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1.
Pravention und Gesundheitsforderung ; 2022.
Article in German | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1844447

ABSTRACT

Background: International studies show that measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic can lead to increased mental health problems in children and adolescents. Overall, there are many study activities on this topic, but only a few representative studies for Germany. Objectives: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of children and adolescents in Germany will be investigated, as well as the risk and protective factors for mental well-being during the pandemic. Subsequently, an EU-wide project will be outlined, which aims to promote the mental health of students through a training program for teachers and other educators. Methods: Using literature databases PubMed and Medline, an unsystematic literature search was carried out in the sense of a narrative review. The studies included in this work were selected based on their thematically appropriate . Results: The number of children showing mental or behavioral problems increased rapidly. Above all, social isolation, fears and insecurity, as well as conflicts within the family due to excessive demands or financial worries, lead to a deterioration in the psychological situation of children and young people. The consequences are depressive moods, behavioral problems and psychosomatic complaints. Conclusion: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of children and adolescents should not be underestimated. There will also be a special need for support in the coming years. © 2022, The Author(s).

2.
15th International Conference on Information Technology and Applications, ICITA 2021 ; 350:561-572, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1844325

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic led several organizations around the world and in the most varied areas of activity, to move from the intention to implement a digital transformation in the medium/long-term, to an instant obligation to apply the digital transformation. The organizations’ ability to adapt immediately meant their survival and even in some cases a positive evolution of their business. The digital transformation applied in an abrupt way has uncovered some critical factors for its success. One of the most relevant factors will be information security. Many of the digital systems put into operation more intensively during the pandemic, have shown to be highly fragile on issues related to information security. One relevant problem of the organizations is the low effectiveness and efficiency of financial, human, and material resources, allocated to the reduction or mitigation of the risks identified in their information systems. This study aims to offer a new method for prioritizing security risks. The new proposed method directs the organizations resources to more effectively and efficiently actions to reduce or mitigate the identified vulnerabilities of the information system. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

3.
Territorio ; - (98):48-54, 2021.
Article in Italian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1843627

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic has affected health and lifestyles, highlighting the vulnerability of cities and territories, such as the ecological-environmental and climate crisis, as a result of progressive urbanization-urban connections. The health emergency was governed in the absence of geographical-territorial references, often generalizing limitations and actions to contain the spread of the Sars- Cov2 virus. In this framework, a methodological policy approach is proposed for cities and territories, for multi-risk management (environment-health) in order to overcome the gap that the health emergency has further highlighted, both in the context of the completion of the reform of intermediate institutions in Italy and in the transitions in progress (energy, ecological and digital). Copyright © FrancoAngeli.

4.
Chaos, Solitons and Fractals ; 159, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1843286

ABSTRACT

Most available behavioral epidemiology models have linked the behavioral responses of individuals to infection prevalence. However, this is a crude approximation of reality because prevalence is typically an unobserved quantity. This work considers a general endemic SIR epidemiological model where behavioral responses are incidence-based i.e., the agents perceptions of risks are based on available information on infection incidence. The differences of this modeling approach with respect to the standard ‘prevalence-based’ formulations are discussed and its dynamical implications are investigated. Both current and delayed behavioral responses are considered. We show that depending on the form of the ‘memory’ (i.e., in mathematical language, of the information delaying kernel), the endemic equilibrium can either be globally stable or destabilized via Hopf bifurcations yielding to stable recurrent oscillations. These oscillations can have a very long inter-epidemic periods and a very wide amplitude. Finally, a numerical investigation of the interplay between these behavior-related oscillations and seasonality of the contact rate reveals a strong synergic effect yielding to a dramatic amplification of oscillations. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

5.
Sustainability ; 14(9):4900, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843245

ABSTRACT

Medical cabins within negative-pressure ambulances currently only use the front air supply, which causes poor emission of infectious disease droplets. For this problem, based on the classification and design methods of airflow organization, the side and top supply airflow organization model has been designed to study the influence of these airflow organization models on the spread of droplet particles. The distribution of droplet particles within airflow organization models, under conditions in which the patient is coughing and sneezing, is analyzed. According to the comparison and analysis of this distribution, the state of droplet particles, the emission efficiency, and the security coefficient are studied. The response surface method is used to optimize the emission efficiency and security coefficient of the airflow organization. According to the characteristics of the medical cabin within negative-pressure ambulances, a dose-response model is used to evaluate the infection risk of medical personnel and then the infection probability is obtained. These research results can be used to improve the ability of negative-pressure ambulances to prevent cross-infection.

