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1.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE02717, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20234691

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Analisar os aspectos clínicos e os fatores associados ao comportamento suicida durante a pandemia da COVID-19. Métodos Estudo transversal e analítico, realizado com registros assistenciais de 130 pacientes que buscaram atendimento em emergência psiquiátrica após ideação, planejamento ou tentativa de suicídio. Utilizou-se um formulário para caracterização sociodemográfica, clínica e terapêutica, assim como para identificação das necessidades de cuidados e dos fatores associados. A análise dos dados foi constituída pelos testes Exato de Fischer, Qui-quadrado de Pearson e pela Regressão de Poisson, considerando nível de significância de 5%. Resultados O comportamento suicida foi expresso pela tentativa de suicídio, ideação e planejamento, predominando no sexo feminino, em adultos jovens, desempregados e de baixa renda familiar, assim como em pacientes com histórico de transtorno mental, de internação psiquiátrica, de tentativas prévias e de abandono terapêutico. As principais alterações psíquicas envolveram ansiedade, depressão, sentimentos de desesperança, alucinações audiovisuais e delírios persecutórios. O consumo de substâncias psicoativas elevou em até 13,8 vezes o risco para tentativa de suicídio e as crises situacionais em 10,6 vezes a ideação. Ainda, a perda de renda e a internação anterior foram associados à manifestação do comportamento. As evidências de cuidados envolveram intervenções medicamentosas, medidas de vigilância e admissão hospitalar. Conclusão Durante a pandemia da COVID-19, o comportamento suicida foi associado à maior predisposição para o consumo de substâncias psicoativas, crises situacionais e perda de renda. Destaca-se a necessidade de políticas públicas voltadas para identificação, prevenção e gerenciamento adequado dos estados de risco.


Resumen Objetivo Analizar los aspectos clínicos y los factores asociados al comportamiento suicida durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos Estudio transversal y analítico, realizado con registros asistenciales de 130 pacientes que buscaron atención en emergencia psiquiátrica después de ideación, planificación o intento de suicidio. Se utilizó un formulario para la caracterización sociodemográfica, clínica y terapéutica, como también para la identificación de las necesidades de cuidados y de los factores asociados. El análisis de los datos estuvo constituido por la prueba Exacta de Fisher, Ji cuadrado de Pearson y por la Regresión de Poisson, considerando un nivel de significancia del 5 %. Resultados El comportamiento suicida se expresó a través del intento de suicidio, ideación y planificación, con predominio del sexo femenino, adultos jóvenes, desempleados y con bajos ingresos familiares, así como pacientes con historial de trastorno mental, de internación psiquiátrica, de intentos previos y de abandono terapéutico. Las principales alteraciones psíquicas incluyeron ansiedad, depresión, sentimientos de desesperanza, alucinaciones audiovisuales y delirios de persecución. El consumo de substancias psicoactivas aumentó 13,8 veces el riesgo de intento de suicidio, y las crisis situacionales aumentaron 10,6 veces la ideación. Además, la pérdida de ingresos e internaciones anteriores se asociaron a la manifestación del comportamiento. Las evidencias de cuidados incluyeron intervenciones medicamentosas, medidas de vigilancia y admisión hospitalaria. Conclusión Durante la pandemia de COVID-19, el comportamiento suicida se asoció a un aumento de la predisposición al consumo de sustancias psicoactivas, crisis situacionales y pérdida de ingresos. Se destaca la necesidad de políticas públicas orientadas hacia la identificación, prevención y una gestión adecuada de los estados de riesgo.


Abstract Objective To analyze the clinical aspects and factors associated with suicidal behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Cross-sectional analytical study performed with care records of 130 patients who sought care in the psychiatric emergency department after suicidal ideation, planning or attempt. A form was used for sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic characterization, and for identification of care needs and associated factors. Data analysis consisted of Fischer's exact test, Pearson's chi-square test and Poisson's regression, considering a significance level of 5%. Results Suicidal behavior was expressed by suicide attempt, ideation and planning. It was predominant in the female sex, young adults, unemployed, with low family income, and in patients with a history of mental disorder, psychiatric hospitalization, previous attempts and of therapeutic abandonment. The main psychic alterations involved anxiety, depression, feelings of hopelessness, audiovisual hallucinations and persecutory delusions. The consumption of psychoactive substances increased by up to 13.8 times the risk for suicide attempt, while situational crises increased suicidal ideation by up to 10.6 times. The loss of income and previous hospitalization were associated with manifestation of the behavior. Evidence of care involved drug interventions, surveillance measures, and hospital admission. Conclusion During the COVID-19 pandemic, suicidal behavior was associated with a greater predisposition to consume psychoactive substances, situational crises and loss of income. The need for public policies aimed at the identification, prevention and adequate management of risk states stands out.

2.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 26(supl.1): e230009, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20234528

