the form of dissertations/theses, conference proceedings, websites of international organisations such as the World Health Organisation and government reports. A search summary table was used to test the efficacy of the search strategy. The quality of the included studies was appraised using the mixed method appraisal tool (MMAT) version 2018. RESULTS: We retrieved 1206 articles (databases n = 1192, grey literature n = 14). Of these, 31 articles were included following abstract and full-text screening. Fifteen were primary studies conducted in LMICs, and 16 were reviews. The following themes emerged from the included articles: availability and accessibility of POC diagnostic services; reasons for stockouts of POC diagnostic tests (procurement, storage, distribution, inventory management and quality assurance) and human resources capacity in POC diagnostic services. Of the 31 eligible articles, 15 underwent methodological quality appraisal with scores between 90% and 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed limited published research on SCM systems for POC diagnostic services globally. We recommend primary studies aimed at investigating the barriers and enablers of SCM systems for POC diagnostic services for highly infectious pathogens such SARS-CoV-2 in high disease-burdened settings with limited laboratory infrastructures.

10.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 10(18): e2100410, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321674

ABSTRACT

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is widely utilized in serologic assays, including COVID-19, for the detection and quantification of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. However, due to the limited stability of the diagnostic reagents (e.g., antigens serving as biorecognition elements) and biospecimens, temperature-controlled storage and handling conditions are critical. This limitation among others makes biodiagnostics in resource-limited settings, where refrigeration and electricity are inaccessible or unreliable, particularly challenging. In this work, metal-organic framework encapsulation is demonstrated as a simple and effective method to preserve the conformational epitopes of antigens immobilized on microtiter plate under non-refrigerated storage conditions. It is demonstrated that in situ growth of zeolitic imidazolate framework-90 (ZIF-90) renders excellent stability to surface-bound SARS-CoV-2 antigens, thereby maintaining the assay performance under elevated temperature (40 °C) for up to 4 weeks. As a complementary method, the preservation of plasma samples from COVID-19 patients using ZIF-90 encapsulation is also demonstrated. The energy-efficient approach demonstrated here will not only alleviate the financial burden associated with cold-chain transportation, but also improve the disease surveillance in resource-limited settings with more reliable clinical data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal-Organic Frameworks , Zeolites , Antibodies , Antibodies, Viral , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 653616, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315950

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a major threat to public health. Rapid molecular testing for convenient and timely diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections represents a challenge that could help to control the current pandemic and prevent future outbreaks. We aimed to develop and validate a multiplex and colorimetric reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay using lyophilized LAMP reagents for sensitive and rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2. LAMP primers were designed for a set of gene targets identified by a genome-wide comparison of viruses. Primer sets that showed optimal features were combined into a multiplex RT-LAMP assay. Analytical validation included assessment of the limit of detection (LoD), intra- and inter-assay precision, and cross-reaction with other respiratory pathogens. Clinical performance compared to that of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was assessed using 278 clinical RNA samples isolated from swabs collected from individuals tested for COVID-19. The RT-LAMP assay targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), membrane (M), and ORF1ab genes achieved a comparable LoD (0.65 PFU/mL, CT=34.12) to RT-qPCR and was 10-fold more sensitive than RT-qPCR at detecting viral RNA in clinical samples. Cross-reactivity to other respiratory pathogens was not observed. The multiplex RT-LAMP assay demonstrated a strong robustness and acceptable intra- and inter-assay precision (mean coefficient of variation, 4.75% and 8.30%). Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity values were 100.0% (95% CI: 97.4-100.0%) and 98.6% (95% CI: 94.9-99.8%), respectively, showing high consistency (Cohen's kappa, 0.986; 95% CI: 0.966-1.000; p<0.0001) compared to RT-qPCR. The novel one-step multiplex RT-LAMP assay is storable at room temperature and showed similar diagnostic accuracy to conventional RT-qPCR, while being faster (<45 min), simpler, and cheaper. The new assay could allow reliable and early diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections in primary health care. It may aid large-scale testing in resource-limited settings, especially if it is integrated into a point-of-care diagnostic device.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Colorimetry , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcription , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
OMICS ; 25(8): 484-494, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307504