6.
Sustainability ; 14(9):4901, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843228

ABSTRACT

ICT has become an important support for the booming trade in services in the digital era. However, the extent to which trade activities can benefit from ICT will depend on the regulatory constraints and the market-openness level of the ICT market. This study empirically examines the impact of ICT market openness on digital service exports on the basis of bilateral trade data at the industry level from 2007 to 2019 from 50 countries. The results show that: (1) ICT market openness seeks the combination of effective regulation and moderate openness, which is mainly reflected in three policy areas: improving information interconnection and sharing, reducing access restrictions and promoting fair competition;(2) The ICT market openness in both exporting and importing countries can significantly boost digital service exports, but in different ways. Exporting countries expand digital service exports mainly by promoting fair competition, while importing countries have the most obvious positive impact on exports through the reduction of access restrictions;(3) The greater the gap between the ICT development levels, and the lower the bilateral risk levels between the two trading countries, the greater the marginal effect that ICT market openness will have on the promotion of digital service exports. Thus, improving market openness indicates an important direction for ICT regulatory reform, but the impact on digital service exports will vary by specific policy area and by trading-partner country.

7.
BMJ Open ; 11(9), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843225

ABSTRACT

IntroductionApproximately 20% of serious safety incidents involving palliative patients relate to medication. These are disproportionately reported when patients are in their usual residence when compared with hospital or hospice. While patient safety incident reporting systems can support professional learning, it is unclear whether these reports encompass patient and carer concerns with palliative medications or interpersonal safety.AimTo explore and compare perceptions of (un)safe palliative medication management from patient, carer and professional perspectives in community, hospital and hospice settings.Methods and analysisWe will use an innovative mixed-methods study design combining systematic review searching techniques with cross-sectional quantitative descriptive analysis and interpretative qualitative metasynthesis to integrate three elements: (1) Scoping review: multiple database searches for empirical studies and first-hand experiences in English (no other restrictions) to establish how patients and informal carers conceptualise safety in palliative medication management. (2)Medication incidents from the England and Wales National Reporting and Learning System: identifying and characterising reports to understand professional perspectives on suboptimal palliative medication management. (3) Comparison of 1 and 2: contextualising with stakeholder perspectives.Patient and public involvementOur team includes a funded patient and public involvement (PPI) collaborator, with experience of promoting patient-centred approaches in patient safety research. Funded discussion and dissemination events with PPI and healthcare (clinical and policy) professionals are planned.Ethics and disseminationProspective ethical approval granted: Cardiff University School of Medicine Research Ethics Committee (Ref 19/28). Our study will synthesise multivoiced constructions of patient safety in palliative care to identify implications for professional learning and actions that are relevant across health and social care. It will also identify changing or escalating patterns in palliative medication incidents due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Peer-reviewed publications, academic presentations, plain English summaries, press releases and social media will be used to disseminate to the public, researchers, clinicians and policy-makers.

