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1.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(3):680-685, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885021

ABSTRACT

Method: A sixty patients with COVID-19 were randomly selected to conduct an experimental study to investigate the benefits of prostrate position and coughing exercises upon cardiopulmonary parameters among non-intubated patients with COVID-19. Results: two-thirds of participants were >60 years old, 60% and 46.7% of the experimental and control group respectively were males, 36.7% of participants did not have any chronic diseases, but asthma was present in a third of them. The bilateralperipheral and central area was the affected part of the lung in more than 40% of patients. More than 45% of the lung volume was affected in 80% of the experimental group and 50% of the control group. Finally, 96.7% of the experimental group and 90% of the control group did not take the COVID-19 vaccine. Furthermore, a statistically significant difference was found between the mean of cardiopulmonary parameters for the experimental group, while there was no statistical significance difference that was shown in the control group. Conclusion: the application of prostrate position and coughing exercises have a positive effect on improving cardiopulmonary parameters among COVID-19 patients lasting for more than four hours.

2.
Annals of Dental Specialty ; 10(1):69-77, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1885014

ABSTRACT

Recently, with the emergence of world pandemic called COVID-19 virus all over the world, dental practitioners have stood out as high risked front liners. The aim of this study is to analyse the knowledge and management of emergency and safety precautions implemented by dentists during the pandemic of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. An online survey was used for this cross-sectional study using google forms and was distributed to dental professionals who works in government hospitals, private clinics, and academic universities in Saudi Arabia. Statistical evaluation was done using the data that was obtained from 355 dentists (academicians, private practitioners, military and government employees), with the power of the sample being 0.85. Relevant awareness regarding the incubation period and symptoms of COVID-19 virus was observed among the dental professionals. Preparedness and perception among dental professionals seem to be satisfactory and statistically significant. Obligatory improvements should be provided through educational campaigns.

3.
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association ; 72(6):1142-1147, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885007

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the views of health service providers towards coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination with Cansino, Sinovac and Sinopharm vaccines. Method: The analytical cross-sectional study was conducted at the Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, in May and June 2021, and comprised doctors, nurses, technical staff, and medical social officers. Data was collected using a questionnaire, in Urdu and English languages, assessing determinants of hesitancy. Data was analysed using SPSS 19. Results: Of the 331 subjects, 156(47%) were males and 175(53%) were females. Overall, 183(55%) subjects were aged <30 years, and 7(2%) were aged >60 years. Among the responders, 274(83%) were vaccinated, 49(15%) wanted to delay, and 8(2.4%) were outright refusers. Among the hesitant, 43(80%) were women, and 56(98%) were aged <40 years. Age, gender, occupational group and personal experience with the disease had significant correlations with vaccination status (p<0.05). Personal safety 202(74%) followed by the perception of official requirement 162(59%) were the prime reasons for getting vaccinated. No respondent cited religious inhibitions or social media as the reason behind vaccine refusal. Conclusion: A lack of trust in the safety and efficacy data of the available Chinese vaccines appeared as a factor inducing hesitancy. The resistance of younger respondents, especially trainee physicians, was a finding of concern since they form the backbone of the health system in the country.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Hungarica ; 91(3-4):120, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884978
5.
Organic Communications ; : 15, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1884921

ABSTRACT

The first incidence of corona virus was reported in China in December of 2019, and the virus quickly spread over the world, eventually being designated a pandemic in March of 2020. It has had a disastrous impact on the global healthcare system. Virus has claimed the lives of 5,298,933 people through December 2021. As a result of the pandemic, there was a boost of research into diagnostic and therapeutic methods to infection. Gradually, the world has discovered new vaccine candidates and medicinal repurposing strategies that have a significant influence on mortality, by which there has been a drop-in death rates over the world since July, 2021. Many patients, particularly those who have been hospitalized due to a viral infection, experience complications beyond discharge that have a significant influence on their lives. Post COVID-19 complications are problems that last longer than 3-4 weeks following a viral infection. There is currently no specific treatment accessible for post COVID-19 problems because whatever medications are available or repurposed are limited to disease prophylaxis and therapeutics. As a result, we're looking for a remedy employing natural substances using the In-Silico technique (molecular docking) and recent research from reputable journals. Allicin, Berberine, Epigallocatechin, Rosmarinic acid and Withaferin-A were docked against ACE (PDB ID: 1O8A), IL-6 (PDB ID: 1ALU), NADPH Oxidase (PDB ID: 2CDU) and TNF-alpha (PDB ID: 2AZ5) using Autodock.