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the temporal trends of prevalence of morbidities, risk and protection factors for noncommunicable diseases in elderly residents in Brazilian capitals between 2006 and 2021. Methods: A time series study with data from the Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Inquiry. The variables analyzed were: high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, overweight, obesity, consumption of alcoholic beverages, soft drinks, fruits and vegetables, and the practice of physical activity. Prais-Winsten regression and Interrupted Time Series from 2006 to 2014 and 2015 to 2021 were used. Results: From 2006 to 2021, for the total elderly population, there was an increase in diabetes (19.2 to 28.4%), alcohol consumption (2.5 to 3.2%), overweight (52.4 to 60.7%) and obesity (16.8 to 21.8%), and a reduction in the prevalence of smokers (9.4 to 7.4%) and in soft drink consumption (17 to 8.7%). By the interrupted series, between 2015 and 2021, there was stability in the prevalence of diabetes, female smokers, overweight among men, obesity in the total and male population, and soft drink consumption. Conclusion: Over the years, there have been changes and worsening in the indicators analyzed, such as an increase in diabetes, alcohol consumption, overweight, and obesity, which reinforces the importance of continuous monitoring and sustainability programs to promote the health, especially in the context of economic crisis, austerity, and COVID-19 pandemic.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar as tendências temporais das prevalências de morbidades e dos fatores de risco e de proteção para as doenças crônicas não transmissíveis em pessoas idosas residentes nas capitais brasileiras entre 2006 e 2021. Métodos: Estudo de série temporal com dados do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico. Analisaram-se as variáveis: hipertensão arterial; diabetes; tabagismo; excesso de peso; obesidade; consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, refrigerantes, frutas e hortaliças; e prática de atividade física. Empregaram-se o modelo de regressão de Prais-Winsten e a séries temporais interrompidas (de 2006 a 2014 e de 2015 a 2021). Resultados: De 2006 a 2021, para a população total de idosos, houve aumento de diabetes (19,2 para 28,4%), do consumo de álcool (2,5 para 3,2%), do dexcesso de peso (52,4 para 60,7%) e da obesidade (16,8 para 21,8%), e redução do tabagismo (9,4 para 7,4%) e consumo de refrigerantes (17,0 para 8,7%). Pelas séries interrompidas, entre 2015 e 2021, houve estabilidade da prevalência de diabetes, fumantes do sexo feminino, excesso de peso nos homens, obesidade na população total e no sexo masculino e consumo de refrigerante. Conclusão: Ao longo dos anos houve mudanças e piora dos indicadores analisados, como aumento de diabetes, do consumo de álcool, do excesso de peso e da obesidade, o que reforça a importância do monitoramento contínuo e da sustentabilidade de programas de promoção da saúde, especialmente no contexto de crise econômica, austeridade e pandemia decorrente da COVID-19.

3.
Mult Scler ; : 13524585231176174, 2023 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the general population, maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with worse maternal outcomes; however, only one study so far has evaluated COVID-19 clinical outcomes in pregnant and postpartum women with multiple sclerosis, showing no higher risk for poor COVID-19 outcomes in these patients. OBJECTIVE: In this multicenter study, we aimed to evaluate COVID-19 clinical outcomes in pregnant patients with multiple sclerosis. METHODS: We recruited 85 pregnant patients with multiple sclerosis who contracted COVID-19 after conception and were prospectively followed-up in Italian and Turkish Centers, in the period 2020-2022. A control group of 1354 women was extracted from the database of the Multiple Sclerosis and COVID-19 (MuSC-19). Univariate and subsequent logistic regression models were fitted to search for risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 course (at least one outcome among hospitalization, intensive care unit [ICU] admission and death). RESULTS: In the multivariable analysis, independent predictors of severe COVID-19 were age, body mass index ⩾ 30, treatment with anti-CD20 and recent use of methylprednisolone. Vaccination before infection was a protective factor. Vaccination before infection was a protective factor. Pregnancy was not a risk nor a protective factor for severe COVID-19 course. CONCLUSION: Our data show no significant increase of severe COVID-19 outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis who contracted the infection during pregnancy.

4.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232184

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) patients may experience an acute ischemic stroke; however, risk factors, in-hospital deaths, and outcomes have not been thoroughly investigated. This study investigates the risk factors, comorbidities, and outcomes in patients with SARS-VoV-2 infection and acute ischemic stroke compared to patients without these conditions. The present retrospective study was conducted in the King Abdullah International Medical Research Centre (KAIMRC), Ministry of National Guard, Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period from April 2020 to February 2022. This study investigates the risk variables among the individuals who were diagnosed with either SARS-CoV-2 with stroke or patients with stroke alone. A total of 42,688 COVID-19 patients were registered, 187 cases of strokes were listed in COVID-19 patients, however, 5395 cases with stroke without SARS-CoV-2 infection. The results revealed that factors including age, hypertension, deep vein thrombosis, and ischemic heart disease are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. The results also displayed an elevated frequency of in-hospital deaths in COVID-19 patients with acute ischemic stroke. The results also showed that SARS-CoV-2 together predicts the probability of stroke and death in the study sample. The study findings conclude that ischemic strokes were infrequent in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and usually occur in the presence of other risk factors. The risk factors of ischemic strokes in patients with SARS-CoV-2 are old age, male gender, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, DVT, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, the results showed a higher frequency of in-hospital deaths in COVID-19 patients with stroke compared to COVID-19 patients without stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Ischemic Stroke , Myocardial Ischemia , Stroke , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Risk Factors , Hypertension/complications , Myocardial Ischemia/complications
5.
Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess ; : 1-15, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231706

ABSTRACT

The time required to identify and confirm risk factors for new diseases and to design an appropriate treatment strategy is one of the most significant obstacles medical professionals face. Traditionally, this approach entails several clinical studies that may last several years, during which time strict preventative measures must be in place to contain the epidemic and limit the number of fatalities. Analytical tools may be used to direct and accelerate this process. This study introduces a six-state compartmental model to explain and assess the impact of age demographics by designing a dynamic, explainable analytics model of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. An age-stratified mathematical model taking the form of a deterministic system of ordinary differential equations divides the population into different age groups to better understand and assess the impact of age on mortality. It also provides a more accurate and effective interpretation of the disease evolution, specifically in terms of the cumulative numbers of infected cases and deaths. The proposed Kermack-Mckendrick model is incorporated into a non-linear least-squares optimization curve-fitting problem whose optimized parameters are numerically obtained using the Levenberg-Marquard algorithm. The curve-fitting model's efficiency is proved by testing the age-stratified model's performance on three U.S. states: Connecticut, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Our results confirm that splitting the population into different age groups leads to better fitting and forecasting results overall as compared to those achieved by the traditional method, i.e., without age groups. By using comprehensive models that account for age, gender, and ethnicity, regional public health authorities may be able to avoid future epidemics from inflicting more fatalities and establish a public health policy that reduces the burden on the elderly population.