8.
Journal of Electronic Commerce Research ; 23(2):115-137, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1843208

ABSTRACT

Social commerce has been seeing exponential growth due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which brought a wave of cross-border commerce as consumers purchase more items online. Business uses social media to reach new markets by accessing potential global buyers, expanding their target markets, and increasing brand popularity. Cross-border ecommerce studies showed that perceived risk is a critical factor that reduces individuals’ willingness to purchase unfamiliar foreign products. We introduced an emerging business model, cross-border social commerce (CBSC) and examined the mitigation of perceived risk through trust transfer in a CBSC context. To capture consumers’ purchase intention of cross-border commerce, we conducted an online scenario-based survey. Survey respondents comprising a total of 321 social media users in Indonesia were observed. The results demonstrate that consumers’ trust can be transferred from friends and platforms to brands, and the transfer effect is contingent on the popularity of the brand. Our findings have crucial implications for trust transfer and cross-border social commerce. This study contributes to academia by introducing a new business model and advancing our understanding of how to enhance trust and mitigate risk. Practitioners can gain insight into trust building in CBSC context. © 2022. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research. All Rights Reserved.

9.
Journal of Clinical and Translational Science ; 6(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843205

ABSTRACT

Background:Studies examining the role of geographic factors in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) epidemiology among rural populations are lacking.Methods:Our study is a population-based longitudinal study based on rural residents in four southeast Minnesota counties from March through October 2020. We used a kernel density estimation approach to identify hotspots for COVID-19 cases. Temporal trends of cases and testing were examined by generating a series of hotspot maps during the study period. Household/individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) was measured using the HOUSES index and examined for association between identified hotspots and SES.Results:During the study period, 24,243 of 90,975 residents (26.6%) were tested for COVID-19 at least once;1498 (6.2%) of these tested positive. Compared to other rural residents, hotspot residents were overall younger (median age: 40.5 vs 43.2), more likely to be minorities (10.7% vs 9.7%), and of higher SES (lowest HOUSES [SES] quadrant: 14.6% vs 18.7%). Hotspots accounted for 30.1% of cases (14.5% of population) for rural cities and 60.8% of cases (27.1% of population) for townships. Lower SES and minority households were primarily affected early in the pandemic and higher SES and non-minority households affected later.Conclusion:In rural areas of these four counties in Minnesota, geographic factors (hotspots) play a significant role in the overall burden of COVID-19 with associated racial/ethnic and SES disparities, of which pattern differed by the timing of the pandemic (earlier in pandemic vs later). The study results could more precisely guide community outreach efforts (e.g., public health education, testing/tracing, and vaccine roll out) to those residing in hotspots.

10.
BMJ Open ; 11(9), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843166

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo assess the association of cardiometabolic risk factors with hospitalisation or death due to COVID-19 in the general population.Design, setting and participantsSwedish population-based cohort including 29 955 participants.ExposuresCardiometabolic risk factors assessed between 2014 and 2018.Main outcome measuresHospitalisation or death due to COVID-19, as registered in nationwide registers from 31 January 2020 through 12 September 2020. Associations of cardiometabolic risk factors with the outcome were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, birthplace and education.ResultsMean (SD) age was 61.2 (4.5) and 51.5% were women. 69 participants experienced hospitalisation or death due to COVID-19. Examples of statistically significant associations between baseline factors and subsequent hospitalisation or death due to COVID-19 included overweight (adjusted OR (aOR) vs normal weight 2.73 (95% CI 1.25 to 5.94)), obesity (aOR vs normal weight 4.09 (95% CI 1.82 to 9.18)), pre-diabetes (aOR vs normoglycaemia 2.56 (95% CI 1.44 to 4.55)), diabetes (aOR vs normoglycaemia 3.96 (95% CI 2.13 to 7.36)), sedentary time (aOR per hour/day increase 1.10 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.17)), grade 2 hypertension (aOR vs normotension 2.44 (95% CI 1.10 to 5.44)) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (aOR per mmol/L increase 0.33 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.65)). Statistically significant associations were not observed for grade 1 hypertension (aOR vs normotension 1.03 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.96)), current smoking (aOR 0.56 (95% CI 0.24 to 1.30)), total cholesterol (aOR per mmol/L increase 0.90 (95% CI 0.71 to 1.13)), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (aOR per mmol/L increase 0.90 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.15)) and coronary artery calcium score (aOR per 10 units increase 1.00 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.01)).ConclusionsIn a large population-based sample from the general population, several cardiometabolic risk factors were associated with hospitalisation or death due to COVID-19.