6.
Bulletin of Russian State Medical University ; - (2):47-53, 2022.
Article in Russian | Web of Science Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1884914

ABSTRACT

Severe form of COVID 19 has been linked to the phenomenon of dysregulated inflammation with excessive cytokine release arid elevated interleukin 6 (IL6) levels. Suppressive agents enabling specific inhibition of cytokines, notably monoclonal antibodies to IL6 and its receptors, have been applied as a rescue therapy in COVID 19 despite the underexplored clinical scope for these biologic medications. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of IL6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab in moderate symptomatic COVID 19 prone to aggravation. The retrospective cohort study enrolled two groups of hospitalized patients (a total of n = 72) diagnosed with moderate COVID-19. The main group received a single 400 mg dose of tocilizumab (TCZ) on top of standard therapy. The comparative analysis included statistical evaluation for a number of clinical and laboratory parameters at reference time points and disease outcomes with regard to treatment strategy. Overall, TCZ administration provided no advantages in terms of oxygen supplementation status, disease progression, or survival. Lethal cats constituted 19.2% (10 pts) and 5% (1 pt) in TCZ and comparison groups, respectively. The results indicate that administration of monoclonal antibody drugs in hospital patients with COVID-19 must follow differential schemes with regard to the disease severity and comorbidities, as well as proper commencement schedules.

7.
International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security ; 22(4):750-756, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1884904

ABSTRACT

Biometric authentication has grown significantly since the events in the United States in 2001. Moreover, during the COVID-19 pandemic, many more researches have been done on contactless biometric authentication or recognition methods. Arduino Mega 2560 is a module often used in designing applications, but most of the time it can only be used as an interface in image processing. During the post-doctoral researches in multimodal biometrics, it was developed a complex application using the Arduino Mega 2560 board and several sensors attached to it, including two fingerprint sensors, an infrared imaging camera, a keyboard and a Bluetooth module that allows communication between this device and a mobile device or a desktop / laptop system. The developed application can be used for registration or authentication to an internet banking system, by entering the biometric features represented by iris and fingerprint, in addition to the classic authentication methods, based on username and a password generated by a digipass. The application and the device only have the role of taking the iris or the fingerprint, these being transmitted via Bluetooth for processing on a mobile or laptop device. Biometric analysis and extraction cannot be performed on the Arduino Mega 2560 due to the low frequency of the processor (12 MHz only) and the relatively small memory space.

8.
International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security ; 22(4):595-602, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1884901

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has led to many changes in the movement of people in different environments or even between different countries. Vaccines began to be administered more than a year after the pandemic has started. Following the administration of the vaccine, various ways were sought to identify the vaccinated people very quickly, in order to allow access to various areas, such as supermarkets or secure areas at airports. Thus, digital certificates were issued for attesting the vaccination, testing or recovery of that person. These certificates contain a QR code that can be scanned using an application installed on a mobile device. Research has sought to identify a more secure way to identify the holders of such a certificate. After vaccination, we consider it's useful to insert the biometric data of the iris or fingerprint in a national or international database, from where it can be accessed by all institutions authorized to verify the validity of such a certificate. During the research, the human iris was taken as a biometric feature, trying to find ways to scan it in real time and without a great interaction of the user with the video capture device. One of the biggest problems with such an approach is the exact connection between the person whose iris was scanned and the proof of having a COVID digital certificate. The idea was to replace the need to hold a certificate in printed or digital form with the image of the human iris, which in polar coordinates is quite similar to that of a QR code.

