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1.
Frontiers in Surgery ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2109898

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare seeking behavior has been widely impacted due to the restricted movements of individuals during the Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aims to perform risk stratification in patients requiring timely intervention during the recovery periods. Methods: Operation notes of acute appendicitis (AA) patients within a hospital were analyzed during three six-month periods (23 January-23 July in 2019, 2020, and 2021, respectively). Patient data were collected retrospectively including demographics, pre-emergency status, perioperative information, postoperative outcomes, and follow-up results. Results: 321 patients were included in this study, with 111, 86, and 124 patients in 2019, 2020, and 2021 groups, respectively. The median age of patients decreased by 4 years in 2020 as compared to that in 2019. The proportion of pre-hospitalization symptoms duration of more than 48 h in the 2020 group was higher (36.05% in 2020 vs. 22.52% in 2019). Length of hospital stay (LOS) in 2020 was shorter than it was during the same period in 2019 (4.77 vs. 5.64) and LOS in 2021 was shorter than in 2019 (4.13 vs. 5.64). Compared to the lockdown period, the proportion of patients with recurrent AA was higher in the post-lockdown period (15.1% vs. 27.4%). The median age was 34 years (vaccinated) vs. 37 years (unvaccinated). Logistic regression suggests that elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR = 1.018, CI = 1.010-1.028), white cell count (WBC) (OR = 1.207, CI = 1.079-1.350), female (OR = 2.958, CI = 1.286-6.802), recurrent (OR = 3.865, CI = 1.149-12.997), and fecalith (OR = 2.308, CI = 1.007-5.289) were associated with complicated appendicitis (CA). Conclusion: The lockdown measures during the COVID-19 epidemic are shown to be correlated with a reduction in the proportion of AA patients who underwent surgery, particularly in older adults. Risk factors for CA include elevated CRP, WBC, female, recurrent, and fecalith.

2.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 941512, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109742

ABSTRACT

Background: Carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) is an indicator of inflammation, immune response, and impaired cardiac function. The aim was to investigate whether CA125 behaves as a biomarker of severity and poor clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Serum CA125 [Elecsys CA125 II assay-(Roche Diagnostics GmbH)] was measured in stored biobank samples from COVID-19 hospitalized patients between 01 March 2020 and 17 October 2021. Multiple logistic regression models were built to explore the association between CA125 and clinical outcomes [in-hospital all-cause mortality, need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), or non-invasive respiratory support (non-IRS)], estimating odds ratios (ORs; 95% CI). The gradient of risk of CA125 was evaluated by fractional polynomials. Results: A total of 691 patients were included, median age of 63 years (50-76), men (57.2%), with high comorbidity. At admission, 85.8% had pneumonia. Median CA125 was 10.33 U/ml (7.48-15.50). The in-hospital mortality rate was 7.2%. After adjusting for confounding factors, CA125 ≥ 15.5 U/ml (75th percentile) showed an increased risk of death [OR 2.85(1.21-6.71)], as age ≥ 65 years, diabetes, and immunosuppression. Furthermore, CA125 as a continuous variable was positive and significantly associated with the risk of death after multivariate adjustment. The mean hospital stay of the patients with CA125 ≥ 15.5 U/ml was longer than the rest of the study population. Conclusion: CA125 in the first 72 h of hospital admission seems a useful biomarker of mortality in hospitalized patients with moderate-severe COVID-19. If our findings are confirmed, the wide availability of this biomarker would make easy its widespread implementation in clinical practice.

3.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 14: 1963-1975, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109483

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to estimate the prevalence of insomnia and related risk factors during the Delta wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study included 646 individuals from the general population aged 18 years and over, living in the Kingdom of Bahrain during the Delta wave of the pandemic. Data were collected by an anonymous online questionnaire using the snowball-sampling technique between June and August 2021. We used the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the generalized anxiety disorder scale (GAD-7) to measure the level of insomnia and anxiety, respectively. Results: A total of 646 individuals participated in the study. Most of the participants were females (86%). The mean age was 38.7 ± 12.7 years (age range 18-89) and around half of the participants were 35 years or older. Clinical insomnia was reported by 20% [95% CI, 16.9-20.0] of the participants, and 50.1% [95% CI, 46.2-50.1] had subclinical insomnia according to ISI. The proportion of insomnia was significantly higher among females, healthcare workers, participants with lower educational levels, a lower or decreased monthly income during the pandemic, or participants who reported anxiety symptoms (all P < 0.01). Scales of anxiety and insomnia revealed a high correlation (r2 = 0.347, P< 0.01). The logistic regression model confirmed that factors independently associated with insomnia are female gender (OR=1.94, 95% CI, 1.00-3.76, P < 0.050) as well as presence of anxiety (GAD-7 score ≥ 5) [OR=12.98, 95% CI, 5.61-30.00, P < 0.001]. Conclusion: The burden of insomnia was significant among the general population in the Kingdom of Bahrain during the Delta wave of the COVID-19 pandemic despite the low severity of this variant. Mental health programs are a high priority during the pandemic and afterward. Detection of insomnia could be used to treat some mental health problems at an early stage.