ABSTRACT

Pandemics and environmental crises evident from the first two decades of the 21st century call for methods innovation in biosurveillance and early detection of risk signals in planetary ecosystems. In crises conditions, conventional methods in public health, biosecurity, and environmental surveillance do not work well. In addition, the standard laboratory amenities and procedures may become unavailable, irrelevant, or simply not feasible, for example, owing to disruptions in logistics and process supply chains. The COVID-19 pandemic has been a wakeup call in this sense to reintroduce point-of-need diagnostics with an eye to limited resource settings and biosurveillance solutions. We report here a methodology innovation, a fast, scalable, and alkaline DNA extraction pipeline for emergency microbiomics biosurveillance. We believe that the presented methodology is well poised for effective, resilient, and anticipatory responses to future pandemics and ecological crises while contributing to microbiome science and point-of-need diagnostics in nonelective emergency contexts. The alkaline DNA extraction pipeline can usefully expand the throughput in emergencies by deployment or to allow backup in case of instrumentation failure in vital facilities. The need for distributed public health genomics surveillance is increasingly evident in the 21st century. This study makes a contribution to these ends broadly, and for future pandemic preparedness in particular. We call for innovation in biosurveillance methods that remain important existentially on a planet under pressure from unchecked human growth and breach of the boundaries between human and nonhuman animal habitats.


Subject(s)
Biosurveillance/methods , DNA/isolation & purification , Microbiological Techniques , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Animals , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Genetic Techniques/economics , Humans , Microbiological Techniques/economics , Plants/microbiology
13.
ACS Sens ; 6(6): 2108-2124, 2021 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253892

ABSTRACT

Readily deployable, low-cost point-of-care medical devices such as lateral flow assays (LFAs), microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs), and microfluidic thread-based analytical devices (µTADs) are urgently needed in resource-poor settings. Governed by the ASSURED criteria (affordable, sensitive, specific, user-friendly, rapid and robust, equipment-free, and deliverability) set by the World Health Organization, these reliable platforms can screen a myriad of chemical and biological analytes including viruses, bacteria, proteins, electrolytes, and narcotics. The Ebola epidemic in 2014 and the ongoing pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 have exemplified the ever-increasing importance of timely diagnostics to limit the spread of diseases. This review provides a comprehensive survey of LFAs, µPADs, and µTADs that can be deployed in resource-limited settings. The subsequent commercialization of these technologies will benefit the public health, especially in areas where access to healthcare is limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Point-of-Care Systems , Biological Assay , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(11): 1020-1027, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976433

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographics and evaluate the clinical outcomes of hypoxic coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients treated with different immunomodulatory (IM) drugs in a resource-limited setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of these patients admitted to our hospital between March 22 and May 31, 2020. Data were abstracted from multiple electronic data sources or patient charts to provide information on patient characteristics, clinical, laboratory variables, and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 134 patients met the inclusion criteria and were followed up till June 7, 2020. The median age of the patients was 55.6 years (range 20-89 years) and 68% were men. At least one comorbidity was seen in 72% of the patients with diabetes (44%) and hypertension (46%) being the most common. At triage, fever (82%), shortness of breath (77%), and cough (61%) were the most common presenting symptoms. A PaO2/FiO2 ratio less than 300 was seen in 60%, and 4.5% required invasive mechanical ventilation within 72 hours of hospital admission. Five immunomodulatory agents (hydroxychloroquine, methylprednisolone, colchicine, etoricoxib, and tocilizumab) were administered in different combinations. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 26.9%, and 32% required mechanical ventilation. Around 69% of patients were discharged home. Five variables (SpO2, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, leucocytosis, lymphopenia, and creatinine) on admission were found to be significant in the patients who died. CONCLUSION: Our study provides the characteristics and outcomes of hypoxic COVID-19 patients treated with IM drugs in varied combination. Five independent variables were strong predictors of mortality. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Mahale N, Rajhans P, Godavarthy P, Narasimhan VL, Oak G, Marreddy S, et al. A Retrospective Observational Study of Hypoxic COVID-19 Patients Treated with Immunomodulatory Drugs in a Tertiary Care Hospital. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(11):1020-1027.