9.
Vaccines ; 10(5):17, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1884453

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is the best way to limit the extent of the COVID pandemic. Knowledge of the duration of the immune response will allow the planning of a vaccination protocol. This study aims to validate the complete (humoral and cellular) immune responses over time in large population groups following the full vaccination of healthcare professionals in real-life conditions and to assess the relationship between antibody levels and T-cell activity in relation to the characteristics of the study group. The samples for the study were obtained from volunteers (staff of two hospitals) on three occasions: before vaccination, T0, then 4-9 weeks after full vaccination (two doses BNT162b2), T1, and 7-9 months after vaccination, T2. The humoral response was investigated by the titre of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies to S1 protein. Assays were performed three times at intervals. The cellular response was assessed in a subgroup of 189 subjects by QuanT-Cell SARS-CoV-2 (IGRA). The assay was performed once. A group of 344 subjects fully vaccinated with the BNT162b2 vaccine were included in the study. The humoral response was observed in 100% of subjects at both 4-7 weeks and 7-9 months, but antibody titres fell by almost 90% in this interval. The cellular response was observed in 94% (177/189) of subjects 7-9 months after the second dose of vaccine. In subjects with a negative cellular response, eight out of 12 smoked. A factor associated with greater immunogenicity of vaccination was past SARS-CoV-2 infection. The administration of full BNT162b2 vaccination (two doses) induces humoral and cellular responses detectable even more than six months after vaccination. Smoking may be a factor associated with impaired cellular response to vaccination.

10.
Chemosensors ; 10(5):34, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1884019

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in the number of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy applications in medical research. In this article we review some recent, and in our opinion, most interesting and promising applications of SERS spectroscopy in medical diagnostics, including those that permit multiplexing within the range important for clinical samples. We focus on the SERS-based detection of markers of various diseases (or those whose presence significantly increases the chance of developing a given disease), and on drug monitoring. We present selected examples of the SERS detection of particular fragments of DNA or RNA, or of bacteria, viruses, and disease-related proteins. We also describe a very promising and elegant 'lab-on-chip' approach used to carry out practical SERS measurements via a pad whose action is similar to that of a pregnancy test. The fundamental theoretical background of SERS spectroscopy, which should allow a better understanding of the operation of the sensors described, is also briefly outlined. We hope that this review article will be useful for researchers planning to enter this fascinating field.

11.
Journal of Cell Science ; 135(6), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1883573
12.
chemRxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | ChemRxiv | ID: ppcovidwho-338553

ABSTRACT

Natural ligand-receptor interactions that play pivotal roles in biological events are ideal models for design and assembly of artificial recognition molecules. Herein, aiming at the structural characteristics of the spike trimer and infection mechanism of SARS-CoV-2, we have designed a DNA framework-guided spatial patterned neutralizing aptamer trimer for SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. The ~5.8 nm tetrahedral DNA framework affords precise spatial organization and matched valence as four neutralizing aptamers (MATCH-4), which matches with nanometer precision the topmost surface of SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer, enhancing the interaction between MATCH-4 and spike trimer. Moreover, the DNA framework provides a dimensionally com-plementary nanoscale barrier to prevent the spike trimer-ACE2 interaction and the conformational transition, thereby inhibiting SARS-CoV-2-host cell fusion and infection. As a result, the spatial and valence-matched MATCH-4 ensures improved binding affinity and neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 and its varied mutant strains, particularly current Omicron variant that are evasive of the majority of existing neutralizing antibodies. In addition, because neutralizing aptamers specific to other targets can be evolved and assembled, the present design has the potential to inhibit other wide-range and emerging pathogens.