4.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 15(10): e008942, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD) is perceived as a risk factor for poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19. We sought to determine whether CVD is associated with in-hospital death and cardiovascular events in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This study used data from a multicenter cohort of adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units at 68 centers across the United States from March 1 to July 1, 2020. The primary exposure was CVD, defined as preexisting coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or atrial fibrillation/flutter. Myocardial injury on intensive care unit admission defined as a troponin I or T level above the 99th percentile upper reference limit of normal was a secondary exposure. The primary outcome was 28-day in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included cardiovascular events (cardiac arrest, new-onset arrhythmias, new-onset heart failure, myocarditis, pericarditis, or stroke) within 14 days. RESULTS: Among 5133 patients (3231 male [62.9%]; mean age 61 years [SD, 15]), 1174 (22.9%) had preexisting CVD. A total of 1178 (34.6%) died, and 920 (17.9%) had a cardiovascular event. After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, history of smoking, and comorbidities, preexisting CVD was associated with a 1.15 (95% CI, 0.98-1.34) higher odds of death. No independent association was observed between preexisting CVD and cardiovascular events. Myocardial injury on intensive care unit admission was associated with higher odds of death (adjusted odds ratio, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.61-2.31]) and cardiovascular events (adjusted odds ratio, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.47-2.24]), regardless of the presence of CVD. CONCLUSIONS: CVD risk factors, rather than CVD itself, were the major contributors to outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19. The occurrence of myocardial injury, regardless of CVD, and its association with outcomes suggests it is likely due to multiorgan injury related to acute inflammation rather than exacerbation of preexisting CVD. REGISTRATION: NCT04343898; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04343898.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Troponin I , Hospital Mortality , Risk Factors
5.
Open Heart ; 9(2)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108308

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic and therapeutic arsenal for heart failure with preserved ejection (HFpEF) has expanded. With novel therapies (eg, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors) and firmer recommendations to optimise non-cardiac comorbidities, it is unclear if outpatient HFpEF models can adequately deliver this. We; therefore, evaluated the efficacy of an existing dedicated HFpEF clinic to find innovative ways to design a more comprehensive model tailored to the modern era of HFpEF. METHODS: A single-centre retrospective analysis of 202 HFpEF outpatients was performed over 12 months before the COVID-19 pandemic. Baseline characteristics, clinic activities (eg, medication changes, lifestyle modifications, management of comorbidities) and follow-up arrangements were compared between a HFpEF and general cardiology clinic to assess their impact on mortality and morbidity at 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: Between the two clinic groups, the sample population was evenly matched with a typical HFpEF profile (mean age 79±9.6 years, 55% female and a high prevalence of cardiometabolic comorbidities). While follow-up practices were similar, the HFpEF clinic delivered significantly more interventions on lifestyle changes, blood pressure and heart rate control (p<0.0001) compared with the general clinic. Despite this, no significant differences in all-cause hospitalisation and mortality were observed. This may be attributed to the fact that clinic activities were primarily cardiology-focused. Importantly, non-cardiovascular admissions accounted for >60% of hospitalisation, including causes of recurrent admissions. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that existing general and emerging dedicated HFpEF clinics may not be adequate in addressing the multifaceted aspects of HFpEF as clinic activities concentrated primarily on cardiological measures. Although the small cohort and short follow-up period are important limitations, this study reminds clinicians that HFpEF patients are more at risk of non-cardiac than HF-related events. We have therefore proposed a pragmatic framework that can comprehensively deliver the modern guideline-directed recommendations and management of non-cardiac comorbidities through a multidisciplinary approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Humans , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Male , Stroke Volume/physiology , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/therapy , State Medicine , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/therapy , Ambulatory Care Facilities
6.
Disasters ; 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107969