6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 374, 2023 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Distinguishing whether and how pre-existing characteristics impact maternal responses to adversity is difficult: Does prior well-being decrease the likelihood of encountering stressful experiences? Does it protect against adversity's negative effects? We examine whether the interaction between relatively uniformly experienced adversity (due to COVID-19 experience) and individual variation in pre-existing (i.e., pre-pandemic onset) distress predicted mothers' pandemic levels of distress and insensitive caregiving within a country reporting low COVID-19 death rates, and strict nationwide regulations. METHOD: Fifty-one Singaporean mothers and their preschool-aged children provided data across two waves. Pre- pandemic onset maternal distress (i.e., psychological distress, anxiety, and parenting stress) was captured via self-reports and maternal sensitivity was coded from videos. Measures were repeated after the pandemic's onset along with questionnaires concerning perceived COVID-19 adversity (e.g., COVID-19's impact upon stress caring for children, housework, job demands, etc.) and pandemic-related objective experiences (e.g., income, COVID-19 diagnoses, etc.). Regression analyses (SPSS v28) considered pre-pandemic onset maternal distress, COVID-19 stress, and their interaction upon post-pandemic onset maternal distress. Models were re-run with appropriate covariates (e.g., objective experience) when significant findings were observed. To rule out alternative models, follow up analyses (PROCESS Model) considered whether COVID-19 stress mediated pre- and post-pandemic onset associations. Models involving maternal sensitivity followed a similar data analytic plan. RESULTS: Pre-pandemic maternal distress moderated the association between COVID-19 perceived stress and pandemic levels of maternal distress (ß = 0.22, p < 0.01) but not pandemic assessed maternal sensitivity. Perceived COVID-19 stress significantly contributed to post-pandemic onset maternal distress for mothers with pre-pandemic onset distress scores above (ß = 0.30, p = 0.05), but not below (ß = 0.25, p = 0.24), the median. Objective COVID-19 adversity did not account for findings. Post-hoc analyses did not suggest mediation via COVID-19 stress from pre-pandemic to pandemic maternal distress. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing risk may interact with subsequent perceptions of adversity to impact well-being. In combination with existing research, this small study suggests prevention programs should focus upon managing concurrent mental health and may highlight the importance of enhanced screening and proactive coping programs for people entering high stress fields and/or phases of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Parenting/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological
7.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 17(5): e13151, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the specific dynamics of influenza introduction and spread in university settings is limited. METHODS: Persons with acute respiratory illness symptoms received influenza testing by molecular assay during October 6-November 23, 2022. Viral sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were conducted on nasal swab samples from case-patients. Case-control analysis of a voluntary survey of persons tested was used to identify factors associated with influenza; logistic regression was conducted to calculate odds ratios and 95% CIs. A subset of case-patients tested during the first month of the outbreak was interviewed to identify sources of introduction and early spread. RESULTS: Among 3268 persons tested, 788 (24.1%) tested positive for influenza; 744 (22.8%) were included in the survey analysis. All 380 sequenced specimens were influenza A (H3N2) virus clade 3C.2a1b.2a.2, suggesting rapid transmission. Influenza (OR [95% CI]) was associated with indoor congregate dining (1.43 [1.002-2.03]), attending large gatherings indoors (1.83 [1.26-2.66]) or outdoors (2.33 [1.64-3.31]), and varied by residence type (apartment with ≥1 roommate: 2.93 [1.21-7.11], residence hall room alone: 4.18 [1.31-13.31], or with roommate: 6.09 [2.46-15.06], or fraternity/sorority house: 15.13 [4.30-53.21], all compared with single-dwelling apartment). Odds of influenza were lower among persons who left campus for ≥1 day during the week before their influenza test (0.49 [0.32-0.75]). Almost all early cases reported attending large events. CONCLUSIONS: Congregate living and activity settings on university campuses can lead to rapid spread of influenza following introduction. Isolating following a positive influenza test or administering antiviral medications to exposed persons may help mitigate outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Phylogeny , Universities , Risk Factors
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 2023 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid development and rollout of vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to more than half of the world's population being vaccinated to date. Real-world data have reported various adverse cutaneous reactions, including delayed-onset urticaria, which was highly ranked as a common manifestation across studies. However, the impact of these novel mRNA or viral vector COVID-19 vaccines on preexisting chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on the clinical status of patients with relatively stable CSU who are undergoing omalizumab treatment and to identify risk factors for exacerbation. METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study in a tertiary hospital. Adult patients with relatively stable CSU under regular omalizumab treatments who had received at least one COVID-19 vaccination were included. RESULTS: There were 105 study subjects who received 230 COVID-19 vaccinations between March and December 2021. Fifteen patients (14.3%) experienced aggravation of urticaria at least once after COVID-19 vaccination. The demographics and clinical characteristics of the patients were comparable regardless of the exacerbation of CSU. However, case-level analysis revealed that the presence of urticaria (vs none) before vaccination (odds ratio [OR] = 4.99; 95% CI, 1.57-15.82) and the development of systemic reactogenicity (OR = 4.57; 95% CI, 1.62-12.90) were associated with a higher risk for exacerbation. CONCLUSIONS: The novel COVID-19 vaccination induced exacerbation in more than one-tenth of patients with well-controlled CSU. The establishment of a proper management strategy during COVID-19 vaccination is necessary for patients with CSU.