11.
American Journal of Public Health ; 112(5):703-705, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843159

ABSTRACT

In this cross-sectional survey of 828 participants, they report that insufficient personal protective equipment (PPE);experiences of discrimination, violence, and harassment;not receiving family support;experiencing financial strain;and having to isolate because of COVID-19 were each associated with an increased prevalence ratio of probable depression cases. [...]working on COVID-1 9 or intensive care wards is a particular risk factor,1,2 whereas concerns have been raised about differential access to PPE based on one's role, sex, and ethnicity.3 One postulation from Silva et al. is that community health care workers were no longer able to visit community homes, potentially alleviating some work demands and reducing their exposure risk or vulnerability to violence and discrimination. Because ill mental health is a factor in the global challenge to retain health care workers, we need better research, policies, and support to understand, capture, and model these differences. [...]building support is an important resource for health care workers to draw on and to mitigate the detrimental impact that demanding work environments can have on their mental health.5,6 A SYSTEMS PN1 -https://media.proquest.com/media/hms/PFT/1/UhuwM?_a=ChgyMDIyMDUxODEyNDIwMTMwMDoyMTg2NTUSBTg4MjU5GgpPTkVfU0VBUkNIIg4xNTguMTExLjIzNi45NSoFNDE4MDQyCjI2NjUxNzQ5Mjg6DURvY3VtZW50SW1hZ2VCATBSBk9ubGluZVoCRlRiA1BGVGoKMjAyMi8wNS8wMXIKMjAyMi8wNS8zMXoAggEyUC0xMDAwMDAxLTI2NzI0LUNVU1RPTUVSLTEwMDAwMjU1LzEwMDAwMDA4LTQ3MzUzNDKSAQZPbmxpbmXKAXNNb3ppbGxhLzUuMCAoV2luZG93cyBOVCAxMC4wOyBXaW42NDsgeDY0KSBBcHBsZVdlYktpdC81MzcuMzYgKEtIVE1MLCBsaWtlIEdlY2tvKSBDaHJvbWUvMTAxLjAuNDk1MS42NyBTYWZhcmkvNTM3LjM20gESU2Nob2xhcmx5IEpvdXJuYWxzmgIHUHJlUGFpZKoCK09TOkVNUy1NZWRpYUxpbmtzU2VydmljZS1nZXRNZWRpYVVybEZvckl0ZW3KAg9BcnRpY2xlfEZlYXR1cmXSAgFZ8gIA%2BgIBToIDA1dlYooDHENJRDoyMDIyMDUxODEyNDIwMTMwMDo5OTI2MzY%3D&_s=%2BTB5DoMLaFgpkVf8XhHojdnxVis%3D ERSPECTIVE ON HEALTH CARE WORKERS' MENTAL HEALTH The six potential pandemic-related contributing factors shift the narrative of health care worker well-being away from only the individual, emphasizing the responsibility of governments and health care leaders. Too often, research on health care workers' well-being has focused on individual factors (such as psychological states and traits) as antecedents to their well-being, neglecting the various other organizational and societal factors they are exposed to.7 Although the lack of PPE and job type are work-related contributing factors to probable cases of depression, the contributing role of family support and financial strain highlights how nonwork factors are also important. Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been evident that we can no longer clearly delineate work from our nonwork lives.

