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1.
Nature Food ; 3(3):189, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2293122
2.
Journal of Clinical Virology Plus ; 3(2) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2291858

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Shotgun proteomics is a generic method enabling detection of multiple viral species in one assay. The reliable and accurate identification of these viral species by analyzing peptides from MS-spectra is a challenging task. The aim of this study was to develop an easy accessible proteome analysis approach for the identification of viruses that cause respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. Method(s): For this purpose, a shotgun proteomics based method and a web application, 'proteome2virus', were developed. Identified peptides were searched in a database comprising proteomic data of 46 viruses known to be infectious to humans. Result(s): The method was successfully tested for cultured viruses and eight fecal samples consisting of ten different viral species from seven different virus families, including SARS-CoV-2. The samples were prepared with two different sample preparation methods and were measured with two different mass spectrometers. Conclusion(s): The results demonstrate that the developed web application is applicable to different MS data sets, generated from two different instruments, and that with this approach a high variety of clinically relevant viral species can be identified. This emphasizes the potential and feasibility for the diagnosis of a wide range of viruses in clinical samples with a single shotgun proteomics analysis.Copyright © 2023

3.
Animal Biotechnology ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2277102

ABSTRACT

The enteric viruses in animals are responsible for severe and devastating losses to the livestock owners with a profound negative impact on animal, health, welfare, and productivity. These viruses are usually transmitted via the feco-oral route and primarily infect the digestive tract of the humans, bovines and different mammals as well as birds. Some of the important enteric viruses in ruminants are: Rotavirus A (RVA), Peste des petits virus (PPRV), Norovirus (NV), Bovine corona virus (BoCV) and Bluetongue virus (BTV). In the present study, sensitive, specific and reliable TaqMan probe-based RT-qPCRs were developed and standardized for the rapid detection and quantification of enteric viruses from fecal samples. The assays result in efficient amplification of the RVA, BTV and BoCV RNA with a limit of detection (LoD) of 5, 5 and 4 copies, respectively, which is 1000 times more sensitive than the traditional gel-based RT-PCR. The reproducibility of each assay was satisfactory, thus allowing for a sensitive and accurate measurement of the viral RNA load in clinical samples. In conclusion, real time PCR developed for these viruses are highly specific and sensitive technique for the detection of diarrheic viral pathogens of cattle and buffalo. © 2023 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

4.
Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi ; 29(1):49-54, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2258019

ABSTRACT

The One Health approach shows that people, animals, plants, and environmental factors can affect each other. Phages are one of the mobile genetic elements. Quinolones are a critical group of antibiotics for both human and animal health and monitoring their antimicrobial resistance is very important. The aim of the study is to determine the frequency of the quinolone resistance gene in bacteriophage DNA fractions obtained from healthy calf stool samples. In our study, 50 samples from 6-9 months old calves, which were found to be healthy and not treated with any group of antibiotics in Sanliurfa province, were included. DNA isolation was made from phage lysates of stool samples and specific primers were used qnrA, qnrB and qnrS genes. qPCR was performed on LightCycler480. Despite not receiving any antibiotic treatment, qnrB was the most detected gene among the phage DNA fractions detected in 11 calves. While qnrA, qnrB and qnrS quinolone resistance genes were detected together in one sample, qnrB and qnrS resistance genes were found together in two samples. Our data, obtained from the study in Turkiye to search for antimicrobial resistance genes in phage fractions, showed the importance of the One Health approach and determined that it was highly effective in quinolone resistance gene shedding in healthy calves that had never been treated with antibiotics. It has been concluded that in empirical treatment with quinolone, attention should be paid to all living things and unconscious antibiotic use may cause the spread of resistance genes more than expected.Copyright © 2023, Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi. All rights reserved.

