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1.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-344335

ABSTRACT

Background: There is growing evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affected minority and lower socioeconomic groups. These groups have limited access to healthcare and social security, work in high-risk jobs, and have higher rates of comorbidities associated with poor outcomes from COVID-19. This study quantifies the effect of individual demographics, socioeconomic factors, and public health measures on COVID-19 health outcomes in a large population. Method: Demographics, socioeconomic factors, and COVID-19 outcomes for all 600,000 residents of the Sydney Local Health District from June 2021 to February 2022 were identified from the state’s Notifiable Conditions Information Management System (NCIMS) and linked to Australian Census data. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were generated for the outcomes of testing, infection, hospitalisation, and death for different periods of public health restrictions. Findings: Overall, public health interventions were effective in protecting the entire population from COVID-19 infection, hospitalisation, and death.During strict public health measures, older individuals had a lower risk of infection, with those aged 80 years and over having half the risk of infection compared to the reference group of 30 to 39 years old (hazards ratio 0.47, 95%CI 0.45-0.49);and those living in areas of lower socioeconomic status (SES) had a higher risk of infection, with the lowest areas having seven times the risk compared to the highest areas (HR 7.15, 6.24-8.19). The risk of infection was also higher for males (HR 1.34 1.27-1.40);those living in areas with higher household sizes (HR 1.56, 1.36-1.78);and individuals who were born in South Asia (HR 1.18, 1.07-1.29), South East Asia (HR 1.20, 1.07-1.36) and the Middle East and North Africa (HR 1.67, 1.47-1.90). During relaxed restrictions, differences between sexes, age groups, regions of birth and household sizes attenuated, but remained significant. Individuals with lower SES had lower rates of COVID-19 testing (odds ratio 0.31, 0.30-0.33), and higher odds of hospitalisation (OR 2.02, 1.71-2.38) and death (OR 4.11, 2.66-6.37) due to COVID-19. Individuals born outside of Australia had lower odds of testing, but no difference in the odds of hospitalisation or death. Importantly, vaccines were preferentially given to at-risk people, and these were protective of hospitalisation (OR 0.67, 0.61-0.73) and death (OR 0.70, 0.58-0.85). The Delta variant of COVID-19 was associated with higher odds of hospitalisation (OR 5.00, 0.56-4.76) and death (OR 4.17, 4.76-3.45). Interpretation: Policies adopted during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic were insufficient to maintain social equity. Policy and decision-makers should enhance efforts to achieve equity in relation to public health measures adopted for disease control. The challenge is to strengthen, scale, and sustain community engagement and relationships initiated during COVID-19 outbreaks. This can be part of a broader agenda that aims at enhancing clinical governance and community capacity to address the health and social inequalities of priority communities.

2.
Prog Urol ; 32(16): 1421-1430, 2022 Dec.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049829

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Male gender has been shown to be a risk factor for COVID-19 infection, and men are more likely to develop severe disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on the incidence of infection and severity of SARS-CoV-2 in prostate cancer patients. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed after searching PubMed, Scopus, and ClinicalTrial.org databases, between January 2020 and March 2022. Analyses were interpreted through forest plots for the following parameters: risk of infection, hospitalization, intensive care admission, and SARS-CoV-2-related death, with random or fixed-effects models. RESULTS: Fifteen articles were included in the systematic review and ten in the meta-analysis. Seven studies evaluated risk of infection in patients on ADT: OR=1.11 (95 % IC : [0.48-2.58] ; P=0.81). Six studies evaluated the risk of hospitalization in patients on ADT: TDA : OR=1.58 (95 % IC : [0.94-2.64] ; P=0.08). Seven studies evaluated risk of ICU admission in patients on ADT: OR=0.90 (95 % IC : [0.71-1.13] ; P=0.37). Nine studies evaluated mortality risk in patients on ADT: OR=1.07 (95 % IC : [0.61-1.87] ; P=0.82). CONCLUSION: ADT does not protect against SARS-CoV-2 in prostate cancer patients, nor does it protect against hospitalization, ICU admission, or mortality. These results remain questionable given the retrospective nature of the majority of studies included in our meta-analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Humans , Male , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Androgens , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Risk Factors
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006004

