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1.
Rev. bras. promoç. saúde (Impr.) ; 35(1): 1-9, 20220125.
Article in English, Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2202513

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar a relação entre casos e óbitos por COVID-19 e o percentual de tabagistas nas capitais e regiões do Brasil. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo ecológico nas regiões brasileiras do número de casos e óbitos por COVID-19, de março a dezembro de 2020, e a prevalência de tabagismo em 2019, a partir dos bancos de dados do Painel Coronavírus da Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde e do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL ­ 2019). Com informações extraídas em janeiro de 2021, calcularam-se os coeficientes de incidência e mortalidade por COVID-19 por capital brasileira e região, bem como se utilizou a correlação de Pearson para verificar a relação entre as variáveis do estudo. Adotou-se nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Análises bivariadas mostraram correlações positivas entre tabagistas do sexo feminino e coeficiente de incidência de COVID-19 nas capitais da região do Centro-Oeste (r=0,957; p=0,043), e entre fumantes do sexo masculino e coeficiente de mortalidade de COVID-19 nas capitais do Nordeste (r=0,706; p=0,034). Conclusão: O tabagismo teve impacto na incidência de casos e óbitos por COVID-19 em diversas capitais brasileiras, alertando que o fumo pode ser fator de predisposição e agravamento do estado clínico dos pacientes.


Objective: To analyze the relationship between COVID-19 cases and deaths and the percentage of smokers in the capitals and regions of Brazil. Methods: An ecological study was carried out in the Brazilian regions to assess the number of cases and deaths by COVID-19 from March to December 2020 and the prevalence of smoking in 2019 based on the Coronavirus Panel databases of the Health Surveillance Secretariat and the System for Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone-based Survey (Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico - VIGITEL ­ 2019). With information extracted in January 2021, the COVID-19 incidence and mortality coefficients were calculated by Brazilian capital and region and Pearson's correlation was used to verify the relationship between the study variables. A significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: Bivariate analyses showed positive correlations between female smokers and COVID-19 incidence coefficient in capitals of the Midwest region (r=0.957; p=0.043), and between male smokers and COVID-19 mortality coefficient in the capitals of the Northeast (r=0.706; p=0.034). Conclusion: Smoking had an impact on the incidence of COVID-19 cases and deaths in several Brazilian capitals, which warns that smoking can be a predisposing factor and worsen the clinical status of patients.


Objetivo: Analizar la relación entre casos y muertes por COVID-19 y el porcentaje de tabaquistas en las capitales y regiones del Brasil. Métodos: Fue realizado estudio ecológico en las regiones brasileñas del número de casos y muertes por COVID-19, de marzo a diciembre de 2020, y la prevalencia de tabaquismo en 2019, a partir de bases de datos del Panel Coronavirus de la Secretaria de Vigilancia en Salud y del Sistema de Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo y Protección para Enfermedades Crónicas por Encuesta Telefónica (VIGITEL ­ 2019). Con informaciones extraídas en enero de 2021, se calcularon los coeficientes de incidencia y mortandad por COVID-19 por capital brasileña y región, también se utilizó la correlación de Pearson para verificar la relación entre las variables del estudio. Fue adoptado nivel de significancia de 5%. Resultados: Los análisis bivariados mostraron correlaciones positivas entre tabaquistas del sexo femenino y coeficiente de incidencia de COVID-19 en las capitales de la región del Centro-Oeste (r=0,957; p=0,043), y entre fumadores del sexo masculino y coeficiente de mortandad de COVID-19 en las capitales del Nordeste (r=0,706; p=0,034). Conclusión: El tabaquismo tuvo impacto en la incidencia de casos y muertes por COVID-19 en diversas capitales brasileñas, advirtiendo que el humo puede ser factor de predisposición y agravamiento del estado clínico de los pacientes.