13.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-338530

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In 2020, prior to COVID-19 vaccine rollout, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations and Brighton Collaboration created a priority list, endorsed by the World Health Organization, of potential adverse events relevant to COVID-19 vaccines. We leveraged the Brighton Collaboration list to evaluate serious adverse events of special interest observed in phase III randomized trials of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. Methods: Secondary analysis of serious adverse events reported in the placebo-controlled, phase III randomized clinical trials of Pfizer and Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (NCT04368728 and NCT04470427), focusing analysis on potential adverse events of special interest identified by the Brighton Collaboration. Results: Pfizer and Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccines were associated with an increased risk of serious adverse events of special interest, with an absolute risk increase of 10.1 and 15.1 per 10,000 vaccinated over placebo baselines of 17.6 and 42.2 (95% CI -0.4 to 20.6 and -3.6 to 33.8), respectively. Combined, the mRNA vaccines were associated with an absolute risk increase of serious adverse events of special interest of 12.5 per 10,000 (95% CI 2.1 to 22.9). The excess risk of serious adverse events of special interest surpassed the risk reduction for COVID-19 hospitalization relative to the placebo group in both Pfizer and Moderna trials (2.3 and 6.4 per 10,000 participants, respectively). Discussion: The excess risk of serious adverse events found in our study points to the need for formal harm-benefit analyses, particularly those that are stratified according to risk of serious COVID-19 outcomes such as hospitalization or death.

14.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-338527

ABSTRACT

Background: Major barriers to addressing SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy include limited knowledge of what causes delay/refusal of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and our limited ability to predict which unvaccinated individuals will remain unvaccinated over significant time periods despite vaccine availability. The present study begins to address these barriers by developing a machine learning model that prospectively predicts who will persist in not vaccinating against SARS-CoV-2. Method: Unvaccinated individuals (n=325) who completed a baseline survey were followed for 6 months of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Logistic Model Trees were used to predict who would remain unvaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 from their baseline measures, including demographic information (e.g., age), medical history (e.g., of influenza vaccination), Health-Belief Model constructs (e.g., perceived vaccine dangerousness), conspiracist ideation, and task-based metrics of vulnerability to conspiracist ideation (e.g., tendency toward illusory pattern perception). Results: The resulting model significantly predicted vaccination status (AUC-PR=0.75, 95%CI [0.54 0.88]). At the optimal probability threshold determined by the Generalized Threshold Shifting Protocol, the model was moderately precise (0.78) when identifying individuals who remained unvaccinated (n=80), and had a very low rate (0.05) of false-positives (incorrectly suggesting that individuals remained unvaccinated). Permutational importance tests suggested that baseline SARS-CoV-2 vaccine intentions and influenza vaccination history conveyed the most information about future SARS-CoV-2 vaccination status. Perceiving vaccines to be more dangerous and SARS-CoV-2 infection to be less severe were predictive of remaining unvaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, consistent with the Health Belief Model. Conspiracist ideation was also predictive of this outcome, suggesting that misinformation influences vaccination behavior. Conclusions: The present study indicates that constructs from prominent theories of vaccine decision-making, including the Health Belief Model, can be used to successfully predict SARS-CoV-2 vaccination behavior. It also suggests that other factors, including conspiracist ideation and locus of control, influence this behavior, laying foundations for more empirically-informed targeting of interventions that encourage vaccine uptake.

15.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e43, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884926

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the clinical features of patients with post-COVID-19 syndrome who have recently been discharged from intensive care units (ICUs) included in a chronic care program in Colombia. Methods: Descriptive case series study of a cohort of patients with post-COVID-19 syndrome who entered the Remeo® chronic care program between July 2020 and May 2021. Clinical features, complications, and treatments are described. Results: Among patients in the program discharged from an ICU, 122 cases of post-COVID-19 syndrome were identified. These patients continued in the program. The mean age was 66.9 years (CI 64-68); 62.29% were men, 88.9% (109) had a tracheostomy, 72.8% (90) had a gastrostomy, and 99% required supplemental oxygen. In the first four months, 9,518 interventions were carried out, including physical therapy (x̄:20.7), occupational therapy (x̄:10.9), respiratory therapy (x̄:41.4), and psychology (x̄:4.8). Conclusions: The chronic care program was an option for patients with post-COVID-19 syndrome recently discharged from an ICU, with a view to minimizing ICU occupation rates and facilitating patients' return to their homes.