9.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238156

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Our study (part of multicentric "MindCOVID") investigates risk factors for anxiety and depression among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Czech Republic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study used a prospective cross-sectional design. Data was collected using an online self-administered questionnaire. Standardized scales, general anxiety disorder (GAD)-7 and patient health questionnaire (PHQ)-9 were administered online. Multivariate regression analysis was employed to evaluate the relationship between sociodemographic, medical and psychological variables. RESULTS: The Czech sample included 1830 pregnant women. An increase of depressive and anxiety symptoms measured by PHQ-9 and GAD-7 in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with unfavorable financial situation, low social and family support, psychological and medical problems before and during pregnancy and infertility treatment. Fear of being infected and adverse effect of COVID-19, feeling of burden related to restrictions during delivery and organization of delivery and feeling of burden related to finances were associated with worse anxiety and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Social and emotional support and lack of financial worries are protective factors against mood disorders in pregnant women in relation to COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, adequate information about organization of delivery and additional support from healthcare professionals during the delivery are needed. Our findings can be used for preventive interventions, given that repeated pandemics in the future are anticipated.

10.
Orv Hetil ; 164(17): 651-658, 2023 Apr 30.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238071

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During COVID-19 pandemic, a high mortality rate (20-60%) of patients admitted to intensive care unit has been observed. Identification of risk factors can support the understanding of disease pathophysiology and the recognition of vulnerable patients, prognostication and selection of appropriate treatment. OBJECTIVE: Beyond characterisation of a local, critically ill COVID-19 population, analysis of the associations between demographic/clinical data and patient survival were investigated. METHOD: Retrospective, observational study has been performed by recording demographic, clinical data and outcome parameters on patients with severe respiratory insufficiency caused by COVID-19. RESULTS: 88 patients were enrolled. Median age was 65 years and 53% of patients were male, median BMI was 29 kg/m2. Noninvasive ventilation was used in 81%, endotracheal intubation in 45%, prone positioning in 59% of all cases. Vasopressor treatment was introduced in 44%, secondary bacterial infection was detected in 36% of all cases. Hospital survival rate was 41%. Risk factors for survival and the effect of evolving treatment protocols were analyzed with multivariable regression model. A better survival chance was associated to younger age, lower APACE II score and non-diabetic status. Effect of the treatment protocol was found to be significant (OR = 0.18 [95% CI: 0.04-0.76], p = 0.01976) after controlling for APACHE II, BMI, sex, two comorbidities and two pharmaceutical agents (tocilizumab, remdesivir). CONCLUSION: Survival rate was favourable if patients were younger, with lower APACHE II score and if non-diabetic. Low initial survival rate (15%) significantly improved (49%) in association with the protocol changes. We would like to facilitate Hungarian centres to publish their data and initiate a nationwide database to improve the management of severe COVID disease. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(17): 651-658.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Aged , Female , COVID-19/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Intensive Care Units
12.
Cureus ; 15(5): e38947, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236309

ABSTRACT

Introduction Telehealth visits (TH) have become an important pillar of healthcare delivery during the COVID pandemic. No-shows (NS) may result in delays in clinical care and in lost revenue. Understanding the factors associated with NS may help providers take measures to decrease the frequency and impact of NS in their clinics. We aim to study the demographic and clinical diagnoses associated with NS to ambulatory telehealth neurology visits. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of all telehealth video visits (THV) in our healthcare system from 1/1/2021 to 5/1/2021 (cross-sectional study). All patients at or above 18 years of age who either had a completed visit (CV) or had an NS for their neurology ambulatory THV were included. Patients having missing demographic variables and not meeting the ICD-10 primary diagnosis codes were excluded. Demographic factors and ICD-10 primary diagnosis codes were retrieved. NS and CV groups were compared using independent samples t-tests and chi-square tests as appropriate. Multivariate regression, with backward elimination, was conducted to identify pertinent variables. Results Our search resulted in 4,670 unique THV encounters out of which 428 (9.2%) were NS and 4,242 (90.8%) were CV. Multivariate regression with backward elimination showed that the odds of NS were higher with a self-identified non-Caucasian race OR = 1.65 (95%, CI: 1.28-2.14), possessing Medicaid insurance OR = 1.81 (95%, CI: 1.54-2.12) and with primary diagnoses of sleep disorders OR = 10.87 (95%, CI: 5.55-39.84), gait abnormalities (OR = 3.63 (95%, CI: 1.81-7.27), and back/radicular pain OR = 5.62 (95%, CI: 2.84-11.10). Being married was associated with CVs OR = 0.74 (95%, CI: 0.59-0.91) as well as primary diagnoses of multiple sclerosis OR = 0.24 (95%, CI: 0.13-0.44) and movement disorders OR = 0.41 (95%, CI: 0.25-0.68). Conclusion Demographic factors, such as self-identified race, insurance status, and primary neurological diagnosis codes, can be helpful to predict an NS to neurology THs. This data can be used to warn providers regarding the risk of NS.

13.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 64(1): E3-E8, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236267

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Coronavirus disease 2019 caused by a new Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) throughout the pandemic period has been characterised by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, courses, and outcomes. In particular, most patients with severe or critical symptoms re-quired hospitalization. The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients upon admission to the hospital, as well as pre-existing medical conditions, seem to have affected the clinical out-come. Predictive factors of inauspicious outcome in non-Intensive Care Unit hospitalized patients were investigated. Methods: A retrospective, single-centre, observational study of 239 patients with confirmed COVID-19 disease admitted during the first waves of the pandemic to the Infectious Disease Operative Unit of a hospital in Southern Italy was conducted. Demographic characteristics, under-lying diseases, and clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings were collected from the patient's medical records. Information about in-hospital medications, days of admission, and out-come were also considered. Inferential statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the association between patients' characteristics upon hospital admission and during in-hospital length of stay and death. Results: Mean age was 67.8 ± 15.8 years; 137/239 (57.3%) patients were males, and 176 (73.6%) had at least one comorbidity. More than half of patients (55.3%) suffered from hypertension. The length of stay in hospital was 16.5 ± 9.9 days and mortality rate of 12.55%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, predictors of mortality of COVID-19 patients included age (OR, 1.09; CI, 1.04-1.15), Chronic Kidney Disease (OR, 4.04; CI, 1.38-11.85), and need of High Flow Oxygen therapy (OR, 18.23; CI, 5.06-65.64). Conclusions: Patients who died in the hospital had shorted length of stay than that of the surviving patients. Older age, pre-existent chronic renal disease and need of supplemental oxygen represented independent predictors of mortality in patients hospitalized in non-Intensive Care Unit with COVID-19. The determination of these factors allows retrospectively a greater understanding of the disease also in comparison with the successive epidemic waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization , Risk Factors , Oxygen , Intensive Care Units
14.
Access Microbiol ; 5(4): acmi000400, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234949