ABSTRACT

An emerging issue for orthopedic surgeons is how to manage patients with active or previous COVID-19 disease, avoiding any major risks for the surgeons and the O.R. personnel. This monocentric prospective observational study aims to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RT-PCR RNA in cancellous bone samples in patients with active or previous COVID-19 disease. We collected data about 30 consecutive patients from our institution from January 2021 to March 2021 with active or previous COVID-19 disease. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the samples was determined using two different PCR-based assays. Eighteen of the thirty patients included in the study had a positive nasopharyngeal swab at the time of surgery. Twelve patients had a negative nasopharyngeal swab with a mean days since negativization of 138 ± 104 days, ranging from 23 to 331 days. Mean days of positivity to the nasal swab were 17 ± 17. Twenty-nine out of thirty (96.7%) samples were negative for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. In one sample, low SARS-CoV-2 load (Cycle threshold (Ct) 36.6.) was detected but not confirmed using an additional confirmatory assay. The conducted study demonstrates the absence of the viral genome within the analyzed cancellous bone. We think that the use of personal protection equipment (PPE) to only protect from aerosol produced during surgery, both in active and recovered patients, is not strictly necessary. We think that the use of PPE should not be employed by surgeons and the O.R. personnel to protect themselves from aerosols produced from the respiratory tract. Moreover, we think that our results could represent a valid basis for further studies related to the possibility of bone donation in patients that suffered and recovered from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orthopedic Procedures , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cancellous Bone , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Health Education ; 121(3):265-274, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1958390

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper aimed to examine the psycho-social aspects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Pakistan. The study was conducted in Pakistan by using an online survey technique. The rationale to opt for this method was mainly based on the country's lock-down situations, social distancing and for the care of respondents. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 1,536 individuals participated from different parts of the country. An attitudinal scale was administered consisting of statements to measure (dis)agreement of the individuals facing the current situations of COVID-19. The ethical considerations and confidentiality of the respondents were opted by describing the purpose of research on the first page of the questionnaire. Findings: The study findings showed that the cost of personal protective equipment (PPE), social isolation and loss of intimacy have favourable positive effects on the psychological problems of individuals through the mediation of fake news and misinformation during COVID-19. Furthermore, the study findings were interpreted as per the effects of current situations of epidemic, i.e. COVID-19 on the psycho-social life of individuals. Research limitations/implications: This paper is purely limited to the quantitative approach including variables, i.e. COVID-19, risk of infection, social distancing, cost of PPE, social isolation, fake news and psychological problems. Practical implications: The present research will enhance the awareness and knowledge regarding psychological problems faced by the individuals during COVID-19. It will be a significant addition to the existing body of knowledge in the field of health and well-being. It will also provide guidelines to students, research scholars, policymakers and academicians to develop policies in future to improve the health of people during epidemics such as COVID-19 and similar nature of outbreak in the future. Originality/value: This paper focused on an important gap in the research on COVID-19 in the country in the context of COVID-19, risk of infection, social distancing, cost of PPE, social isolation, fake news and psychological problems. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

5.
Profilakticheskaya Meditsina ; 25(7):51-58, 2022.
Article in Russian | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1955158