2.
Fisioter. Mov. (Online) ; 35: e351445, 2022. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2197549

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Since social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic can influence a patient's and informal caregiver's health, the present study was carried out to understand and improve the latter's quality of life. Objective To analyze the physical, mental and quality of life effects on caregivers of patients with neurological sequelae and developmental delay during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Thirty informal caregivers divided into two groups (G1: Psychomotor disorders and syndromes; G2: Neurological sequelae) were evaluated using questionnaires on general data, burden and quality of life. Chi-square tests with Bonferroni post-hoc correction were performed to compare the response rate between the dependent variables and the level of burden. The student's t-test was applied to determine the correlation between groups and quality of life, obtaining significant findings (p ≤ 0.05). Results No or minimal burden was found in 33.3% of the caregivers, and mild to moderate in 66.7% of each group, with no significant effect between them. In terms of quality of life, a decline was found in all domains, with a significant intergroup difference in social aspects and G1 exhibiting the highest declines (G1: 70.00 ± 23.99%; G2: 86.66 ± 20.84%). Conclusion There was a mild-to-moderate impact on physical burden, with a change in the quality of life of caregivers evaluated during the COVID-19 pandemic. Caregivers of children with psychomotor disorders and syndromes were the most affected in the social aspect domain.


Resumo Introdução O isolamento social durante a pandemia de COVID-19 pode influenciar a saúde do paciente e do cuidador informal. No intuito de compreender e orientar a melhora da qualidade de vida destes cuidadores, este estudo foi realizado. Objetivo Analisar os efeitos físicos, mentais e a qualidade de vida de cuidadores de pacientes com sequelas neurológicas e atraso do desenvolvimento durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos Trinta cuidadores informais divididos em dois grupos (G1: distúrbios psicomotores e síndromes; G2: sequelas neurológicas) foram avaliados com questionários sobre dados gerais, sobrecarga e qualidade de vida. Foram realizados os testes qui-quadrado com pós-teste de Bonferroni para comparar a taxa de resposta entre as variáveis dependentes e o nível de sobrecarga. Para a correlação entre os grupos e a qualidade de vida, utilizou-se o teste t de Student não pareado, sendo significativo os achados com p ≤ 0,05. Resultados Encontrou-se ausência de sobrecarga ou sobrecarga mínima em 33,3% e sobrecarga leve a moderada em 66,7% dos cuidadores em cada grupo, sem efeito significativo entre estes. Na qualidade de vida foi encontrado déficit em todos os domínios, com diferença significativa entre os grupos no domínio de aspectos sociais, tendo o G1 apresentado maiores déficits (G1: 70,00 ± 23,99%; G2: 86,66 ± 20,84%). Conclusão Conclui-se que houve impacto de leve a moderado na sobrecarga física, com alteração na qualidade de vida dos cuidadores avaliados durante a pandemia de COVID-19, sendo os cuidadores de crianças com distúrbios psicomotores e síndromes os mais acometidos no aspecto social.

3.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 16(3): 253-260, July-Sept. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2197530

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT. Social isolation is necessary during the COVID-19 pandemic but can be harmful to mental health, especially in people with neurocognitive disorders. Although physical exercise can alleviate neuropsychiatric symptoms and improve quality of life (QoL), sedentary behavior increased during the pandemic. Online interventions can contribute to improving physical activity and mental health. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the neuropsychiatric symptoms and QoL of older adults with neurocognitive disorders who participated in an online physical exercise program with sedentary patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 25 older patients with neurocognitive disorders (control group=11; online exercise group=14) were evaluated based on Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD) scale. Results: There were differences between the two groups in the total NPI (U=36.50, p=0.025) and the nighttime behavior disturbances item (U=38.00, p=0.033), both with large effect sizes (ES=-1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]:-1.83 to -0.16 and ES=-1.06, 95%CI -1.86 to -0.19, respectively). In terms of QoL-AD, a difference was identified only in the memory subitem (U=20.00, p=0.005), with a large ES (1.59, 95%CI 0.59-2.48). Conclusions: Older adults with neurocognitive disorders who participated in an online physical exercise program, during the COVID-19 pandemic, showed fewer neuropsychiatric total symptoms, fewer nighttime disturbances episodes, and better subjective memory, compared to their physically inactive counterparts. Randomized controlled trials should be performed to better understand the effect of physical exercise in neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia patients during periods of social isolation.