ABSTRACT

This is an analytical cross-sectional study of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) based on data collected between 1 November 2020 and 31 March 2021 in Casablanca focusing on the disease's epidemiological status and risk factors. A total of 4569 samples were collected and analysed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); 967 patients were positive, representing a prevalence of 21.2 % for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The mean age was 47.5±18 years, and infection was more common in young adults (<60 years). However, all age groups were at risk of COVID-19, and in terms of disease severity, the elderly were at greater risk because of potential underlying health problems. Among the clinical signs reported in this study, loss of taste and/or smell, fever, cough and fatigue were highly significant predictors of a positive COVID-19 test result (P<0.001). An assessment of the reported symptoms revealed that 27 % of COVID-19-positive patients (n=261) experienced loss of taste and/or smell, whereas only 2 % (n=72) of COVID-19-negative patients did (P<0.001). This result was consistent between univariate (OR=18.125) and multivariate (adjusted OR=10.484) logistic regression analyses, indicating that loss of taste and/or smell is associated with a more than 10-fold higher multivariate adjusted probability of a positive COVID-19 test (adjusted OR=10.48; P<0.001). Binary logistic regression model analysis based on clinical signs revealed that loss of taste and/or smell had a performance index of 0.846 with a P<0.001, confirming the diagnostic utility of this symptom for the prediction of COVID-19-positive status. In conclusion, symptom evaluation and a RT-PCR [taking into account cycle threshold (C t) values of the PCR proxy] test remain the most useful screening tools for diagnosing COVID-19. However, loss of taste/smell, fatigue, fever and cough remain the strongest independent predictors of a positive COVID-19 result.

15.
Front Pediatr ; 11: 1173162, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233933

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The study of prevalence, risk factors, and vaccine effectiveness (VE) in children, adolescents, and young adults during the Omicron era has been limited, making this the objectives of the study. Methods: A prospective, test-negative case-control study was conducted on patients aged 0-24 years old classified as patients under investigation (PUI) from January to May 2022. PUI with positive RT-PCR within 14 days were classified as cases, whilst PUI with negative RT-PCR in 14 days were controls. Univariate and multivariate analyses determined risk factors; VE was calculated using [1-adjusted odds ratio (OR)] × 100. Results: The final analyses included 3,490 patients with a PUI infection rate of 45.6%. Heterologous vaccination regimens, including inactivated vaccines, viral vectors, and mRNA were utilized during the study period. A total of 2,563 patients (73.5%) had received at least 2 vaccine doses, regardless of regimen. Male gender and household infections were independent risk factors for the development of infection, with an adjusted OR of 1.55 and 1.45, respectively. Underlying comorbidities and obesity were not significantly associated with the development of infection. Patients with underlying comorbidities were more likely to have at least moderate severity of infection with the adjusted OR of 3.07. Age older than 11 years was associated with lower infection risk and development of at least moderate infection with adjusted OR of 0.4 and 0.34, respectively. Vaccinated participants also had a lower risk of developing at least moderate infection: adjusted OR of 0.40. The adjusted VE of any vaccination regimen for infection prevention for one, two, three, or more than four doses was 21.8%, 30.6%, 53.5%, and 81.2%, respectively. The adjusted VE of any vaccination regimen for prevention of at least moderate severity of the disease for one, two, three, or more than four doses was 5.7%, 24.3% 62.9%, and 90.6%, respectively. Conclusion: Disease prevalence among PUI was substantially high during the Omicron wave. A two-dose vaccination regimen does not appear sufficient to ensure protection against infection.

16.
New Microbiol ; 46(2): 170-185, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232751

ABSTRACT

The effects of clinical symptoms, laboratory indicators, and comorbidity status of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients on the severity of disease and the risk of death were investigated. Questionnaires and electronic medical records of 371 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were used for data collection (demographics, clinical manifestation, comorbidities, laboratory data). Association among categorical variables was determined using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (P-value ≤0.05). Median age of study population (249 males, 122 females) was 65 years. Roc curves analysis found that age ≥64 years and age ≥67 years are significant cut-offs identifying patients with more severe disease and mortality at 30 days. CRP values at cut-off ≥80.7 and ≥95.8 significantly identify patients with more severe disease and mortality. Patients with more severe disease and risk of death were significantly identified with platelet value at the cut-off ≤160,000, hemoglobin value at the cut-off ≤11.7, D-Dimer values ≥1383 and ≥1270, and with values of neutrophil granulocytes (≥8.2 and ≤2) and lymphocytes (≤2 and ≤2.4). Detailed clinical investigation suggests granulocytes together with lymphopenia may be a potential indicator for diagnosis. Older age, several comorbidities (cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension) and more laboratory abnormalities (CRP, D-Dimer, platelets, hemoglobin) were associated with development of more severity and mortality among COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Iraq/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Comorbidity , Risk Factors , Patient Acuity
17.
Chinese Journal of Zoology ; 57(6):951-962, 2022.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-20244972