12.
BMJ Open ; 11(9), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843140

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesHealthcare workers have greater exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and an estimated 2.5-fold increased risk of contracting COVID-19 than the general population. We wished to explore the predictive role of basic demographics to establish a simple tool that could help risk stratify healthcare workers.SettingWe undertook a review of the published literature (including multiple search strategies in MEDLINE with PubMed interface) and critically assessed early reports on preprint servers. We explored the relative risk of mortality from readily available demographics to identify the population at the highest risk.ResultsThe published studies specifically assessing the risk of healthcare workers had limited demographics available;therefore, we explored the general population in the literature. Clinician demographics: Mortality increased with increasing age from 50 years onwards. Male sex at birth, and people of black and minority ethnicity groups had higher susceptibility to both hospitalisation and mortality. Comorbid disease. Vascular disease, renal disease, diabetes and chronic pulmonary disease further increased risk. Risk stratification tool: A risk stratification tool was compiled using a white female aged <50 years with no comorbidities as a reference. A point allocated to risk factors was associated with an approximate doubling in risk. This tool provides numerical support for healthcare workers when determining which team members should be allocated to patient facing clinical duties compared with remote supportive roles.ConclusionsWe generated a tool that provides a framework for objective risk stratification of doctors and healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic, without requiring disclosure of information that an individual may not wish to share with their direct line manager during the risk assessment process. This tool has been made freely available through the British Medical Association website and is widely used in the National Health Service and other external organisations.

13.
Sustainability ; 14(9):5406, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843048

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to update the exposure to flood risk in a catchment area of the Community of Madrid (Spain) linked to primary sector activities, albeit affected by the urban expansion of the capital. This research starts with the updating of the flood inventory, encompassing episodes documented between 1629 and 2020. The inadequate occupation of the territory means that floods continue to cause significant damage nowadays. It is worth highlighting the two recent floods (2019) that occurred just 15 days apart and caused serious damage to several towns in the basin. The areas at risk of flooding are obtained from the National Floodplain Mapping System, and the maximum and minimum floodable volume in the sector of the Tajuña River basin with the highest exposure to flooding has been calculated. The Sentinel 2 image in false colour (RGB bands 11-2-3, 11-8-3 and 12-11-8) and its transformation to colour properties (Intensity, Hue and Saturation) has made it possible to determine the extension of the riparian vegetation and the irrigated crops located in the alluvial plain. The SPOT 6 image with higher spatial resolution has allowed us to update the mapping of buildings located in areas at risk of flooding. Finally, based on cadastral data, a detailed cartography of built-up areas in areas at risk of flooding is provided. They affect buildings built mainly between the 1960s and 1990s, although the most recent buildings are built on agricultural land in the alluvial plain, even though current regulations prevent the occupation of these lands.

14.
Journal of Business Economics and Management ; 23(2):364-381, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843034

ABSTRACT

Monetary policy uncertainty (MPU) not only imposes a great impact on the systematic financial risks of a country but also generates a significant spillover effect on countries having close economic exchanges with the former under the background of global economic integration. With the daily return rates of 64 listed financial companies in China from February 2006 to September 2020 used as the samples, China’s systematic financial risks were measured in this research by using long-run marginal expected shortfall (LRMES). On this basis, an FAVAR model with time-varying parameters was constructed to empirically investigate the spillover effect of US MPU on China’s systematic financial risks and its main transmission channels. Results showed that within the sample period (February 2006 – September 2020), US MPU generated a significant positive spillover effect on China’s systematic financial risks, namely, China’s systematic financial risks would be aggravated if the level of US MPU was elevated. From different time intervals, the spillover level was particularly high during global financial crises and global COVID-19 pandemic, indicating that the spillover effect of MPU is nonlinear and closely related to global major sudden risk events. Through the further research, it is found that this effect is mainly transmitted through short-term capital flow, interest rate, and economic uncertainty-induced channels, among which the short-term capital flow is the most important.