RESUMO. O isolamento social é necessário na pandemia de COVID-19, mas pode impactar a saúde mental, especialmente em idosos com demência, dada a alta prevalência de sintomas neuropsiquiátricos. Apesar da prática de exercícios físicos contribuir para a redução desses sintomas e a melhora da qualidade de vida, houve um aumento de comportamento sedentário durante a pandemia. Objetivo: Comparar os sintomas neuropsiquiátricos e a qualidade de vida de idosos com distúrbios neurocognitivos que participaram de um programa de exercícios físicos online voltado a pacientes sedentários durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Métodos: Neste estudo de corte transversal, 25 idosos diagnosticados com transtorno neurocognitivo (controle=11; exercícios online=14) foram avaliados por meio do inventário neuropsiquiátrico (INP) e da escala de qualidade de vida na doença de Alzheimer (QV-DA). Resultados: Observou-se diferença entre os grupos no INP total (U=36,50, p=0,025), com tamanho de efeito grande (effect size [ES]=-1,03, intervalo de confiança - IC95% -1,83 a -0,16), e no subdomínio sono (U=38,00, p=0,033), com tamanho de efeito grande (ES=-1,06, IC95% -1,86 a -0,19), favoráveis ao grupo fisicamente ativo. Na QV-DA, houve diferença entre os grupos apenas no subitem memória (U=20,00, p=0,005), com tamanho de efeito grande (ES=1,59, IC95% 0,59 a 2,48), não houve diferença na pontuação total (U=45,5, p=0,277). Conclusões: Idosos submetidos a rotina de exercícios físicos com supervisão online na pandemia de COVID-19 apresentam menos sintomas neuropsiquiátricos, melhor qualidade de sono e memória quando comparados aos fisicamente inativos. Estudos randomizados controlados devem ser feitos para a melhor compreensão dos efeitos do exercício físico nos sintomas neuropsiquiátricos de pacientes com demência durante períodos de isolamento social.

4.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199554

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe high infection rate, severe symptoms, and evolving aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic provide challenges for a variety of medical systems around the world. Automatic information retrieval from unstructured text is greatly aided by Natural Language Processing (NLP), the primary approach taken in this field. This study addresses COVID-19 mortality data from the intensive care unit (ICU) in Kuwait during the first 18 months of the pandemic. A key goal is to extract and classify the primary and intermediate causes of death from electronic health records (EHRs) in a timely way. In addition, comorbid conditions or concurrent diseases were retrieved and analyzed in relation to a variety of causes of mortality. MethodAn NLP system using the Python programming language is constructed to automate the process of extracting primary and secondary causes of death, as well as comorbidities. The system is capable of handling inaccurate and messy data, this includes inadequate formats, spelling mistakes and mispositioned information. A machine learning decision trees method is used to classify the causes of death. ResultsFor 54.8% of the 1691 ICU patients we studied, septic shock or sepsis-related multiorgan failure was the leading cause of mortality. About three-quarters of patients die from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a common intermediate cause of death. An arrhythmia (AF) disorder was determined to be the strongest predictor of intermediate cause of death, whether caused by ARDS or other causes. ConclusionWe created an NLP system to automate the extraction of causes of death and comorbidities from EHRs. Our method processes messy and erroneous data and classifies the primary and intermediate causes of death of COVID-19 patients. We advocate arranging the EHR with well-defined sections and menu-driven options to reduce incorrect forms.

5.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199526

ABSTRACT

BackgroundIn May 2021, the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant led to the first local outbreak in China in Guangzhou City. We explored the epidemiological characteristics and spatial-temporal clustering of this outbreak. MethodsBased on the 153 cases in the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant outbreak, the Knox test was used to analyze the spatial-temporal clustering of the outbreak. We further explored the spatial-temporal clustering by gender and age groups, as well as compared the changes of clustering strength (S) value between the two outbreaks in Guangzhou. ResultsThe result of the Knox analysis showed that the areas at short distances and brief periods presented a relatively high risk. The strength of clustering of male-male pairs was higher. Age groups showed that clustering was concentrated in cases aged <= 18 years matched to 18-59 years and cases aged 60+ years. The strength of clustering of the outbreak declined after the implementation of public health measures. The change of strength of clustering at time intervals of 1-5 days decreased greater in 2021 (S = 129.19, change rate 38.87%) than that in 2020 (S = 83.81, change rate 30.02%). ConclusionsThe outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 Delta VOC in Guangzhou has obvious spatial-temporal clustering. The timely intervention measures are essential role to contain this outbreak of high transmission.