ABSTRACT

Many zoonotic diseases are found in wild animals and present a serious risk to human health, in particularly the virus carried by birds flying freely around the world is hard to control. There are three main bird migration routes which cover the most areas of China. It is important to investigate and fully understand the types of avian transmitted diseases in key areas on the bird migration routines and its impacts on both birds and human health. However, no literature is available in how about the risk of virus carried by migrating birds, and how to predict and reduce this risk of virus spreading to human being so far. In this paper, we first reviewed the main pathogen types carried by birds, including coronaviruses, influenza viruses, parasites, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), etc., and then discussed the spread risk of avian viruses to human being and animals in key areas of biosafety prevention. We also analyzed and discussed the risk of cross-spread of diseases among different bird species in nature reserves located on bird migration routes which provide sufficient food sources for migratory birds and attract numerous birds. Diseases transmitted by wild birds pose a serious threat to poultry farms, where high density of poultry may become avian influenza virus (AIV) reservoirs, cause a risk of avian influenza outbreaks. Airports are mostly built in suburban areas or remote areas with good ecological environment. There are important transit places for bird migration and densely populated areas, which have serious risk of disease transmission. Finally, this paper puts forward the following prevention suggestions from three aspects. First, establish and improve the monitoring and prediction mechanism of migratory birds, and use laser technology to prevent contact between wild birds and poultry. Second, examine and identify virus types carried by birds in their habitats and carry out vaccination. Third, protect the ecological environment of bird habitat, and keep wild birds in their natural habitat, so as to reduce the contact between wild birds and human and poultry, and thus reduce the risk of virus transmission.

18.
Chinese Journal of Digestive Endoscopy ; 38(1):38-42, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244840

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effects of endoscopic reprocessing on disinfection and its influential factors under the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods A total of 450 endoscopes cleaned and disinfected according to Technical Specifications for Cleaning and Disinfection of Endoscopes from November 2019 to January 2020, and 450 endoscopes cleaned and disinfected according to The recommended procedure for cleaning and disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes during COVID-19 epidemic by Chinese Society of Digestive Endoscopology from February to April 2020 in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University were enrolled in the control group and observation group respectively by random number method. Both the control group and the observation group contained 200 gastroscopes, 200 enteroscopes and 50 ultrasound endoscopes. ATP fluorescence detection method and pour plate technique were used to evaluate the disinfection effect of endoscopes. Single factor analysis and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze the risk factors for unqualified sterilization after endoscopic reprocessing. Results The disinfection pass rates of gastroscopes, enteroscopes and ultrasound endoscopes in the observation group were not significantly different compared with those of the control group (P>0. 05). The sterilization pass rates and ATP test pass rates of gastroscopes, enteroscopes and ultrasound endoscopes in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (all P<0. 05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that non-strict implementation of endoscopic reprocessing (OR = 7. 96, 95%CI: 4. 55-22. 84, P<0. 001), non-standard operation (OR = 2. 26, 95%CI: 1. 24-5. 63, P<0. 001), insufficient concentration of disinfectant (OR = 5. 43, 95% CI: 2. 52-9. 02, P < 0. 001), insufficient concentration ratio of multi-enzyme solution (OR = 4. 38, 95% CI: 1. 95-8. 61, P < 0. 001), non-timely cleaning (OR= 2. 86, 95%CI: 1. 33-6. 42, P<0. 001), incomplete cleaning (OR = 3. 75, 95%CI: 1. 61-7. 49, P<0. 001) and improper endoscopic preservation (OR= 2. 12, 95%CI: 1. 36-4. 12, P<0. 001) were independent risk factors for unqualified sterilization after endoscopic reprocessing. Conclusion In COVID-19 pandemic, endoscope reprocessing can significantly improve the disinfection effect of endoscopes, worthy of further clinical promotion. The failure to strictly implement the reprocessing procedure is an important factor that may lead to unqualified sterilization.Copyright © 2021 The authors.

19.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):1277, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20244248