15.
BMJ Open ; 11(7), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842951

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe Men and Parenting Pathways (MAPP) Study is a prospective investigation of men’s mental health and well-being across the normative age for transitioning to fatherhood. This includes trajectories and outcomes for men who do and do not become fathers across five annual waves of the study.ParticipantsAustralian resident, English-speaking men aged 28–32 years at baseline were eligible. Recruitment was over a 2-year period (2015–2017) via social and traditional media and through engagement with study partners. Eight hundred and eighteen eligible men consented to participate. Of these, 664 men completed the first online survey of whom 608 consented to ongoing participation. Of the ongoing sample, 83% have participated in at least two of the first three annual online surveys.Findings to dateThree waves of data collection are complete. The first longitudinal analysis of MAPP data, published in 2020, identified five profiles that characterise men’s patterns of depressive symptom severity and presentations of anger. Profiles indicating pronounced anger and depressive symptoms were associated with fathers’ lack of perceived social support, and problems with coparenting and bonding with infants. In a second study, MAPP data were combined with three other Australian cohorts in a meta-analysis of associations between fathers’ self-reported sleep problems up to 3 years postpartum and symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. Adjusted meta-analytic associations between paternal sleep and mental health risk ranged from 0.25 to 0.37.Future plansMAPP is an ongoing cohort study. Waves 4 and 5 data will be ready for analyses at the end of 2021. Future investigations will include crossed-lagged and trajectory analyses that assess inter-relatedness and changing social networks, mental health, work and family life. A nested study of COVID-19 pandemic-related mental health and coping will add two further waves of data collection in a subsample of MAPP participants.

16.
Sustainability ; 14(9):5138, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842891

ABSTRACT

This article discusses one of the most important social factors of climate protection: climate concern. Most research in this area focuses on North America and Western Europe or presents international comparative statistics. Our work is innovative because we have designated a lesser-known post-socialist region in East-Central Europe as a sample area, and we intend to conduct in-depth analyses at the municipal level. Our study describes the second largest city in Hungary, Debrecen, and its agglomeration. Based on a questionnaire survey in 2020 (N = 512), we examined opinion factors, and we have presented features consistent with or different from the findings in the relevant literature. In the statistical analysis, chi-square tests and binary logistic regressions were applied to reveal significant differences between the responses of different types of respondents. As response variables, we used the questions about general concerns regarding air pollution, knowledge about climate change, beliefs about tackling, perceived threat, behavioural responses, personal actions, and demography. We found that the concern about air pollution and a feeling of threat to respondents’ life was mainly affected by the degree of climate concern. We conclude that the knowledge of local communities on climate change has increased, and risk perception has improved. Still, there is no clear relationship between the level of concern and climate-conscious behaviour. The findings provide ideas for promoting local climate management and awareness-raising in the European Union or other countries.

17.
BMJ Open ; 11(10), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842890

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesTo compare the incidence and severity of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), pneumococcal pneumonia and all-cause pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic period with universal masking and social distancing with that of previous 5 years.DesignRetrospective observational study on incidence of IPDs, pneumococcal pneumonia and all-cause pneumonia between January 2015–December 2019 and March 2020–March 2021. January–February 2020 was excluded from analysis as it was treated as a transitional period between normal time and pandemic.SettingEpisode-based data by retrieval of hospitalisation records from the Hospital Authority’s territory-wide electronic medical record database in Hong Kong.ParticipantsHospitalised patients with IPD (n=742), pneumococcal pneumonia (n=2163) and all-cause pneumonia (including COVID-19 pneumonia, n=453 999) aged 18 years or above. Control diagnoses were included to assess confounding from health-seeking behaviours.Primary and secondary outcomesPrimary outcome is the incidence of diseases between two periods. Secondary outcomes include disease severity surrogated by length of stay and mortality.ResultsMonthly average number of IPD, pneumococcal pneumonia and all-cause pneumonia hospitalisation significantly decreased by 88.9% (95% CI 79.8% to 98.0%, p<0.0005), 72.5% (95% CI 65.9% to 79.1%, p<0.0005) and 17.5% (95% CI 16.8% to 18.2%, p<0.0005), respectively. Changes in trend from January 2015–December 2019 to March 2020–March 2021 were −70% (95% CI −87% to −35%, p=0.0025), –43% (95% CI −59% to −19%, p=0.0014) and −11% (95% CI −13% to −10%, p<0.0005), respectively. Length of stay for IPD and pneumococcal pneumonia episodes were insignificantly different in the two periods. No reductions in hospitalisations for control diagnoses were observed.ConclusionsIncidence of IPD, pneumococcal pneumonia and all-cause pneumonia decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was observed with universal masking and social distancing. We postulated this is related to reduced transmission of respiratory viruses and bacteria.