5.
Microbiology Research ; 12(3):663-682, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2253973

ABSTRACT

Livestock products supply about 13 percent of energy and 28 percent of protein in diets consumed worldwide. Diarrhea is a leading cause of sickness and death of beef and dairy calves in their first month of life and also affecting adult cattle, resulting in large economic losses and a negative impact on animal welfare. Despite the usual multifactorial origin, viruses are generally involved, being among the most important causes of diarrhea. There are several viruses that have been confirmed as etiological agents (i.e., rotavirus and coronavirus), and some viruses that are not yet confirmed as etiological agents. This review summarizes the viruses that have been detected in the enteric tract of cattle and tries to deepen and gather knowledge about them.Copyright © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

6.
Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift ; 109(Artikel 11), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025202

ABSTRACT

We have evaluated the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic point-of-care tests (POCT) for the detection of rotavirus, coronavirus, Escherichia (E.) coli F5, Cryptosporidium (C.) parvum, Clostridium (Cl.) perfringens and Giardia (G.) intestinalis in fresh and thawed faecal samples from calves aged up to six months with diarrhoea. We performed POCTs to detect rotavirus, coronavirus, E. coli F5, C. parvum, Cl. perfringens and G. intestinalis on fresh samples in a field study and re-evaluated the performance for C. parvum, Cl. perfringens and G. intestinalis using thawed samples. We calculated the performance based on the results of the reference methods, which were RT-qPCR for the detection of rota- and coronavirus and bacteriological culturing and PCR to detect E. coli F5 and Cl. perfringens a and ss2 toxins. C. parvum was detected by phase-contrast microscopy and G. intestinalis by immunofluorescence microscopy. We collected 177 faecal samples from diarrhoeic calves. We found good performance for the POCT targeting rotavirus (sensitivity (SE)=92.9%;specificity (SP)=95.6%) and C. parvum (SE=63.3%;SP=96.2%). For E. coli F5, the number of true positive samples (n=1) was too low to evaluate the performance. The POCT to detect coronavirus gave a poor performance (SE=3.3%;SP=96.6%) and the POCT to detect Cl. perfringens a moderate performance (SE=52.8%;SP=78.2%). G. intestinalis POCT showed a higher sensitivity to immunofluorescence microscopy in thawed than in fresh faecal samples (SE=43.9% versus SE=29.2%). There are substantial differences in diagnostic performance between the commercially available immunochromatographic POCTs. Still, POCT can make a valuable contribution to the diagnosis and prevention of calf diarrhoea.

7.
Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift ; 109(Artikel 9), 2022.
Article in German | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2025201

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Neonatal calf diarrhoea is a multifactorial disease that sometimes leads to high economic losses. It can be fatal due to dehydration and acidosis and has been one of the main causes of calf mortality. Material and methods: This retrospective study considered calves of a maximum of 35 days of age and with a diagnosed infection with rotavirus and/or bovine coronavirus. We examined the clinical records of 156 calves that were referred to the University Clinic for Ruminants in Vienna. Results Calves that had been treated with antibiotics before admission to the Clinic had a higher risk of staying longer, suggesting either that these calves had a more serious illness or that antibiotic treatment was not indicated and so therapeutic success was not achieved. Twenty-three calves died or were euthanized at the Clinic. At the time of admission, they were younger than the surviving calves and they had a lower inner body temperature and a lower base excess at the first examination. The four most common pathogens in faecal samples were rotavirus, bovine coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and Escherichia coli, which were detected in 67.1%, 53.9%, 48.1% and 94.1% of the faecal samples examined. The most common co-infection was rotavirus with Cryptosporidium parvum (17 faecal samples). We inspected the four most common pathogens in more detail. There were significant correlations between bovine coronavirus and season, with the risk of suffering from bovine coronavirus 1.6 times higher in winter than in other seasons. There was also a correlation between Cryptosporidium parvum and general behaviour: the risk of being infected with Cryptosporidium parvum was 2.6 times higher in calves that were moderately to severely depressed at the first examination. There was a correlation between co-infections and mortality, with calves with a co-infection at three times higher risk of dying than calves with a mono-infection.