ABSTRACT

BackgroundConsideration is needed when using Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors to treat RA in pts aged ≥65 years or those with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. The JAK1 preferential inhibitor FIL was generally well tolerated in clinical trials[1];safety has not been determined in a real-world setting.ObjectivesTo report baseline characteristics and up to 6-month safety data from the first 480 pts treated with FIL in the FILOSOPHY study (NCT04871919), and in two mutually exclusive subgroups based on age and CV risk.MethodsFILOSOPHY is an ongoing, phase 4, non-interventional, European study of pts with RA who have been prescribed FIL for the first time and in accordance with the product label in daily practice. Baseline characteristics and the incidence of select adverse events (AEs) are assessed in pts aged ≥65 years and/or with ≥1 CV risk factor (Table 1), and in those aged <65 years with no CV risk factors.ResultsAs of the end of June 2022, 480 pts had been treated: 441 received FIL 200 mg and 39 received FIL 100 mg. Of the 480 pts, 148 (30.8%) were aged ≥65 years;332 (69.2%) were aged <65 years. In total, 86 (17.9%) were former smokers, 81 (16.9%) were current smokers and 203 (42.3%) were non-smokers (data were missing for 110 pts [22.9%]). In addition to smoking, the most frequent CV risk factors included a history of hypertension (32.3%), a history of dyslipidemia (10.2%) and a family history of myocardial infarction (8.5%;Table 1).23 pts (4.8%) discontinued treatment due to AEs. Of the 354 pts aged ≥65 years or with ≥1 CV risk factor, infections affected 64 pts (18.1%), 34 (9.6%) had COVID-19, 2 (0.6%) had herpes zoster, and cardiac disorders (angina pectoris, atrial fibrillation, palpitations and tachycardia) affected 5 pts (1.4%);no cases of malignancies were observed. In the subgroup aged <65 years and with no CV risk factors (n=126), infections occurred in 18 pts (14.3%) (9 [7.1%] had COVID-19;3 [2.4%] had herpes zoster) and malignancies (myeloproliferative neoplasm) affected 1 pt (0.8%);no pts had cardiac disorders. There were no cases of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism in either subgroup.ConclusionIn this interim analysis of FILOSOPHY, no unexpected safety signals emerged at up to 6 months. Although infections and cardiac disorders affected a numerically greater proportion of pts aged ≥65 years or with ≥1 CV risk vs those aged <65 years with no CV risk, longer follow-up on a broader cohort is necessary to further characterize the safety of FIL in different groups of pts with RA.Reference[1]Winthrop K, et al. Ann Rheum Dis 2022;81:184–92Table 1.Baseline characteristics and CV risk factorsBaseline demographics/CV risk factorsAll FIL-treated pts (N=480)≥65 years or with ≥1 CV risk factor (n=354)<65 years and no CV risk factor (n=126)*Female sex, n (%)351 (73.1)252 (71.2)99 (78.6)Age, years, mean (SD)57.6 (11.5)60.4 (10.8)49.6 (9.6)Rheumatoid factor positive, n (%)†228 (47.5)167 (47.2)61 (48.4)Anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive, n (%)‡243 (50.6)176 (49.7)67 (53. 2)Body mass index, kg/m2, mean (SD)27.6 (5.7) n=43728.0 (5.4) n=33126.3 (6.4) n=106RA disease duration, years, mean (SD)10.4 (9.4) n=47810.5 (9.5) n=35310.0 (8.8) n=125Tender joint count 28, mean (SD)8.6 (6.9) n=4578.7 (7.1) n=3408.3 (6.3) n=117Swollen joint count 28, mean (SD)5.6 (5.2) n=4525.7 (5.4) n=3365.4 (4.4) n=116Former smoker, n (%)§86 (17.9)86 (24.3)0Current smoker, n (%)§81 (16.9)81 (22.9)0Non-smoker, n (%)§203 (42.3)130 (36.7)73 (57.9)Family history of myocardial infarction, n (%)41 (8.5)41 (11.6)0Medical history of: n (%) CV disease33 (6.9)33 (9.3)0 Diabetes35 (7.3)35 (9.9)0 Dyslipidemia49 (10.2)49 (13.8)0 Hypertension155 (32.3)155 (43.8)0 Ischemic CNS  vascular disorders11 (2.3)11 (3.1)0 Peripheral vascular disease17 (3.5)17 (4.8)0*Includes 53 pts with missing smoking status data who were aged <65 years with no other CV risk factors.†Missing/unknown in 154 pts;‡Missing in 153 pts;§Smoking status data missing in 110 pts (22.9%).AcknowledgementsWe thank the physicia s and patients who participated in this study. The study was funded by Galapagos NV, Mechelen, Belgium. Publication coordination was provided by Fabien Debailleul, PhD, of Galapagos NV. Medical writing support was provided by Debbie Sherwood, BSc, CMPP (Aspire Scientific, Bollington, UK), and funded by Galapagos NV.Disclosure of InterestsPatrick Verschueren Speakers bureau: AbbVie, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, Roularta, Consultant of: Celltrion, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, Gilead, Nordic Pharma, Sidekick Health, Grant/research support from: Galapagos, Pfizer, Jérôme Avouac Speakers bureau: AbbVie, AstraZeneca, BMS, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Sandoz, Sanofi, Consultant of: AbbVie, Fresenius Kabi, Galapagos, Sanofi, Grant/research support from: BMS, Fresenius Kabi, Novartis, Pfizer, Karen Bevers Grant/research support from: Galapagos, Susana Romero-Yuste Speakers bureau: AbbVie, Biogen, BMS, Lilly, Pfizer, Consultant of: Sanofi, Lilly, Grant/research support from: Lilly, MSD, Roberto Caporali Speakers bureau: AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Celltrion, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, Janssen, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Sandoz, UCB, Consultant of: AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Celltrion, Eli Lilly, Fresenius Kabi, Galapagos, Janssen, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, Sandoz, UCB, Thomas Debray Consultant of: Biogen, Galapagos, Gilead, Francesco De Leonardis Employee of: Galapagos, James Galloway Speakers bureau: AbbVie, Biogen, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, Gilead, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, UCB, Consultant of: AbbVie, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, Gilead, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Grant/research support from: AstraZeneca, Celgene, Gilead, Janssen, Medicago, Novavax, Pfizer, Monia Zignani Shareholder of: Galapagos, Employee of: Galapagos, Gerd Rüdiger Burmester Speakers bureau: AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Chugai, Galapagos, Lilly, Pfizer, Sanofi, Consultant of: AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Galapagos, Lilly, Pfizer, Sanofi.

20.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 82(Suppl 1):361-362, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20244142