6.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10:1048404, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199524

ABSTRACT

Africa accounts for 1.5% of the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and 2.7% of deaths, but this low incidence has been partly attributed to the limited testing capacity in most countries. In addition, the population in many African countries is at high risk of infection with endemic infectious diseases such as malaria. Our aim is to determine the prevalence and circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants, and the frequency of co-infection with the malaria parasite. We conducted serological tests and microscopy examinations on 998 volunteers of different ages and sexes in a random and stratified population sample in Burkina-Faso. In addition, nasopharyngeal samples were taken for RT-qPCR of SARS-CoV-2 and for whole viral genome sequencing. Our results show a 3.2 and a 2.5% of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and PCR positivity;and 22% of malaria incidence, over the sampling period, with marked differences linked to age. Importantly, we found 8 cases of confirmed co-infection and 11 cases of suspected co-infection mostly in children and teenagers. Finally, we report the genome sequences of 13 SARS-CoV-2 isolates circulating in Burkina Faso at the time of analysis, assigned to lineages A.19, A.21, B.1.1.404, B.1.1.118, B.1 and grouped into clades;19B, 20A, and 20B. This is the first population-based study about SARS-CoV-2 and malaria in Burkina Faso during the first wave of the pandemic, providing a relevant estimation of the real prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and variants circulating in this Western African country. Besides, it highlights the non-negligible frequency of co-infection with malaria in African communities.

7.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199523

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus elicited immense global interest in the development and distribution of safe COVID-19 vaccines by various governments and researchers, capable of stopping the spread of COVID-19 disease. After COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic, several vaccines have been developed for emergency use authorization. The accelerated development of the vaccines was attributed to many factors but mainly by capitalizing on years of research and technology development. Although several countries tried to develop COVID-19 vaccines only a few countries succeeded. Therefore, we applied statistical methods to find factors that have contributed to the fast development of COVID-19 vaccines. All 11 countries that developed vaccines were considered and chose other 24 countries for comparison purposes according to different criteria of their R&D. Fourteen R&D indicator variables that are a measure of the R&D for all countries [World Development Indicators (WDI)] were obtained from the World Bank DataBank and data on the COVID-19 vaccine R&D were obtained from The Knowledge Portal of the Graduate Institute Geneva and Global Health Center. The World Bank records WDI yearly, and 2019 was chosen because of a few missing values. Also, different vaccine policies were adopted by different countries during the COVID-19 vaccination period, producing different impacts of vaccinations on the population. So, we applied the generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach to find policies that contributed greatly to decreasing the spread of COVID-19 using data from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT) and age-specific vaccination data from the European Center for Disease and Prevention and Control. Logistic regression, two-sample t-test, and Wilcoxon rank-sum test found scientific and technical journals, liability, and COVID-19 Vaccine R&D Funding (investment in pharmaceutical industry US$) are significantly associated with fast COVID-19 vaccine development. Vaccine prioritization and government vaccine financial support were significantly associated with COVID-19 daily cases. The impact of vaccination on lowering the rate of new cases is greatly observed among the mid-aged populations (25-64 years) and lower or non-significant among the younger (<25 years) and (>65 years) older populations. Therefore, these age-groups especially > 79 can be prioritized during vaccine roll-out.

8.
Front Public Health ; 10:1042647, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2199513

ABSTRACT

Many SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. These variants have acquired mutations conferring phenotypes such as increased transmissibility or virulence, or causing diagnostic, therapeutic, or immune escape. Detection of Alpha and the majority of Omicron sublineages by PCR relied on the so-called S gene target failure due to the deletion of six nucleotides coding for amino acids 69-70 in the spike (S) protein. Detection of hallmark mutations in other variants present in samples relied on whole genome sequencing. However, whole genome sequencing as a diagnostic tool is still in its infancy due to geographic inequities in sequencing capabilities, higher cost compared to other molecular assays, longer turnaround time from sample to result, and technical challenges associated with producing complete genome sequences from samples that have low viral load and/or high background. Hence, there is a need for rapid genotyping assays. In order to rapidly generate information on the presence of a variant in a given sample, we have created a panel of four triplex RT-qPCR assays targeting 12 mutations to detect and differentiate all five variants of concern: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron. We also developed an expanded pentaplex assay that can reliably distinguish among the major sublineages (BA.1-BA.5) of Omicron. In silico, analytical and clinical testing of the variant panel indicate that the assays exhibit high sensitivity and specificity. This panel can help fulfill the need for rapid identification of variants in samples, leading to quick decision making with respect to public health measures, as well as treatment options for individuals. Compared to sequencing, these genotyping PCR assays allow much faster turn-around time from sample to results-just a couple hours instead of days or weeks.