Objetivo: Descrever as características clínicas de pacientes com síndrome pós-COVID-19 após internação em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI), acompanhados em um programa de cuidados prolongados na Colômbia. Métodos: Estudo descritivo de série de casos oriundos de uma coorte de pacientes com síndrome pós-COVID-19 admitidos no programa de cuidados prolongados Remeo® entre julho de 2020 e maio de 2021. Foram descritas as características clínicas desses pacientes, assim como complicações e tratamentos. Resultados: Foram identificados 122 casos de pacientes com síndrome pós-COVID-19 que foram acompanhados no programa após alta da UTI. A média de idade foi 66,9 anos (IC 64­68), 62,29% pertenciam ao sexo masculino, 88,9% (109) haviam sido submetidos a traqueostomia, 72,8% (90) a gastrostomia e 99% precisavam usar oxigênio suplementar. Ao todo, 9.518 intervenções foram realizadas nos 4 meses iniciais de acompanhamento no programa, incluindo fisioterapia (x̄ 20,7), terapia ocupacional (x̄ 10,9), terapia respiratória (x̄ 41,4) e atendimento psicológico (x̄ 4,8). Conclusões: O programa de cuidados prolongados ofereceu uma alternativa aos pacientes com síndrome pós-COVID-19 após internação em UTI e teve o objetivo de reduzir a ocupação das UTIs e facilitar a transição do paciente da UTI para casa.

16.
AME Case Rep ; 6: 13, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884863

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel emerging disease and a major risk factor for postoperative complications, especially in thoracic surgery. However, it is unclear how previous COVID-19 infection may affect perioperative management of lung resection patients. A 70-year-old woman visited her primary doctor complaining of chest pain. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed three abnormal nodules in the right upper and middle lung lobes and synchronous triple primary cancer was suspected. Before we could assess the patient for surgery, she developed a persistent fever. A second chest CT scan revealed newly emerged subpleural ground-glass opacities (GGO) in the right lung. The patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and hospitalized. She was treated for COVID-19 (Clinical Trial: jRCTs031200196) and discharged in a satisfactory condition 10 days later. A right upper and middle bilobectomy was performed 60 days after the patient's initial COVID-19 diagnosis without any complications. Histopathological examination of the nodules identified synchronous triple primary lung cancer. The subpleural right upper and middle lung lobe tissue showed peribronchial lymphocyte infiltration and interstitial thickening. However, immunohistochemical staining for the SARS-CoV-2 antigen and PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 were both negative. In this case, bilobectomy for triple primary lung cancer was performed safely after COVID-19 pneumonia. Further studies are needed to establish a safe and appropriate perioperative management system for thoracic surgery in patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia.

17.
Cureus ; 14(5): e25065, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884696

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has turned into a global healthcare challenge, causing significant morbidity and mortality.Healthcare workers (HCWs) who are on the frontline of the COVID-19 outbreak response face an increased risk of contracting the disease. Some common challenges encountered by HCWs include exposure to the pathogen, psychological distress, and long working hours. In addition, HCWs may be more prone to develop mental health issues such as anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), sleep disorders, and drug addictions compared to the general population. These issues arise from increased job stress, fear of spreading the disease to loved ones, and potential discrimination or stigma associated with the disease. This study aims to review the current literature to explore the effects of COVID-19 on healthcare providers' physical and mental well-being and suggest interventional strategies to combat these issues. To that end, we performed a literature search on Google Scholar and PubMed databases using combinations of the following keywords and synonyms: "SARS-CoV-2", "Healthcare-worker", "COVID-19", "Well-being", "Wellness", "Depression", "Anxiety", and "PTSD."