ABSTRACT

BackgroundUpadacitinib (UPA), a Janus kinase inhibitor, was effective and well tolerated in patients (pts) with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) through 14 weeks (wks) of treatment.[1]ObjectivesThis analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of UPA vs placebo (PBO) through 1 year.MethodsThe SELECT-AXIS 2 nr-axSpA study included a 52-wk randomized, double-blind, PBO-controlled period. Enrolled adults had a clinical diagnosis of active nr-axSpA fulfilling the 2009 ASAS classification criteria, objective signs of inflammation based on MRI sacroiliitis and/or elevated C-reactive protein, and an inadequate response to NSAIDs. One-third of pts had an inadequate response to biologic DMARDs. Pts were randomized 1:1 to UPA 15 mg once daily or PBO. Concomitant medications, including NSAIDs, had to be kept stable through wk 52. The study protocol outlined that pts who did not achieve ASAS20 at any two consecutive study visits between wks 24 to 52 should receive rescue therapy with NSAIDs, corticosteroids, conventional synthetic/biologic DMARDs, or analgesics. Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) test with non-responder imputation incorporating multiple imputation (NRI-MI) was used to handle missing data and intercurrent events for binary efficacy endpoints. Mixed-effect model repeated measures (MMRM) was used to assess continuous efficacy endpoints. NRI was used for binary endpoints after rescue and as observed analysis excluding data after rescue for continuous endpoints. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) are reported through wk 52.ResultsOf the 314 pts randomized, 259 (82%;UPA, n=130;PBO, n=129) completed wk 52 on study drug. More pts achieved an ASAS40 response with UPA vs PBO from wks 14 to 52 with a 20% treatment difference at wk 52 (63% vs 43%;nominal P <.001;Figure 1). The proportion of pts achieving ASDAS inactive disease with UPA remained higher than PBO at wk 52 (33% vs 11%;nominal P <.0001;Figure 1). Consistent improvements and maintenance of efficacy were also seen across other disease activity measures. Between wks 24 and 52, fewer pts on UPA (9%) than PBO (17%) received rescue therapy. A similar proportion of pts in each treatment group had a TEAE (Table 1). Infections were the most common TEAE;the rates of serious infections and herpes zoster were higher with UPA vs PBO, although no new serious infections were reported from wks 14 to 52. COVID-19 events were balanced between treatment groups. No opportunistic infections, malignancy excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, adjudicated major adverse cardiovascular events, inflammatory bowel disease, or deaths were reported. Two pts (1.3%) on PBO had adjudicated venous thromboembolic events.ConclusionUPA showed consistent improvement and maintenance of efficacy vs PBO through 1 year across multiple disease activity measures. No new safety risks were identified with longer-term UPA exposure. These results continue to support the benefit of UPA in pts with active nr-axSpA.Reference[1]Deodhar A, et al. Lancet. 2022;400(10349):369–379.Table 1.Safety through week 52Event, n (%)PBO (n = 157)UPA 15 mg QD (n = 156)Any AE103 (66%)107 (69%)Serious AE6 (3.8%)6 (3.8%)AE leading to D/C4 (2.5%)6 (3.8%)COVID-19-related AE22 (14%)24 (15%)Deaths00Infection60 (38%)68 (44%) Serious infection1 (0.6%)2 (1.3%) Herpes zoster1 (0.6%)5 (3.2%)Malignancy other than NMSC00NMSC1 (0.6%)0Hepatic disorder7 (4.5%)6 (3.8%)Neutropenia1 (0.6%)8 (5.1%)MACE (adjudicated)00VTE (adjudicated)2 (1.3%)a0Uveitisb3 (1.9%)2 (1.3%)Inflammatory bowel disease00aBoth patients had non-serious events of deep vein thrombosis in the lower limb with risk factors including obesity and prior deep vein thrombosis in one patient and concomitant COVID-19 infection in the other patient.bThree events of uveitis occurred in each treatment group (among n = 3 patients in the PBO group and n = 2 patients in the UPA group);two events in the PBO group and one in the UPA group occurred in patients with a history of uveitis.AcknowledgementsAbbVie funded this study and participated in the study design, res arch, analysis, data collection, interpretation of data, review, and approval of the . All authors had access to relevant data and participated in the drafting, review, and approval of this publication. No honoraria or payments were made for authorship. Medical writing support was provided by Julia Zolotarjova, MSc, MWC, of AbbVie.Disclosure of InterestsFilip van den Bosch Speakers bureau: AbbVie, Amgen, Galapagos, Janssen, Lilly, Merck, MoonLake, Novartis, Pfizer, and UCB., Consultant of: AbbVie, Amgen, Galapagos, Janssen, Lilly, Merck, MoonLake, Novartis, Pfizer, and UCB., Atul Deodhar Consultant of: AbbVie, Amgen, Aurinia, BMS, Celgene, GSK, Janssen, Lilly, MoonLake, Novartis, Pfizer, and UCB, Grant/research support from: AbbVie, Bristol Myers Squibb, Celgene, GSK, Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer, and UCB, Denis Poddubnyy Speakers bureau: AbbVie, Biocad, BMS, Galapagos, Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen, Lilly, MSD, Medscape, MoonLake, Novartis, Peervoice, Pfizer, Roche, Samsung Bioepis, and UCB, Consultant of: AbbVie, Biocad, BMS, Galapagos, Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen, Lilly, MSD, Medscape, MoonLake, Novartis, Peervoice, Pfizer, Roche, Samsung Bioepis, and UCB, Grant/research support from: AbbVie, Lilly, MSD, Novartis, and Pfizer., Walter P Maksymowych Consultant of: AbbVie, BMS, Celgene, Galapagos, Gilead, Janssen, Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer, and UCB, Grant/research support from: AbbVie, Novartis, Pfizer, and UCB, Employee of: Chief Medical Officer of CARE Arthritis Limited, Désirée van der Heijde Consultant of: AbbVie, Bayer, BMS, Cyxone, Eisai, Galapagos, Gilead, GSK, Janssen, Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer, and UCB, Employee of: Director of Imaging Rheumatology BV, Tae-Hwan Kim Speakers bureau: AbbVie, Celltrion, Kirin, Lilly, and Novartis., Mitsumasa Kishimoto Consultant of: AbbVie, Amgen, Asahi-Kasei Pharma, Astellas, Ayumi Pharma, BMS, Chugai, Daiichi Sankyo, Eisai, Gilead, Janssen, Lilly, Novartis, Ono Pharma, Pfizer, Tanabe-Mitsubishi, and UCB., Xenofon Baraliakos Speakers bureau: AbbVie, BMS, Celgene, Chugai, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, and UCB, Consultant of: AbbVie, BMS, Chugai, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, and UCB, Grant/research support from: AbbVie and Novartis, Yuanyuan Duan Shareholder of: AbbVie, Employee of: AbbVie, Kristin D'Silva Shareholder of: AbbVie, Employee of: AbbVie, Peter Wung Shareholder of: AbbVie, Employee of: AbbVie, In-Ho Song Shareholder of: AbbVie, Employee of: AbbVie.

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