ABSTRACT

The scientific literature still does not cover the specifics of the course of a new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in military personnel, the risk factors for the development and severe course of the disease are poorly studied. Purpose of the study. To determine the risk factors for the development of the disease and predictors of the severity of COVID-19 in military sailors serving in the Arctic zone of Russia. Material and methods. In June-July 2021, a retrospective cross-sectional medical and sociological study of a group of 265 military sailors serving in the Arctic zone of Russia was carried out. The results were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, contingency tables for calculating odds ratios, and simple binary logistic regression analysis (SBLRA). Results. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of smoking among military personnel depending on the presence of COVID-19 in history (U=8162.5, p=0.363). The diagnosis of COVID-19 was laboratory verified in 47 (40.9%) of 115 respondents who reported having had COVID-19. The disease was asymptomatic or mild in 61.8% of the surveyed military sailors. The mean duration of treatment was statistically significantly (U=697.00, p<0.001) longer in respondents who had a positive laboratory test for COVID-19. A series of SBLRA procedures revealed a statistically significant relationship between influenza vaccination in the fall of 2019 and a history of first or second wave COVID-19 in respondents. Respondent age over 35 is associated with a higher chance;higher education - with a lower chance of moderate or severe COVID-19. Conclusion. The vast majority (88.7%) of those who recovered from COVID-19 by the summer of 2021 had signs of post-COVID syndrome, including asthenia (56.5%), shortness of breath (38.3%), dyssomnia (17.4%) and arthralgia (15.7%). As a risk factor for a more severe course of the disease, the respondent's age is over 35 years and the lack of higher education. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] В научной литературе все еще недостаточно освещены вопросы особенностей протекания новой коронавирусной инфекции (COVID-19) у военнослужащих, мало изучены факторы риска развития и тяжелого течения заболевания. Цель исследования. Определить факторы риска развития заболевания и предикторы тяжести течения COVID-19 у военных моряков, проходящих службу в Арктической зоне России. Материал и методы. В июне-июле 2021 г. проведено ретроспективное поперечное медико-социологическое исследование группы из 265 военных моряков, проходящих службу в условиях Арктической зоны России. Результаты проанализированы с использованием критерия Манна-Уитни, построения таблиц сопряженности для расчета отношения шансов, простого бинарного логистического регрессионного анализа (ПБЛРА). Результаты. Статистически значимые различия распространенности курения среди военнослужащих в зависимости от наличия COVID-19 в анамнезе не выявлены (U=8162,5, p=0,363). Диагноз COVID-19 лабораторно верифицирован у 47 (40,9%) из 115 респондентов, сообщивших о перенесенном COVID-19. Перенесли заболевание бессимптомно или в легкой форме 61,8% опрошенных военных моряков. Средняя продолжительность лечения была статистически значимо (U=697,00, p<0,001) выше у респондентов, имевших положительный результат лабораторного теста на COVID-19. Серия процедур ПБЛРА выявила статистически значимую взаимосвязь между вакцинацией от гриппа осенью 2019 г. и наличием в анамнезе у респондентов COVID-19 первой или второй волны. Возраст респондента старше 35 лет связан с более высоким шансом;наличие высшего образования - с более низким шансом среднетяжелого или тяжелого течения COVID-19. Заключение. Подавляющее большинство (88,7%) переболевших COVID-19 к лету 2021 г. имели признаки постковидного синдрома, в том числе астении (56,5%), одышки (38,3%), диссомнии (17,4%) и артралгии (15,7%). В качестве фактора риска более тяжелого течения заболевания установлены возраст респондента старше 35 лет и отсутствие высшего образования. (Russian) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Profilakticheskaya Meditsina is the property of Media Sphere Publishing House and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 870, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted economically-disadvantaged populations in the United States (US). Precarious employment conditions may contribute to these disparities by impeding workers in such conditions from adopting COVID-19 mitigation measures to reduce infection risk. This study investigated the relationship between employment and economic conditions and the adoption of COVID-19 protective behaviors among US workers during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Employing a social media advertisement campaign, an online, self-administered survey was used to collect data from 2,845 working adults in April 2020. Hierarchical generalized linear models were performed to assess the differences in engagement with recommended protective behaviors based on employment and economic conditions, while controlling for knowledge and perceived threat of COVID-19, as would be predicted by the Health Belief Model (HBM). RESULTS: Essential workers had more precarious employment and economic conditions than non-essential workers: 67% had variable income; 30% did not have paid sick leave; 42% had lost income due to COVID-19, and 15% were food insecure. The adoption of protective behaviors was high in the sample: 77% of participants avoided leaving home, and 93% increased hand hygiene. Consistent with the HBM, COVID-19 knowledge scores and perceived threat were positively associated with engaging in all protective behaviors. However, after controlling for these, essential workers were 60% and 70% less likely than non-essential workers, who by the nature of their jobs cannot stay at home, to stay at home and increase hand hygiene, respectively. Similarly, participants who could not afford to quarantine were 50% less likely to avoid leaving home (AOR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.4, 0.6) than those who could, whereas there were no significant differences concerning hand hygiene. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with the accumulating evidence that the employment conditions of essential workers and other low-income earners are precarious, that they have experienced disproportionately higher rates of income loss during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic and face significant barriers to adopting protective measures. Our findings underscore the importance and need of policy responses focusing on expanding social protection and benefits to prevent the further deepening of existing health disparities in the US.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Employment , Humans , Income , Pandemics/prevention & control , Poverty , United States/epidemiology
7.
Build Environ ; 219: 109180, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944379