18.
PLoS Biology ; 20(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842846

ABSTRACT

The risk of accidental or deliberate misuse of biological research is increasing as biotechnology advances. As open science becomes widespread, we must consider its impact on those risks and develop solutions that ensure security while facilitating scientific progress. Here, we examine the interaction between open science practices and biosecurity and biosafety to identify risks and opportunities for risk mitigation. Increasing the availability of computational tools, datasets, and protocols could increase risks from research with misuse potential. For instance, in the context of viral engineering, open code, data, and materials may increase the risk of release of enhanced pathogens. For this dangerous subset of research, both open science and biosecurity goals may be achieved by using access-controlled repositories or application programming interfaces. While preprints accelerate dissemination of findings, their increased use could challenge strategies for risk mitigation at the publication stage. This highlights the importance of oversight earlier in the research lifecycle. Preregistration of research, a practice promoted by the open science community, provides an opportunity for achieving biosecurity risk assessment at the conception of research. Open science and biosecurity experts have an important role to play in enabling responsible research with maximal societal benefit.

19.
BMJ Open ; 11(9), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842832

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThis study aimed to capture key epidemiological data on SARS-CoV-2 infection in Nicaraguan children (≤18 years) seeking medical care, between 6 October and 16 November 2020.DesignIn this cross-sectional study, 418 children were recruited: 319 with symptoms characteristic of COVID-19 and 99 with no symptoms of illness. Children were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification. A questionnaire was employed to identify symptoms, risk factors, comorbidities and COVID-19 prevention measures.SettingResearch was carried out in four hospitals and two clinics in Managua, Nicaragua, where schools and businesses remained open throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.ParticipantsChildren were enrolled into a possible COVID-19 group if presenting with clinical symptoms. A comparison group included children lacking any COVID-19 symptoms attending routine check-ups or seeking care for issues unrelated to COVID-19.ResultsA high prevalence (43%) of SARS-CoV-2 infection was found, which was relatively equivalent in symptomatic and non-symptomatic children. Age distribution was similar between symptomatic and non-symptomatic children testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Symptomatic children who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 were 2.7 times more likely to have diarrhoea (26.7% in positive vs 12.0% in negative;OR=2.7 (95% CI 1.5 to 4.8), p=0.001) and were 2.0 times more likely to have myalgia (17.8% in positive vs 9.8% in negative;OR=2.0 (95% CI 1.0 to 3.8), p=0.04). Children with COVID-19 symptoms, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, were more likely to be under age 5 years and to have a pre-existing comorbid condition than children who tested positive but did not have symptoms.ConclusionsThis is the first paediatric study to provide laboratory-confirmed data on SARS-CoV-2 infection in Nicaragua, crucial for paediatric health services planning and a successful COVID-19 response. The high prevalence of the virus suggests widespread and sustained community transmission, underscoring the urgent need for robust data on the true extent of SARS-CoV-2 infection throughout Nicaragua.

20.
Sustainability ; 14(9):5733, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842804

ABSTRACT

The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been used for the delivery of medical supplies in urban logistical distribution, due to its ability to reduce human contact during the global fight against COVID-19. However, due to the reliability of the UAV system and the complex and changeable operation scene and population distribution in the urban environment, a few ground-impact accidents have occurred and generated enormous risks to ground personnel. In order to reduce the risk of UAV ground-impact accidents in the urban logistical scene, failure causal factors, and failure modes were classified and summarized in the process of UAV operation based on the accumulated operation data of more than 20,000 flight hours. The risk assessment model based on the Bayesian network was built. According to the established network and the probability of failure causal factors, the probabilities of ground impact accidents and intermediate events under different working conditions were calculated, respectively. The posterior probability was carried out based on the network topology to deduce the main failure inducement of the accidents. Mitigation measures were established to achieve the equivalent safety level of manned aviation, aiming at the main causes of accidents. The results show that the safety risk of the UAV was reduced to 3.84 × 10−8 under the action of risk-mitigation measures.

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