9.
Front Public Health ; 10:1035763, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2199508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by asymptomatic individuals has been reported since the early stages of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in various parts of the world. However, there are limited data regarding SARS-CoV-2 among asymptomatic individuals in Ghana. The aim of the study was to use test data of prospective travelers from Ghana as a proxy to estimate the contribution of asymptomatic cases to the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: The study analyzed the SARS-CoV-2 PCR test data of clients whose purpose for testing was classified as "Travel" at the COVID-19 walk-in test center of the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR) from July 2020 to July 2021. These individuals requesting tests for travel generally had no clinical symptoms of COVID-19 at the time of testing. Data were processed and analyzed using Microsoft Excel office 16 and STATA version 16. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data on test and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Out of 42,997 samples tested at the center within that period, 28,384 (66.0%) were classified as "Travel" tests. Of these, 1,900 (6.7%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The majority (64.8%) of the "Travel" tests were requested by men. The men recorded a SARS-CoV-2 positivity of 6.9% compared to the 6.4% observed among women. Test requests for SARS-CoV-2 were received from all regions of Ghana, with a majority (83.3%) received from the Greater Accra Region. Although the Eastern region recorded the highest SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate of 8.35%, the Greater Accra region contributed 81% to the total number of SARS-CoV-2 positive cases detected within the period of study. CONCLUSION: Our study found substantial SARS-CoV-2 positivity among asymptomatic individuals who, without the requirement for a negative SARS-CoV-2 result for travel, would have no reason to test. These asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals could have traveled to other countries and unintentionally spread the virus. Our findings call for enhanced tracing and testing of asymptomatic contacts of individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2.

10.
Front Public Health ; 10:1032955, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2199503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persistent symptoms, described as long COVID or post-COVID-19 condition, pose a potential public health problem. Here, the design and recruitment of the PRIME post-COVID study is described. PRIME post-COVID is a large-scale population-based observational study that aims to improve understanding of the occurrence, risk factors, social, physical, mental, emotional, and socioeconomic impact of post-COVID-19 condition. METHODS: An observational open cohort study was set up, with retrospective and prospective assessments on various health-conditions and health-factors (medical, demographic, social, and behavioral) based on a public health COVID-19 test and by self-report (using online questionnaires in Dutch language). Invited for participation were, as recorded in a public health registry, adults (18 years and older) who were tested for COVID-19 and had a valid Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) positive or negative test result, and email address. In November 2021, 61,655 individuals were invited by email to participate, these included all eligible adults who tested PCR positive between 1 June 2020 and 1 November 2021, and a sample of adults who tested negative (2:1), comparable in distribution of age, sex, municipality of residence and year-quarter of testing. New recruitment periods are planned as well. Participants are followed over time by regular follow-up measurements. Data are analyzed using the appropriate data-analyses methods. DISCUSSION: The PRIME post-COVID study will provide insights into various health-related aspects of post-COVID-19 condition in the context of various stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results will inform practical guidance for society, clinical and public health practice for the prevention and care for long-term impact of COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT05128695.

11.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10:1025901, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199500

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at increased risk for COVID-19 related morbidity and mortality. Antibody response to COVID-19 vaccine in T2DM patients is not very clear. The present work aims to evaluate the antibody response to the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in this population.