ABSTRACT

Frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) looking after COVID-19 patients are at high risk of developing mental health problems. Both preventive and interventional initiatives are essential, therefore, to maintain and improve the mental health of HCWs and ultimately to enhance the quality of care that they provide. This qualitative content analysis study, conducted in Iran between September 2020 and February 2021, involved the gathering of data on the issue through face-to-face interviews with 22 HCWs working directly with COVID-19 patients. Data analysis led to the generation of 163 codes, 45 categories (16 risk factors and 29 consequences), and 9 themes. Overall, the results suggest that caring for a patient with COVID-19 is associated with positive and negative psychological impacts. Measures such as increasing sensitivity to crisis situations, self-adjustment skills training, and identifying signs of job burnout owing to moral conflicts can reduce or eliminate the risk of negative psychological consequences among HCWs.

7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(11): ofac505, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107551

ABSTRACT

Background: Unbiased assessment of the risks associated with acquisition of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical to informing mitigation efforts during pandemics. The objective of our study was to understand the risk factors for acquiring coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a large prospective cohort of adult residents in a large US metropolitan area. Methods: We designed a fully remote longitudinal cohort study involving monthly at-home SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology self-testing and monthly surveys. Results: Between October 2020 and January 2021, we enrolled 10 289 adults reflective of the Boston metropolitan area census data. At study entry, 567 (5.5%) participants had evidence of current or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. This increased to 13.4% by June 15, 2021. Compared with Whites, Black non-Hispanic participants had a 2.2-fold greater risk of acquiring COVID-19 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.19; 95% CI, 1.91-2.50; P < .001), and Hispanics had a 1.5-fold greater risk (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.32-1.71; P < .016). Individuals aged 18-29, those who worked outside the home, and those living with other adults and children were at an increased risk. Individuals in the second and third lowest disadvantaged neighborhood communities were associated with an increased risk of acquiring COVID-19. Individuals with medical risk factors for severe disease were at a decreased risk of SARS-CoV-2 acquisition. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status are the biggest determinants of acquisition of infection. This disparity is significantly underestimated if based on PCR data alone, as noted by the discrepancy in serology vs PCR detection for non-White participants, and points to persistent disparity in access to testing. Medical conditions and advanced age, which increase the risk for severity of SARS-CoV-2 disease, were associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 acquisition, suggesting the importance of behavior modifications. These findings highlight the need for mitigation programs that overcome challenges of structural racism in current and future pandemics.

8.
Children (Basel) ; 9(11)2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Computer vision syndrome (CVS) can be described as ocular-related symptoms that result from prolonged exposure and use of computers, smartphones, tablets, and other devices with digital displays. The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CVS among school-age children, the associated signs, risk factors, and the association between the disease before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional research design. The targeted population was school-going children aged 6 to 18 in the Jazan region in the Southwest of Saudi Arabia. A sample of 440 participants was selected to represent the population under study. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Sociodemographic characteristics were recorded, such as age, gender, education level, parents' education, occupation, frequency, and intensity of eye symptoms if present. RESULTS: Most of the participants were adolescents between 16 and 18 and at a high-school education level. According to the total symptoms score, the CVS prevalence was 35.4%. Prevalence of CVS significantly affects age, gender, and school level (p < 0.05 for all). A similar significant association was reported between the symptoms experienced before and during COVID-19 and the CVS (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A total of 407 adolescents aged 16-18 responded to the questionnaire (response rate of 92.5%; 407 out of 440). The study estimated the prevalence of CVS among school-going children in Jazan to be low. The main signs associated with CVS included headache, tearing, itchiness, blurred vision, eye redness, eye pain, and dryness. The attitude of children toward their health condition during the COVID-19 pandemic and the prevalence of CVS have a significant relationship.

9.
Front Psychol ; 13: 1022203, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109848

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Little is known about risk factors for both Long COVID and somatic symptoms that develop in individuals without a history of COVID-19 in response to the pandemic. There is reason to assume an interplay between pathophysiological mechanisms and psychosocial factors in the etiology of symptom persistence. Objective: Therefore, this study investigates specific risk factors for somatic symptom deterioration in a cohort of German adults with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: German healthcare professionals underwent SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody testing and completed self-rating questionnaires at baseline and 21 months later between April 2020 and February 2022. Differences in variables between the time points were analyzed and a regression analysis was performed to predict somatic symptom deterioration at follow-up. Results: Seven hundred fifty-one adults completed both assessments. Until follow-up, n = 58 had contracted SARS-CoV-2 confirmed by serology. Between baseline and follow-up, signs of mental and physical strain increased significantly in the sample. Symptom expectations associated with COVID-19 and a self-reported history of COVID-19, but not serologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, significantly predicted somatic symptom deterioration at follow-up. A further predictor was baseline psychological symptom burden. Conclusions: This study supports a disease-overarching biopsychosocial model for the development of burdensome somatic symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic and supports research findings that symptom burden may be more related to the psychosocial effects of the pandemic than to infection itself. Future studies on Long COVID should include SARS-CoV-2 negative control groups and consider symptom burden prior to infection in order to avoid an overestimation of prevalence rates.