8.
Veterinary Times ; 50(24):6-6, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1970949
9.
Philippine Journal of Veterinary Medicine ; 57(1):27-40, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1905390

ABSTRACT

The study assessed the efficacy of a commercialized mixed herbal medicine in alleviating diarrhea in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. The study involved 15 diarrheic water buffalo calves regardless of sex and with less than a year old from one farm divided into three treatments using randomized block design. Treatment 1 was served as control given with antibiotics and intestinal protectants.;Treatment 2 was mixed herbal medicine and probiotics and lastly, Treatment 3 was mixed herbal medicine only. The calves were treated three times a day for seven days for Treatments 2 and 3 while Treatment 1 (control) were treated once a day for 7 days. The animals were ob served and scoring of diarrhea were done and recorded daily for the next 7 days. Results of the study showed significant decrease in diarrhea scores on Day 6 and 7 post-treatment in Treatments 1 and 2 compared to the control. At Day 8 post-treatment, all calves showed soft to apparently normal stool. Genetic analysis of the possible causative agent of diarrhea revealed infection caused by rotavirus A, bovine coronavirus, BVDV, and ETEC. Results revealed that diarrhea caused by these pathogens can be alleviated by the herbal medicine and herbal medicine in addition of probiotics parallel to antibiotic treatment.

10.
Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal ; 68(173):10-15, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1876353

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out for rapid etiological diagnosis of neonatal calf diarrhea by using immunochromatographic test kits in the Esme district of Usak. The animal material of the study consisted of 100 1-28 days old neonatal calves of different breeds and genders in the Esme district of Usak. Stool samples were taken from calves with diarrhea as a result of clinical examination. When stool samples were examined by a rapid diagnostic test, none of the disease factors sought in the study were found in 10 (10%) of 100 calves, while one or more disease factors were detected in 90 (90%) of calves. Rotavirus was detected in 27 (27%) calves, Escherichia coli 14 (14%) calves, Coronavirus in 8 (8%) calves, Clostridium perfringens in 19 (19%) calves, Cryptosporidium spp. in 17 (17%) calves, Rotavirus + Coronavirus in 2 (2%) calves, Rotavirus + Clostridium perfringens in 1 (1%) calf, Rotavirus + Cryptosporidium spp. in 1 (1%) calf, and Escherichia coli - Clostridium perfringens in 1 (1%) calf. As a result, data on the presence and distribution of enterogenous pathogens that cause diarrhea in neonatal calves in the Esme district of Usak were presented, and it was concluded that it would shed light on future studies on diarrheal calves in the Esme.

11.
Bulletin of Agrarian Science ; 1:175-181, 2022.
Article in Russian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1865672

ABSTRACT

The problem of viral pneumoenteritis of young farm animals is relevant for agriculture of the Republic of Belarus. Today, the most effective method of preventing viral pneumoenteritis of calves is vaccination of pregnant cows. In case of mixed infections, the most effective means of preventing such diseases are polyvalent vaccines. But biological preparations should have not only high preventive effectiveness, but also not affect the quality of the final product. The author of the article studied the effect of a polyvalent inactivated culture vaccine against infectious rhinotracheitis, viral diarrhea, parainfluenza-3, respiratory syncytial, rotavirus and coronavirus infection of cattle left-pointing-double-angle BolsheVak right-pointing-double-angle on the state of metabolism of pregnant cows. For this purpose, 3 groups of pregnant cows of the Belarusian black-and-white Holstein breed were formed in the conditions of the Agricultural Republican subsidiary of the Ulishitsy Agro enterprise of the Gorodok district on the principle of pairs of analogues with10 animals in each group for 1.5-2 months before calving. The cows of the first experimental group were immunized with the vaccine against viral pneumoenteritis "Bolshevak" with the adjuvant ISA-15 intramuscularly into the croup area in compliance with the rules of asepsis and antiseptics in the volume of 5.0 cm3. Cows of the second experimental group were immunized with the vaccine against viral pneumoenteritis "Bolshevak" with the adjuvant ISA-25 - in the volume of 3.0 cm3. The cows of the control group were injected with isotonic sodium chloride solution according to a similar scheme. The animals were immunized twice with an interval of 21 days. The sampling was carried out before the start of the studies, on the 14th, 21st days after the first vaccination and on the 45th day after the revaccination. The clinical condition of the animals was monitored for 70 days. As a result of the research, it was found that the studied vaccine against viral pneumoenteritis does not have a negative effect on the general condition of the animal, does not cause allergic reactions, abortions, does not inhibit the synthesis of the studied biochemical parameters of the serum.