12.
Frontiers in public health ; 10:1016169, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2199487

ABSTRACT

Background: The need for effective public health surveillance systems to track virus spread for targeted interventions was highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic. It spurred an interest in the use of spatiotemporal clustering and genomic analyses to identify high-risk areas and track the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, these two approaches are rarely combined in surveillance systems to complement each one's limitations;spatiotemporal clustering approaches usually consider only one source of virus transmission (i.e., the residential setting) to detect case clusters, while genomic studies require significant resources and processing time that can delay decision-making. Here, we clarify the differences and possible synergies of these two approaches in the context of infectious disease surveillance systems by investigating to what extent geographically-defined clusters are confirmed as transmission clusters based on genome sequences, and how genomic-based analyses can improve the epidemiological investigations associated with spatiotemporal cluster detection. Method(s): For this purpose, we sequenced the SARS-CoV-2 genomes of 172 cases that were part of a collection of spatiotemporal clusters found in a Swiss state (Vaud) during the first epidemic wave. We subsequently examined intra-cluster genetic similarities and spatiotemporal distributions across virus genotypes. Result(s): Our results suggest that the congruence between the two approaches might depend on geographic features of the area (rural/urban) and epidemic context (e.g., lockdown). We also identified two potential superspreading events that started from cases in the main urban area of the state, leading to smaller spreading events in neighboring regions, as well as a large spreading in a geographically-isolated area. These superspreading events were characterized by specific mutations assumed to originate from Mulhouse and Milan, respectively. Our analyses propose synergistic benefits of using two complementary approaches in public health surveillance, saving resources and improving surveillance efficiency. Copyright © 2022 Choi, Ladoy, De Ridder, Jacot, Vuilleumier, Bertelli, Guessous, Pillonel, Joost and Greub.

13.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199485

ABSTRACT

The etiology of severe acute hepatitis (SAH) in children is various. We describe the first Chinese case of severe acute hepatitis in a 22-month-old boy with the mild illness of Omicron sub-variant BA.2.38. With the application of Compound Glycyrrhizin Injection (CGI), the patient gradually recovered from acute liver injury (ALI). This case highlights the possibility of severe ALI in children with the non-critical illness of SARS-CoV-2. The management of SAH associated with the pandemic presents challenges for clinicians, and follow-up is in need. The method of differential diagnosis using limited laboratory results is of great value to the clinicians.

14.
Frontiers in public health ; 10:992481, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2199471

ABSTRACT

Background: Between May 2020 and February 2022, South Africa's health system bore strain as it battled mitigating the coronavirus pandemic. The country's pandemic response was scrutinized. This period also brought into focus pre-existing shortcomings in the healthcare system and its governing bodies. Contextually, there is a paucity in literature on the experiences of healthcare providers and users. This study aimed to contribute information on COVID-19, with the intention of providing guidance on preparing for future infectious disease outbreaks. Method(s): Cross sectional exploratory qualitative methodology was employed using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with community members (CM) and healthcare workers (HCW) from two South African study sites: (a) rural Bushbuckridge (run by Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance Site) and (b), Regions D and F in Johannesburg Metropole. Result(s): After interviewing 42 CMs and 43 HCWs, it emerged that mandated process changes while minimizing COVID-19 exposure, necessitated healthcare personnel focusing on critical care treatment at the expense of less acute ones. COVID-19 isolation protocols, extensive absenteeism and HCWs with advanced skills being perceived as more adept to treat COVID-19 patients contributed to HCWs experiencing higher workloads. Fears regarding contracting and transmitting COVID-19, suffering financial losses, and not being able to provide adequate advice to patients were recurrent themes. Dissemination of relevant information among healthcare facility personnel and communities suffered due to breakdowns in communication. Conclusion(s): Concessions and novel strategies to avail medication to patients had to be created. Since providence was lacking, government needs to formulate health intervention strategies that embrace health literacy, alternate methods of chronic medication dispensation, improved communication across health care platforms and the use of telehealth, to circumvent the threats of possible further infectious disease outbreaks. Copyright © 2022 Lalla-Edward, Mosam, Hove, Erzse, Rwafa-Ponela, Price, Nyatela, Nqakala, Kahn, Tollman, Hofman and Goldstein.

15.
Frontiers in public health ; 10:970363, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2199461

ABSTRACT

Methods: We relied on reports of confirmed case incidence and test positivity, along with data on the movements of devices with location-tracking software, to evaluate a novel scheme of three concentric regulatory zones introduced by then New York Governor Cuomo to address an outbreak of COVID-19 in South Brooklyn in the fall of 2020. The regulatory scheme imposed differential controls on access to eating places, schools, houses of worship, large gatherings and other businesses within the three zones, but without restrictions on mobility. Result(s): Within the central red zone, COVID-19 incidence temporarily declined from 131.2 per 100,000 population during the week ending October 3 to 62.5 per 100,000 by the week ending October 31, but then rebounded to 153.6 per 100,000 by the week ending November 28. Within the intermediate orange and peripheral yellow zones combined, incidence steadily rose from 28.8 per 100,000 during the week ending October 3 to 109.9 per 100,000 by the week ending November 28. Data on device visits to pairs of eating establishments straddling the red-orange boundary confirmed compliance with access controls. More general analysis of device movements showed stable patterns of movement between and beyond zones unaffected by the Governor's orders. A geospatial regression model of COVID-19 incidence in relation to device movements across zip code tabulation areas identified a cluster of five high-movement ZCTAs with estimated reproduction number 1.91 (95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.55). Discussion(s): In the highly populous area of South Brooklyn, controls on access alone, without restrictions on movement, were inadequate to halt an advancing COVID-19 outbreak. Copyright © 2022 Harris.