15.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 21(8): 1394-1402, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901173

ABSTRACT

The International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes Clinical Practice Consensus Guideline 2018 for management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state provide comprehensive guidance for management of DKA in young people. Intravenous (IV) infusion of insulin remains the treatment of choice for treating DKA; however, the policy of many hospitals around the world requires admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) for IV insulin infusion. During the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic or other settings where intensive care resources are limited, ICU services may need to be prioritized or may not be appropriate due to risk of transmission of infection to young people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The aim of this guideline, which should be used in conjunction with the ISPAD 2018 guidelines, is to ensure that young individuals with DKA receive management according to best evidence in the context of limited ICU resources. Specifically, this guideline summarizes evidence for the role of subcutaneous insulin in treatment of uncomplicated mild to moderate DKA in young people and may be implemented if administration of IV insulin is not an option.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Insulins/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Comorbidity , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Infusions, Intravenous , Injections, Intramuscular , Injections, Subcutaneous , Insulin, Short-Acting/administration & dosage , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
Integr Blood Press Control ; 13: 125-133, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842088

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed most aspects of everyday life in both the non-medical and medical settings. In the medical world, the pandemic has altered how healthcare is delivered and has necessitated an aggressive and new coordinated public health approach to limit its spread and reduce its disease burden and socioeconomic impact. This pandemic has resulted in a staggering morbidity and mortality and massive economic and physical hardships. Meanwhile, non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease in general continue to cause significant disease burden globally in the background. Though presently receiving less attention in the public eye than the COVID-19 pandemic, the hypertension crisis cannot be separated from the minds of healthcare providers, policymakers and the general public, as it continues to wreak havoc, particularly in vulnerable populations in resource limited settings. On this background, many of the strategies being employed to combat the COVID-19 pandemic can be used to re-energize and galvanize the fight against hypertension and hopefully bring the public health crisis associated with uncontrolled hypertension to an end.

17.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 44: 102353, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-625998

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic poses a grave health management challenge globally of unprecedented nature. Management of idiopathic Central Nervous system inflammatory disorders (iCNSID) such as Multiple sclerosis, Neuromyelitis optica and its spectrum disorders and related conditions during this pandemic needs to be addressed with affirmative and sustainable strategies in order to prevent disease related risks, medication related complications and possible COVID-19 disease associated effects. Global international iCNSIDs agencies and recent publications are attempting to address this but such guidance is not available in South East Asia. Here we outline prospectively qualitatively and quantitatively novel strategies at a tertiary center in Malaysia catering for neuroimmunological disorders despite modest resources during this pandemic. In this retrospective study with longitudinal follow-up, we describe stratification of patients for face to face versus virtual visits in the absence of formal teleneurology, stratification of patients for treatment according to disease activity, rescheduling, deferring initiation or extending treatment intervals of certain disease modifying therapies(DMT's) or immunosuppressants(IS), especially those producing lymphocyte depletion in MS and the continuation of IS in patients with NMO/NMOSD. Furthermore, we highlight the use off-label treatments such as Intravenous immunoglobulins/rituximab,bridging interferons/Teriflunomide temporarily replacing more potent DMT choices,supply challenges of IS/DMT's and tailoring blood watches and neuroimaging surveillance based on the current health needs to stave off the pandemic and prevent at risk patients with iCNSID/health care workers from possibly being exposed to the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Continuity of Patient Care , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Neuromyelitis Optica/diagnosis , Neuromyelitis Optica/therapy , Asia, Southeastern , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Neuromyelitis Optica/complications , Neuromyelitis Optica/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
18.
Sens Int ; 1: 100015, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591369

ABSTRACT

Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic device is an instrument that is used to acquire particular clinical information of patients in clinical as well as resource-limited settings. The conventional clinical diagnostic procedure requires high-end and costly instruments, an expert technician for operation and result interpretation, longer time, etc. that ultimately makes it exhausting and expensive. Although there are a lot of improvements in the medical facilities in the Indian healthcare system, the use of POC diagnostic devices is still in its nascent phase. This review illustrates the status of POC diagnostic devices currently used in clinical setups along with constraints in their use. The devices and technologies that are in the research and development phase across the country that has tremendous potential to elevate the clinical diagnostics scenario along with the diagnosis of ongoing COVID-19 pandemic are emphasized. The implications of using POC diagnostic devices and the future objectives for technological advancements that may eventually uplift the status of healthcare and related sectors in India are also discussed here.

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