10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2501-2509, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2107210

ABSTRACT

To further describe the effect of the "fragile population" and their "higher-risk" comorbidities on prognosis among hospitalized Omicron patients, this observational cohort study enrolled hospitalized patients confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 during the 2022 Omicron wave in Shanghai, China. The primary outcome was progression to severe or critical cases. The secondary outcome was viral shedding time from the first positive SARS-CoV-2 detection. A total of 847 participants were enrolled, most of whom featured as advanced age (>70 years old: 30.34%), not fully vaccinated (55.84%), combined with at least 1 comorbidity (65.41%). Multivariate cox regression suggested age >70 years old (aHR[95%CI] 0.78[0.61-0.99]), chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4-5 (aHR[95%CI] 0.61[0.46-0.80]), heart conditions (aHR[95%CI] 0.76[0.60-0.97]) would elongate viral shedding time and fully/booster vaccination (aHR[95%CI] 1.4 [1.14-1.72]) would shorten this duration. Multivariate logistic regression suggested CKD stage 4-5 (aHR[95%CI] 3.21[1.45-7.27]), cancer (aHR[95%CI] 9.52[4.19-22.61]), and long-term bedridden status (aHR[95%CI] 4.94[2.36-10.44]) were the "higher" risk factor compared with the elderly, heart conditions, metabolic disorders, isolated hypertension, etc. for severity while female (aHR[95%CI] 0.34[0.16-0.68]) and fully/booster Vaccination (aHR[95%CI] 0.35[0.12-0.87]) could provide protection from illness progression. CKD stage 4-5, cancer and long-term bedridden history were "higher-risk" factors among hospitalized Omicron patients for severity progression while full vaccination could provide protection from illness progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Female , Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology
11.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 69(3): 547-571, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105692

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. More than 5 million children have been infected in the United States. Risk factors for more severe disease progression include obesity, pulmonary disease, gastrointestinal disorders, and neurologic comorbidities. Children with COVID-19 are admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit because of severe acute COVID-19 illness or COVID-19-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. The delta surge of 2021 was responsible for an increased disease burden in children and points to the key role of vaccinating children against this sometimes-deadly disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , United States/epidemiology
12.
Int J Disaster Risk Reduct ; 82: 103337, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105059

ABSTRACT

Research indicates that stress increased across the globe after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Community resilience has been suggested as a central protective factor for stress related to disasters and emergency crises. This study examined the contribution of community resilience reported three years prior to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, together with related worries and personal risk factors, to perceived stress among Israeli adults following the first wave of COVID-19 in Israel. We performed a two-period 3-year longitudinal study (Period 1 [P1]: July-September 2017; Period 2: [P2] May-June 2020). The final sample included 578 participants. Participants completed a community resilience self-report questionnaire during P1 as well as measures regarding perceived stress and COVID-19 worries during P2. Using linear hierarchical regression, we tested the additional explanatory effect of community resilience and found it to be negatively associated with perceived stress. While health-related worries were not significantly associated with perceived stress, worries related to the functioning of governmental and health institutions regarding the COVID-19 pandemic were significantly associated with perceived stress. Additionally, being single, living in a smaller residence and income reduction during the pandemic predicted higher perceived stress. The current study highlights the potential buffering role of community resilience in protecting against COVID-19 stress. Assessing community resilience may help identify vulnerable groups, and focusing on community building may be an effective strategy to mitigate stress in future disasters.