16.
Front Public Health ; 10:969251, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2199460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been relatively less lethal in children;however, poor prognosis and mortality has been associated with factors such as access to health services. Mexico remained on the list of the ten countries with the highest case fatality rate (CFR) in adults. It is of interest to know the behavior of COVID-19 in the pediatric population. The aim of this study was to identify clinical and sociodemographic variables associated with mortality due to COVID-19 in pediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: Using National open data and information from the Ministry of Health, Mexico, this cohort study aimed to identify clinical and sociodemographic variables associated with COVID-19 mortality in pediatric patients. METHOD: A cohort study was designed based on National open data from the Ministry of Health, Mexico, for the period April 2020 to January 2022, and included patients under 18 years of age with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Variables analyzed were age, health services used, and comorbidities (obesity, diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular disease, immunosuppression, high blood pressure, and chronic kidney disease). Follow-up duration was 60 days, and primary outcomes were death, hospitalization, and requirement of intensive care. Statistical analysis included survival analysis, prediction models created using the Cox proportional hazards model, and Kaplan-Meier estimation curves. RESULTS: The cohort included 261,099 cases with a mean age of 11.2 ± 4 years, and of these, 11,569 (4.43%) were hospitalized and 1,028 (0.39%) died. Variables associated with risk of mortality were age under 12 months, the presence of comorbidities, health sector where they were treated, and first wave of infection. CONCLUSION: Based on data in the National database, we show that the pediatric fatality rate due to SARS-CoV-2 is similar to that seen in other countries. Access to health services and distribution of mortality were heterogeneous. Vulnerable groups were patients younger than 12 months and those with comorbidities.

17.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199452

ABSTRACT

In the face of a long-running pandemic, understanding the drivers of ongoing SARS-CoV-2 transmission is crucial for the rational management of COVID-19 disease burden. Keeping schools open has emerged as a vital societal imperative during the pandemic, but in-school transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can contribute to further prolonging the pandemic. In this context, the role of schools in driving SARS-CoV-2 transmission acquires critical importance. Here we model in-school transmission from first principles to investigate the effectiveness of layered mitigation strategies on limiting in-school spread. We examined the effect of masks and air quality (ventilation, filtration and ionizers) on steady-state viral load in classrooms, as well as on the number of particles inhaled by an uninfected person. The effectiveness of these measures in limiting viral transmission was assessed for variants with different levels of mean viral load (ancestral, Delta, Omicron). Our results suggest that a layered mitigation strategy can be used effectively to limit in-school transmission, with certain limitations. First, poorly designed strategies (insufficient ventilation, no masks, staying open under high levels of community transmission) will permit in-school spread even if some level of mitigation is present. Second, for viral variants that are sufficiently contagious, it may be difficult to construct any set of interventions capable of blocking transmission once an infected individual is present, underscoring the importance of other measures. Our findings provide practical recommendations;in particular, the use of a layered mitigation strategy that is designed to limit transmission, with other measures such as frequent surveillance testing and smaller class sizes (such as by offering remote schooling options to those who prefer it) as needed.