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 lockdowns less people were able to fulfill the WHO recommendations on physical activity. Also, fitness centers were associated to SARS-CoV-2 superspreader events. However, the risk of infection can be strongly reduced by outdoor air ventilation. To investigate whether a reopening of fitness centers can be justified, CO 2 concentration was measured during four days in a fitness center. Except for one room, the observed CO 2 concentrations were mainly under 800 ppm, which stands for high air quality. The strong decrease of CO 2 concentration during the 15 min evacuations following each hour of workout, speaks for the functionality of the ventilation system. In particular, the number of people present in the studio has a strong impact on the estimated CO 2 value. In a linear mixed model, an additional CO 2 concentration of 2.24 ppm (95 % confidence interval [2.04, 2.43]) was estimated for this setting with a total volume of 4065 m 3 in the fitness center and a possible air change rate per hour up to 10. This means, that for 45 visitors, 100 ppm can be added to the predicted concentration. To summarize, a combination of ventilation, restriction of the number of visitors and surveying the CO 2 concentration allowing for further restrictions in case of need, seems to be an adequate means to reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in fitness centers.

8.
Ethics Med Public Health ; 22: 100796, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945572

ABSTRACT

Background: Fighting Covid 19 at the forefront, increased the risk of infection and scarcity of resources have caused the ethical problems among nurses. It was planned to examine the ethical problems faced by nurses caring for Covid-19 patients and how they overcame the outcomes of these problems. Methodology: This qualitative study was conducted with 20 nurses who caring Covid 19 patients in Turkey. Data were collected between January 24 and February 21, 2021. Purposive sampling was used in the study and a qualitative content analysis was performed. Results: The research findings were discussed under two main themes as ethical problems and outcomes of ethical problems faced by nurses working in Covid-19 units. Then, 4 sub-categories for the theme of ethical problems (institutional problems, lack of knowledge and experience in nurses' new place of duty, enforcing nurses to do doctors' duties, problems encountered while caring for patients) and 2 sub-categories (emotions felt by nurses, coping strategies) for the theme of outcomes of ethical problems faced by nurses were defined. Conclusion: The findings emphasize that nurses face ethical problems while giving care to Covid 19 problems. The nature of health services requires an ethical perspective to protect and improve human health, especially in uncertain, difficult and risky situations. Nurses should be supported to provide the ethical perspective in the best way.

9.
Psychology Hub ; 39(1):39-45, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876187

ABSTRACT

Numerous nations around the world are facing exceptional challenges in employing measures to stop the spread of COVID-19. Following the recommendations of the World Health Organization, a series of preventive measure have been adopted. However, individuals must comply with these rules and recommendations in order to make such measures effective. While COVID-19 was climaxing, it seemed of crucial importance to analyze which psychosocial factors contribute to the acceptance of preventive behavior, thus favoring the management of COVID-19 worldwide health crisis. In particular, the identification of aspects related to obstacles and facilitations of adherence to social distancing has been considered as crucial in the containment of the virus spread. We hypothesized social distance could be influenced by individual psychological differences and target's characteristics. Specifically, since the virus was firstly detected in China, we assumed Asian people could be considered a relevant outgroup targeted for exclusion. 260 participants participated in this research on a voluntary basis. They filled a survey designed to explore a series of COVID-19 measures (such as exposure to virus and fear of infection). Participants' state and trait anxiety was also assessed. The dependent variable was social distance, based on a measure of seating distance, designed ad hoc for the present study. Our hypothesis that participants could reports greater distance in response to Asian people was not confirmed. On the other hand, significantly lower distance in response to smiling compared to coughing targets was displayed. Finally, adopting a regression analysis model, we found that participants' social distance, in response to both coughing and smiling targets was predicted by fear of infection and by the perception COVID-19 could become a pandemic. Social distance in response to coughing target was also significantly and positively predicted by age and state anxiety. In summary, the present work has sought to identify a set of psychological variables, which may still be relevant in predicting social distancing. © 2022 Sapienza Universita Editrice. All Rights Reserved.