12.
Vet Sci ; 9(4)2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818234

ABSTRACT

Swine viruses like porcine sapovirus (SaV), porcine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), porcine rotavirus A (RVA) and porcine astroviruses (AstV) are potentially zoonotic viruses or suspected of potential zoonosis. These viruses have been detected in pigs with or without clinical signs and often occur as coinfections. Despite the potential public health risks, no assay for detecting them all at once has been developed. Hence, in this study, a multiplex RT-PCR (mRT-PCR) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of SaV, EMCV, RVA and AstV from swine fecal samples. The PCR parameters were optimized using specific primers for each target virus. The assay's sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and application to field samples have been evaluated. Using a pool of plasmids containing the respective viral target fragments as a template, the developed mRT-PCR successfully detected 2.5 × 103 copies of each target virus. The assay's specificity was tested using six other swine viruses as a template and did not show any cross-reactivity. A total of 280 field samples were tested with the developed mRT-PCR assay. Positive rates for SaV, EMCV, RVA, and AstV were found to be 24.6% (69/280), 5% (14/280), 4.3% (12/280), and 17.5% (49/280), respectively. Compared to performing separate assays for each virus, this mRT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective method for detecting mixed or single infections of SaV, EMCV, RVA, and AstV.

13.
Online Journal of Veterinary Research ; 26(2):106-112, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1766796

ABSTRACT

A 1:1 matched case-control study of calves under 1 month of age was carried out by weekly visits to 7 dairy farms in Mashhad, Iran. Fecal samples were collected from 112 calves with diarrhea and 112 controls matched assessed by scoring. Rotavirus and Coronavirus were isolated by antigen capture ELISA test. We found Rotavirus antigen in 29.5% in diarrheic and 17% in normal calves. We detected Coronavirus antigen in 2.7% and 1.8%, respectively. In diarrheic calves Rotavirus was most prevalent at 3rd week age whereas Coronavirus was found in very few cases by 2nd week. Excretion of Rotavirus in feces of scouring calves was greater (P < 0.03) than controls with odds ratio of 1.9 (1.05 - 3.76). We found no relationship between shedding Coronavirus in feces and diarrhea (P value =0.66) with odds ratio equals to 1.4 (0.24 -9.05). We find that Rotavirus is associated with newborn calf diarrhea in industrial dairy farms in Iran.

14.
Environ Res ; 207: 112638, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587831

ABSTRACT

The circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment has been confirmed numerous times, whilst research on the bioaccumulation in bivalve molluscan shellfish (BMS) has been rather scarce. The present study aimed to fulfil the knowledge gap on SARS-CoV-2 circulation in wastewaters and surface waters in this region and to extend the current knowledge on potential presence of SARS-CoV-2 contamination in BMS. The study included 13 archive wastewater and surface water samples from the start of epidemic and 17 influents and effluents from nine wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) of different capacity and treatment stage, sampled during the second epidemic wave. From that period are the most of 77 collected BMS samples, represented by mussels, oysters and warty venus clams harvested along the Dalmatian coast. All samples were processed according to EN ISO 15216-1 2017 using Mengovirus as a whole process control. SARS-CoV-2 detection was performed by real-time and conventional RT-PCR assays targeting E, N and nsp14 protein genes complemented with nsp14 partial sequencing. Rotavirus A (RVA) real-time RT-PCR assay was implemented as an additional evaluation criterion of virus concentration techniques. The results revealed the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in nine influents and two secondary treatment effluents from eight WWTPs, while all samples from the start of epidemic (wastewaters, surface waters) were negative which was influenced by sampling strategy. All tertiary effluents and BMS were SARS-CoV-2 negative. The results of RVA amplification were beneficial in evaluating virus concentration techniques and provided insights into RVA dynamics within the environment and community. In conclusion, the results of the present study confirm SARS-CoV-2 circulation in Croatian wastewaters during the second epidemic wave while extending the knowledge on wastewater treatment potential in SARS-CoV-2 removal. Our findings represent a significant contribution to the current state of knowledge that considers BMS of a very low food safety risk regarding SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Bivalvia , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Shellfish , Wastewater
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