13.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 2022 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103887

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Several studies investigated prevalence and determinants of physicians' burnout during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, but only a few during the chronic phase of the pandemic. This study thus aimed to examine this topic referring to the "post-COVID-19 era", defined as a chronic and likely-to-be endemic status quo. METHODS: A cross-sectional, online survey (November 2021-January 2022) was addressed to physicians in Lombardia (Northern Italy). Besides socio-demographic and COVID-19-related data, measures of personal, work- and patient-related burnout (Copenhagen Burnout Inventory; CBI), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-8), anxiety (General Anxiety Disorder-7), and self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale) were collected. Linear/generalized linear models were run to test associations/predictions of interest. RESULTS: Among the 958 respondents, burnout symptoms were clinically significant in 18.5% of them. Predictive models showed that female sex (OR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.42-1.27), younger age (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.59-1.48), shorter job tenure (OR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.62-1.65), trainee status (OR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.16-7.10), higher PHQ-8 (OR = 1.260, 95% CI 1.16-1.37), and GAD-7 scores (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.10-1.30) increased the risk to suffer from clinical burnout. COVID-19-related variables were mostly not related/associated to burnout levels. CONCLUSION: In Italy, physicians' burnout is moderately prevalent also in the chronic phase of the pandemic, with its determinants being more intrinsic than environmental. The development of effective interventions is needed to help physicians cope with the new challenges of their job.

14.
Cardiovascular Disease in Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations, 2 Edition ; : 1-11, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2102083
15.
Bali Medical Journal ; 11(3):1269-1276, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100528

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic was announced in March 2020 by World Health Organization (WHO). Studies showed that the elderly had higher morbidity and mortality rates. Acute sarcopenia in the elderly with COVID-19 is an overlooked problem. Inflammation, malnutrition, immobilization, a side effect of COVID-19 treatment, depression, and hormonal dysregulation contributed to acute sarcopenia in COVID-19, especially in the elderly. Muscle quantity can be assessed with different techniques such as imaging or anthropometric measurements in diagnosing sarcopenia. Imaging such as CT scan was widely used in multiple studies. Still, anthropometric measurements are more fit in developing countries because they are widely available, safe, do not require special skills, and fit in low-resources facilities. Muscle strength can be assessed with grip strength. Acute sarcopenia was associated with immune dysregulation and cytokine storm, length of stay and readmission, and ICU admission and mechanical ventilation. These will contribute to high mortality in sarcopenic elderly with COVID-19.

16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases ranked first in terms of the number of deaths in Serbia in 2019, with 52,663 deaths. One fifth of those were from ischemic heart disease (IHD), and half of IHD deaths were from acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We present the ACS mortality time trend in Serbia during a 15-year period using the latest available data, excluding the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The data on patients who died of ACS in the period from 2005 to 2019 were obtained from the National Statistics Office and processed at the Department of Prevention and Control of Non-communicable Diseases of the Institute of Public Health of Serbia. Number of deaths, crude mortality rates (CR) and age-standardized mortality rates (ASR-E) for the European population were analyzed. Using joinpoint analysis, the time trend in terms of annual percentage change (APC) was analyzed for the female and male population aged 0 to 85+. Age-period-cohort modeling was used to estimate age, cohort and period effects in ACS mortality between 2005 and 2019 for age groups in the range 20 to 90. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2019 there were 90,572 deaths from ACS: 54,202 in men (59.8%), 36,370 in women (40.2%). Over the last 15 years, the number of deaths significantly declined: 46.7% in men, 49.5% in women. The annual percentage change was significant: -4.4% in men, -5.8% in women. Expressed in terms of APC, for the full period, the highest significant decrease in deaths was seen in women aged 65-69, -8.5%, followed by -7.6% for women aged 50-54 and 70-74. In men, the highest decreases were recorded in the age group 50-54, -6.7%, and the age group 55-59, -5.7%. In all districts there was significant decline in deaths in terms of APC for the full period in both genders, except in Zlatibor, Kolubara and Morava, where increases were recorded. In addition, in Bor and Toplica almost no change was observed over the full period for both genders. CONCLUSIONS: In the last 15 years, mortality from ACS in Serbia declined in both genders. The reasons are found in better diagnostic and treatment through an organized network for management of ACS patients. However, there are districts where this decline was small and insignificant or was offset in recent years by an increase in deaths. In addition, there is space for improvement in the still-high mortality rates through primary prevention, which at the moment is not organized.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Myocardial Ischemia , Humans , Female , Male , Serbia/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cohort Studies , Registries , Myocardial Ischemia/epidemiology
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099521