11.
J Clin Med ; 11(10)2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855683

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (HCW) who perform aerosol-generating procedures (AGP) are at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Data on infection rates and vaccination are limited. A nationwide, cross-sectional study focusing on AGP-related specialties was conducted between 3 May 2021 and 14 June 2021. Vaccination rates among HCW, perception of infection risk, and infection rates were analyzed, focusing on the comparison of gastrointestinal endoscopy (GIE) and other AGP-related specialties (NON-GIE), from the beginning of the pandemic until the time point of the study. Infections rates among HCW developed similarly to the general population during the course of the pandemic, however, with significantly higher infections rates among the GIE specialty. The perceived risk of infection was distributed similarly among HCW in GIE and NON-GIE (91.7%, CI: 88.6-94.4 vs. 85.8%, CI: 82.4-89.0; p < 0.01) with strongest perceived threats posed by AGPs (90.8%) and close patient contact (70.1%). The very high vaccination rate (100-80%) among physicians was reported at 83.5%, being significantly more frequently reported than among nurses (56.4%, p < 0.01). GIE had more often stated very high vaccination rate compared with NON-GIE (76.1% vs. 65.3%, p < 0.01). A significantly higher rate of GIE was reported to have fewer concerns regarding infection risk after vaccination than NON-GIE (92.0% vs. 80.3%, p < 0.01).

12.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 31(9): 981-989, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical workers are a group that is particularly vulnerable to infection during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to assess the risk of COVID-19 infection and its course in the medical staff of a COVID-only and a non-COVID hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The observational study included 732 participants who were medical workers. The study was conducted between June 2020 and December 2020, before widespread COVID-19 immunization was introduced. RESULTS: Of the 732 employees of the hospitals, 377 had a history of COVID-19. The risk of disease was twice as high in the medical staff of the COVID-only hospital compared to the medical staff of the non-COVID hospital (odds ratio (OR) = 2.0; p < 0.001). Among medical personnel, 20.6% of the participants were asymptomatic and 6.4% required hospitalization. For the non-COVID hospital, the employees who were most frequently infected with COVID-19 were nurses/paramedics/medical caretakers. The factor influencing the risk of infection was body mass index (BMI; OR = 1.05; p = 0.004). The risk of COVID-19 infection was lower in the influenza vaccine group (OR = 2.23, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The study results indicate that employees of the hospital treating only COVID patients have a higher risk of infection. Previous observations on factors predisposing to COVID-19 infection like gender and BMI were confirmed. However, the observations carried out on the studied population did not confirm the influence of other factors, such as the coexistence of chronic diseases (apart from diabetes) on the risk of developing COVID-19. In addition, we noticed that seasonal influenza vaccination has a beneficial effect in patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Medical Staff , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 850858, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775707

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Given the high occurrence of asymptomatic subsets, the true prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in rheumatic patients is still underestimated. This study aims to evaluate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in rheumatic musculoskeletal diseases (RMD) patients receiving immunomodulatory drugs. Methods: All consecutive patients with rheumatoid arthritis or spondyloarthritis receiving disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) evaluated between 4th May and 16th June 2020 were included. All participants were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgG, IgM, IgA) by ELISA and were questioned about previous COVID-19 symptoms and clinical course. Results were compared with healthy population from the same region and with a control group of healthy subjects diagnosed with confirmed COVID-19. Results: The study population includes 358 patients. The overall prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (18.4%) was higher than prevalence rate based on swab-positivity (1.12%) or clinically suspected cases (10.6%), but consistent with seroprevalence observed in the healthy population. Among seropositive patients 58% were asymptomatic. Mean anti-SARS-CoV-2 titer was comparable with the control group. No differences in seroprevalence were observed according to age, sex, rheumatic disease and treatment with conventional, biologic or targeted synthetic DMARDs, whereas glucocorticoids and comorbidities resulted in higher seroprevalence rate. Conclusions: The results of this study are reassuring about the low impact of RMDs and immunomodulatory therapies on the risk and clinical course of COVID-19 and on humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