18.
Front Public Health ; 10:923525, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2199449

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of serological tests for coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched from January 1 2020 to September 2 2022. We included studies that measured the sensitivity, specificity or both qualities of a COVID-19 serological test and a reference standard of a viral culture or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The risk of bias was assessed by using quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies 2 (QUADAS-2). The primary outcomes included overall sensitivity and specificity, as stratified by the methods of serological testing [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) or chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs)] and immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgM, or both). Secondary outcomes were stratum-specific sensitivity and specificity within the subgroups, as defined by study or participant characteristics, which included the time from the onset of symptoms, testing via commercial kits or an in-house assay, antigen target, clinical setting, serological kit as the index test and the type of specimen for the RT-PCR reference test. RESULTS: Eight thousand seven hundred and eighty-five references were identified and 169 studies included. Overall, we judged the risk of bias to be high in 47.9 % (81/169) of the studies, and a low risk of applicability concerns was found in 100% (169/169) of the studies. For each method of testing, the pooled sensitivity of the ELISAs ranged from 81 to 82%, with sensitivities ranging from 69 to 70% for the LFIAs and 77% to 79% for the CLIAs. Among the evaluated tests, IgG (80-81%)-based tests exhibited better sensitivities than IgM-based tests (66-68%). IgG/IgM-based CLIA had the highest sensitivity [87% (86-88%)]. All of the tests displayed high specificity (97-98%). Heterogeneity was observed in all of the analyses. The detection of nucleocapsid protein (77-80%) as the antigen target was found to offer higher sensitivity results than surface protein detection (66-68%). Sensitivity was higher in the in-house assays (78-79%) than in the commercial kits (47-48%). CONCLUSION: Among the evaluated tests, ELISA and CLIA tests performed better in terms of sensitivity than did the LFIA. IgG-based tests had higher sensitivity than IgM-based tests, and combined IgG/IgM test-based CLIA tests had the best overall diagnostic test accuracy. The type of sample, serological kit and timing of use of the specific tests were associated with the diagnostic accuracy. Due to the limitations of the serological tests, other techniques should be quickly approved to provide guidance for the correct diagnosis of COVID-19.

19.
Frontiers in Psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199435

ABSTRACT

BackgroundSchizophrenia is considered one of the major risk factors for mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Early antiviral treatment is important to decrease the risk of mortality. Currently, Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir-ritonavir) has been widely used in SARS-CoV-2 patients with risk factors. However, drug-drug interactions with anti-psychotics are prominent and complicated. Case presentationWe report a clozapine-treated patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection who developed neutropenia after coadministration with Paxlovid. In this case, clozapine was used for over 15 years, without neutropenia development. However, severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count = 523/mu l) developed 3 days after the coadministration of Paxlovid 2 doses per day, valproic acid 1,000 mg per day and clozapine 100 mg per day. The development of neutropenia may be attributed to the complicated interaction among Paxlovid, SARS-CoV-2 infection, valproic acid, fluvoxamine and clozapine. ConclusionsNeutropenia is a rare but life-threatening event if a concomitant infection occurs. The risk may increase during SARS-CoV-2 infection and the coadministration of clozapine and Paxlovid. Although the exact causes of neutropenia in this patient are not fully clear, the white blood cell count and absolute neutrophil count should be closely monitored during the administration of Paxlovid in clozapine-treated patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

20.
Frontiers in Psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199433

ABSTRACT

IntroductionThe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic impacted how people perform their daily lives in manifold and sometimes massive ways. Particularly, individuals who are at high risk for a severe disease progression, like immunocompromised people, may have experienced drastic changes in social participation during the pandemic. A COVID-19 basic vaccination may have changed the safety behavior of immunocompromised individuals in terms of infection risk and thereby influence social participation and mental wellbeing. MethodsThis study aims to investigate self-perceived social participation at baseline before and at follow-up 1 and 6 months after basic vaccination. Beginning in March 2021, 274 immunocompromised persons 18 years or older were enrolled in the COVID-19 Contact Immune study (CoCo study) in Lower Saxony, Germany. Measurements were performed at three time points regarding social participation [Index for the Assessment of Health Impairments (IMET)], mental health [Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4)], subjective health status (five-point Likert-scale) and quality of life (five-point Likert-scale). ResultsIn total, 126 participants were included in the final analysis. About 60% of the participants showed increasing social participation over time. The greatest increase in social participation was observed within the first month after basic vaccination (p < 0.001). During the following 5 months, social participation remained stable. The domains "social activities," "recreation and leisure" and "close personal relationships" were responsible for the overall change in social participation. No association was found between social participation and mental health, sociodemographic or medical factors (except hypertension). DiscussionIt is unclear why social participation increased after basic vaccination. Perceived vaccine efficacy and a feeling of being protected by the vaccine may have caused relaxed social distancing behaviors. Reducing safety behaviors may, however, increase the risk of a COVID-19 infection for immunocompromised individuals. Further investigations are needed to explore the health-related consequences of more social participation among immunocompromised persons.

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