ABSTRACT

Closure of Higher Education Institutions in the early phase of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was largely diffused. With their reopening, numerous preventive measures have been enacted, but limited evidence exists on students' behavior that could influence their infection risk. We conducted a case-control study at the Sapienza University of Rome to identify protective and risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Students attending the campus within 48 h of SARS-CoV-2 infection were considered cases. Controls were students who come in contact with a confirmed case within the campus. Demographic features and activities carried out before positivity or contact were investigated. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to identify factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, estimating adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The analysis showed an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection for attending the second year or above of university (aOR 17.7, 95% CI 2.21-142.82) and participating in private parties or ceremonies (aOR 15.9, 95% CI 2.30-109.67) while living outside the family (aOR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.54) and attending practical activities or libraries on campus (aOR 0.29, 95% CI 0.08-0.97) reduced the risk. Data strongly suggests that it may be safe to participate in activities organized under strict infection prevention guidelines. Tailored prevention measures might reduce the risk of infection in university students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities , Case-Control Studies , Students
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 299: 63-74, 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099072

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has affected people in several countries around the world. They experience respiratory symptoms that can be mild, moderate, or severe. Several reviews that characterize the risk factors of COVID-19 have been performed, but most address only risk factors associated with medical conditions, ignoring environmental and sociodemographic-socioeconomic factors. OBJECTIVE: This study aims at characterizing different risk factors in the published literature that influence contagion by COVID-19. METHODS: The review consists of three stages, including a systematic mapping with studies found in the Scopus database, an analysis of results, and finally the identification of relevant COVID-19 risk factors. RESULTS: A map of studies id provided considering two main groups: the type of research and context. Most studies consider risk factors associated with medical conditions, while research on other factors is scarce. CONCLUSIONS: Medical conditions such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and factors such as age and sex, appear to be the ones that increase the risk of contracting COVID-19. Further research is needed on environmental, sociodemographic, and socioeconomic risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Risk Factors
19.
Preventive Medicine Reports ; : 102037, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2095895

ABSTRACT

Becoming homebound can be devastating for older adults in rural communities. This study aimed to identify protective or high-risk social activities associated with homebound status among the rural young old (ages 65–74) and the oldest old (ages ≥75). We used data from a survey of older adults in a rural community of Japan in 2014. Questions covered sociodemographic characteristics, homebound status (i.e., going out less than once a week), physical and psychological status, and social activities. Using survey data, we conducted logistic regression analysis to identify protective and high-risk social activities associated with homebound status. Of the 1,564 participants, 51.0% were the oldest old, and the mean age was 75.2 (±7.0) years. The prevalence of homebound status was 10.5% total: 5.2% among the young old and 15.7% among the oldest old and highest among the female oldest old (19.4%). The main protective social activity for the young and the oldest old was visiting friends’ houses (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.64–17.64 and AOR 3.49, 95% CI 1.07–11.42, respectively). For the young old, specific high-risk social activities were advising family and friends (AOR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01–0.62) and activities to support older adults (AOR 0.17, 95% CI 0.03–0.84). For the oldest old, a protective social activity was participating in long-term care prevention programs (AOR 28.94, 95% CI 1.90–441.63). To prevent rural older adults from becoming homebound, support should be provided according to protective and high-risk social activities for age groups, with particular attention to safe socialization amid the threat of COVID-19.

20.
Rev Clin Esp (Barc) ; 222(8): 468-478, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095943

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Various studies have identified factors associated with risk of mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, their sample size has often been limited and their results partially contradictory. This study evaluated factors associated with COVID-19 mortality in the population of Madrid over 75 years of age, in infected patients, and in hospitalized patients up to January 2021. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This population-based cohort study analyzed all residents of the Community of Madrid born before January 1, 1945 who were alive as of December 31, 2019. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from primary care electronic medical records (PC-Madrid), data on hospital admissions from the Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD, Minimum Data Set), and data on mortality from the Índice Nacional de Defunciones (INDEF, National Death Index). Data on SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, and death were collected from March 1, 2020 to January 31, 2021. RESULTS: A total of 587,603 subjects were included in the cohort. Of them, 41,603 (7.1%) had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, of which 22,362 (53.7% of the infected individuals) were hospitalized and 11,251 (27%) died. Male sex and age were the factors most closely associated with mortality, though many comorbidities also had an influence. The associations were stronger in the analysis of the total population than in the analysis of infected or hospitalized patients. Mortality among hospitalized patients was lower during the second wave (33.4%) than during the first wave (41.2%) of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Age, sex, and numerous comorbidities are associated with risk of death due to COVID-19. Mortality in hospitalized patients declined notably after the first wave of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics
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