18.
Cureus ; 14(5): e24852, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884687

ABSTRACT

We have studied an unvaccinated heart transplant 64-year-old patient admitted for low-grade fever, dry cough, general malaise, and bilateral interstitial infiltrates, after two months of a diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) bilateral pneumonia. A bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy were performed. Bacterial, mycotic and viral infections were ruled out including repeated reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Diffuse thickening of alveolar septa with fibrosis and infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages into the alveolar septa with aggregates of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with positive immunolabelling for granzyme B were observed, indicating a continuing cytotoxic process that might have induced proliferation and fibrosis. An intense ongoing immunopathological cellular reaction, potentially triggered by SARS-CoV-2 overcoming the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of the immunosuppressive drugs is suggested by these findings, opening to debate the usual approach of minimizing immunosuppression after COVID-19 in transplant patients when presence of SARS-CoV-2 has been ruled out.

19.
Cureus ; 14(5): e24840, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884686

ABSTRACT

Background The number of confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections is vastly underestimated. In this context, seroprevalence surveys are of utmost importance to assess the proportion of the population that has already developed antibodies against the virus and might potentially be protected against subsequent infection. Health care workers (HCWs) face a greater risk of developing SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the present retrospective study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare workers at a tertiary care institute in Uttarakhand, India. Material and methods Data were gathered from hospital records of 704 healthcare workers admitted to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) unit and attended the COVID OPD of the tertiary care institute between July 15 to Aug 14, 2020. Result Out of the 704 recruited participants, 14 (1.99%) were seropositive for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. The cumulative prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (presence of antibodies or past or current positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)) was 4.40%. Conclusion The present study shows a low prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies among health care workers. In addition, posting in COVID-19-positive areas was not associated with increased seropositivity. More studies are warranted to assess IgG/IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among those HCWs who are exposed to COVID-19 patients.

20.
Cureus ; 14(5): e24767, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884680

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION:  Africa has surprisingly recorded better gains in containing the coronavirus spread than countries with the better health indices, such as the USA and UK. The low rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and death in Africa represents a puzzle with different biological and social theories such as low COVID-19 testing capacity, substantial young population, few old people, favourable climate, genetic admixture, infectious disease antibodies, and sound community health care systems proposed. We aimed to understand the COVID-19 preventive measures in a group of twenty-one systematically selected African countries that may explain the low burden of COVID-19 in Africa. METHODS: Data (COVID-19, health, socioeconomic, and demographics indices) of twenty-one systemically selected African countries were retrieved from the various official country and multilateral organization sources such as Worldbank, and the United nations development Programme (UNDP). The extracted data were analyzed in three large groups: international travel restrictions, physical and social distancing, and movement restrictions (lockdown measures; curfews, partial or/and national lockdowns). Data cleaning, analysis (including Pearson correlation), and visualization were done with Microsoft Excel and Graph Pad Prism version 9 (https://www.graphpad.com/). RESULT: Southern Africa had the greatest number of cases and deaths within the period studied compared to East Africa, which was the least COVID-19 affected sub-region (in terms of COVID-19 cases and deaths). We observed that coronary artery disease death rate was highly correlated with COVID-19 death density (number of COVID-19 deaths/total population) and similarly observed a correlation between the number of cases and deaths and number of in-country arrivals, pandemic preparedness (health security index), COVID-19 containment, and health index (not correlated with deaths). Finally, we noted that the most effective preventive strategy was the 'use of a face mask'. CONCLUSION: Africa had fewer COVID-19 cases and COVID-19 related deaths. Our data shows that the rapidity and stringency of COVID-19 preventive measures and government policies, and the low level of tourism in Africa compared to other countries (i.e., low COVID-19 seeding rate) may have been contributory to these favorable statistics. We hope these findings impact how the preparedness for pandemics can be enhanced to decrease the burden of preventable deaths and morbidity.

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