14.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol ; 15: 17562848221086753, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759663

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed a pandemic threat to global health. We are now in the fourth wave of this pandemic. As the pandemic developed, the requirements and therapeutic endoscopic procedures for SARS-CoV-2-positive patients underwent changes. Methods: Analysis of implications for an endoscopy unit during the first and second/third waves of the COVID-19 pandemic with a focus on COVID-19-related process changing. Addressed are number of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients and endoscopic examinations performed in patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the various waves, adherence to scheduled examinations, rotation of staff to COVID-dedicated structures and, finally, impact of vaccination on infection rate among endoscopic staff. Results: During the first wave, 10 SARS-CoV-2-positive in-house patients underwent a total of 22 gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopic procedures. During the second and third waves, 59 GI endoscopies were performed in 38 patients. While in the first wave, GI bleeding was the main indication for endoscopy (82%), in the second and third waves the main indication for endoscopy was endoscopic insertion of deep feeding tubes (78%; p < 0.001). During the first wave, 5 (17%) of 29 Interdisciplinary Endoscopy Unit (IEU) staff members were moved to designated COVID wards, which was not necessary during the following waves. Lack of protective clothing was critical during the first wave, but not in the later waves. Screening tests for patients and staff were widely available after the first wave, and IEU staff was vaccinated during the second wave. Conclusion: Strategies to ensure safe endoscopies with respect to preventing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from patients to staff were effective. Organizational adjustments allowed the routine program to continue unaffected. Indications for GI endoscopies changed over time: during the first wave, GI endoscopies were performed for life-threatening indications, whereas later supportive procedures were the main indication.

15.
Indoor Air ; 32(3): e13012, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752577

ABSTRACT

In this study, the risk of infection from SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant of passengers sharing a car cabin with an infected subject for a 30-min journey is estimated through an integrated approach combining a recently developed predictive emission-to-risk approach and a validated CFD numerical model numerically solved using the open-source OpenFOAM software. Different scenarios were investigated to evaluate the effect of the infected subject position within the car cabin, the airflow rate of the HVAC system, the HVAC ventilation mode, and the expiratory activity (breathing vs. speaking). The numerical simulations here performed reveal that the risk of infection is strongly influenced by several key parameters: As an example, under the same ventilation mode and emitting scenario, the risk of infection ranges from zero to roughly 50% as a function of the HVAC flow rate. The results obtained also demonstrate that (i) simplified zero-dimensional approaches limit proper evaluation of the risk in such confined spaces, conversely, (ii) CFD approaches are needed to investigate the complex fluid dynamics in similar indoor environments, and, thus, (iii) the risk of infection in indoor environments characterized by fixed seats can be in principle controlled by properly designing the flow patterns of the environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Automobiles , COVID-19/etiology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Hydrodynamics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667120

ABSTRACT

Health risks within prisons are well known and have worsened with the 2019 coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), becoming a public health emergency. To date, there are more than 10 million inmates in the world; in most cases, conditions are bad and health care is scarce. A SARS-CoV-2 outbreak inside a prison is extremely rapid. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze all possible prevention techniques to reduce the risk of COVID-19 related infection within prisons. A systematic review of the literature was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar were used as search engines from 1 January 2020 to 1 November 2021 to evaluate the prevention of COVID-19 in prisoners. A total of 1757 articles were collected. Of them, 486 duplicates were removed. A total of 1250 articles did not meet the inclusion criteria. In conclusion, 21 articles were included in the present systematic review. From this analysis, it emerged that the most common COVID-19 prevention methods were the screening of the entire population (prisoners and workers) inside the prison through swab analysis and the reduction in overcrowding in prisons. Few studies concerned the prevention of COVID-19 infection through vaccination and the implementation of quarantine. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review that evaluates the prevention of COVID-19 within jails and the real effectiveness of all possible methods used and published in the literature. Finally, a very useful strategic protocol is provided to reduce the incidence of infection and to control and manage COVID-19 in prisons.

17.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(9): 988-993, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The higher risk of COVID-19 in health care workers (HCWs) is well-known. However, the risk within HCWs is not fully understood. The objective was to compare the COVID-19 risk in intensive care unit (ICU) vs non-ICU locations. METHODS: A prospective surveillance study was conducted among HCWs at a large tertiary care facility in Riyadh between March 1st to November 30th, 2020. HCWs included both clinical (provide direct patient care) and nonclinical positions (do not provide direct patient care). RESULTS: A total 1,594 HCWs with COVID-19 were included; 103 (6.5%) working in ICU and 1,491 (93.5%) working in non-ICU locations. Compared with non-ICU locations, ICU had more nurses (54.4% vs 22.1%, P < .001) and less support staff (2.9% vs 53.1%, P < .001). COVID-19 infection was similar in ICU and non-ICU locations (9.0% vs 9.8%, P = .374). However, it was significantly higher in ICU nurses (12.3% vs 6.5%, P < .001). Support staff had higher risk than other HCWs, irrespective of ICU working status (15.1% vs 7.2%, P < 0.001). The crude relative risk of COVID-19 in ICU vs non-ICU locations was 0.92, 95% confidence interval ( was 0.76-1.11 (P = .374). However, relative risk adjusted for professional category was significantly increased to 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.50 (P = .036). CONCLUSIONS: ICU had a significantly higher risk of COVID-19 infection only after adjusting for the distribution and risk of different professional categories. The latter is probably determined by both exposure level and protection practices. The finding underscores the importance of strict implementation of preventive measures among all HCWs, including those performing nonclinical services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Prospective Studies
18.
J Hosp Leis Sport Tour Educ ; 30: 100369, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616599

ABSTRACT

This study aims to determine how the COVID-19 pandemic affects career anxiety of tourism students, who are the potential future employees of tourism and hospitality industry. Data was collected using an online survey with 1097 undergraduate students in the field of tourism in Turkey. The results of the study revealed that perceived risk of infection and fear of COVID-19 significantly impact students' career anxiety, and fear of COVID-19 mediate the relationship between perceived infection risk and career anxiety. In addition, the results indicated that psychological resilience, which is an individual resource against difficulties, represents a factor that reduces career anxieties of students in the face of pandemic-related negative impacts. The findings contribute to the understanding of how pandemic diseases affect career anxiety in students, who are the future workforce of the tourism sector, and to determine the role of individual resources such as psychological resilience in this process.

19.
Journal of Computational Technologies ; 26(4):73-81, 2021.
Article in Russian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1599968

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has shown that, decision-making authorities lack tools that would allow them to make informed decisions on the introduction of quarantine measures related to either holdingor canceling mass events in buildings. Often this leads either to the introduction of excessive (which leads to a worsening of the economic situation) or insufficient measures (which leads to a worsening of the epidemiological situation). This article describes the mathematical basic principles aimed at creating a software package for assessing the likelihood of contracting a viral infection transmitted by airborne droplets in massively occupied buildings. Evaluation of the likelihood of COVID-19 infection in public places is possible based on a joint analysis of the results of the people movement simulation, air circulation and the spread of aerosols from a carrier of the infection, taking into account the applied methods of protection (masks, ventilation). It is required to develop methods for assessing the danger of COVID-19 infection from a carrier of the virus and the methods of protection used (masks, ventilation) in specific public places. Simultaneously, the movement of people in accordance with the mode of operation, air movement (including ventilation systems) and the spread of respiratory aerosols needs to be accounted for. © FRC ICT, 2021

20.
5th Computational Methods in Systems and Software, CoMeSySo 2021 ; 232 LNNS:31-40, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1565286

ABSTRACT

The article discusses the development of an information system, the Main purpose of which is to help identify the symptoms of a new coronavirus infection COVID-19, predict the level of infection and mortality, using artificial intelligence technology, which is used for conducting a user survey and its subsequent analysis. Currently, predicting the rate of spread of COVID-19 is important for managing the situation and making decisions. Hospitals are overloaded and can’t accept all potential carriers, and the category of people who are prone to panic due to the slightest changes in their health status only complicates the work of medical institutions. The use of the developed technology will reduce the number of false calls to hospitals, help to make a forecast of the spread of infection, and also model the social graph of transmission from carriers to healthy people. © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

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