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1.
Antibodies (Basel) ; 11(4)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099292

ABSTRACT

Seroprevalence studies of COVID-19 are used to assess the degree of undetected transmission in the community and different groups such as health care workers (HCWs) are deemed vulnerable due to their workplace hazards. The present study estimated the seroprevalence and quantified the titer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody (IgG) and its association with different factors. This cross-sectional study observed HCWs, in indoor and outdoor patients (non-COVID-19) and garment workers in the Chattogram metropolitan area (CMA, N = 748) from six hospitals and two garment factories. Qualitative and quantitative ELISA were used to identify and quantify antibodies (IgG) in the serum samples. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable statistical analysis were performed. Overall seroprevalence and among HCWs, in indoor and outdoor patients, and garment workers were 66.99% (95% CI: 63.40-70.40%), 68.99% (95% CI: 63.8-73.7%), 81.37% (95% CI: 74.7-86.7%), and 50.56% (95% CI: 43.5-57.5%), respectively. Seroprevalence and mean titer was 44.47% (95% CI: 38.6-50.4%) and 53.71 DU/mL in the non-vaccinated population, respectively, while it was higher in the population who received a first dose (61.66%, 95% CI: 54.8-68.0%, 159.08 DU/mL) and both doses (100%, 95% CI: 98.4-100%, 255.46 DU/mL). This study emphasizes the role of vaccine in antibody production; the second dose of vaccine significantly increased the seroprevalence and titer and both were low in natural infection.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090406

ABSTRACT

Human leucocyte antigens (HLAs) are highly polymorphic glycoproteins expressed at the surface of all nucleated cells. It is required for the SARS-CoV-2 peptide antigen presentation to immune cells for their effector response. However, polymorphism in HLA significantly impacts the binding of SARS-CoV-2 antigenic peptide to the HLA pocket and regulates immune activation. In this study, 514 renal transplant recipients (RTRs) were recruited from the outpatient department and categorized either into symptomatic (n = 173) or asymptomatic groups (n = 341) based on Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) symptoms. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-specific IgG antibody titer was measured by chemiluminescent microparticle immune-assay methods in 310 RTRs. The HLA details of 514 patients were retrieved from the electronic medical records and analyzed retrospectively. We found that HLA antigen allele A*24 was significantly associated with asymptomatic infection in 22.78%, HLA C*02 in 4.51%, DRB1*12 in 10.85%, and HLA DQA1*02 in 27.74% of RTRs. Whereas HLA A*29 in 3.46%, A*33 in 26.01%, B*13 in 10.40%, DRB1*10 in 4.62%, DRB1*15 in 39.30%, DRB1*30 in 1.15%, and DQA1*60 in 3.57% of RTRs were associated with symptomatic infection. HLA DRB1*13 and DRB1*15 were associated with moderate to severe degrees of COVID-19 disease. The seroconversion rate in asymptomatic patients was 118/137 (86.13%), had a median titer of 647.80 au/ml, compared to symptomatic patients 148/173 (85.54%) with a median titer of 400.00 au/ml, which was not significant between the two groups (P = 0.88 and 0.13). In conclusion, HLA alleles A*24, C*02, DRB1*12, and DQA1*02 were significantly associated with asymptomatic infection, and A*29, A*33, B*13, DRB1*10, DRB*15, and DRB1*30 were significantly associated with symptomatic infection. HLA DRB1*13 and DRB1*15 were associated with moderate to severe degrees of COVID-19 disease.

3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090035

ABSTRACT

The advancement in biosensors can overcome the challenges faced by conventional diagnostic techniques for the detection of the highly infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Hence, the development of an accurate, rapid, sensitive, and selective diagnostic technique can mitigate adverse health conditions caused by SARS-CoV-2. This work proposes the development of an electrochemical immunosensor based on bio-nanocomposites for the sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies through the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) electroanalytical method. The facile synthesis of chitosan-functionalized titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-CS bio-nanocomposites) is performed using the sol-gel method. Characterization of the TiO2-CS bio-nanocomposite is accomplished using UV-vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical performance is studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), DPV, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for its electroanalytical and biosensing capabilities. The developed immunosensing platform has a high sensitivity with a wide range of detection from 50 ag mL-1 to 1 ng mL-1. The detection limit of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody in buffer media is obtained to be 3.42 ag mL-1 and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) to be 10.38 ag mL-1. The electrochemical immunosensor has high selectivity in different interfering analytes and is stable for 10 days. The results suggest that the developed electrochemical immunosensor can be applicable for real sample analysis and further high-throughput testing.

4.
Embase; 23.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-346780

ABSTRACT

Antibody-deficient patients respond poorly to COVID-19 vaccination and are at risk of severe or prolonged infection. Prophylaxis with anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies has been considered. We here demonstrate that many immunoglobulin preparations now contain neutralising anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies which are transmitted to patients in good concentrations, albeit with significant differences between products. Copyright The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted medRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 226(8): 1396-1400, 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077785

ABSTRACT

After >2 years of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, immunoglobulins (IGs) contain highly potent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) neutralizing antibodies, based on the large proportion of United States (US) plasma donors who have gone through COVID-19 or vaccination against the virus. Neutralization of Omicron SARS-CoV-2 by antibodies generated after non-Omicron infection or vaccination has been lower though, raising concerns about the potency of IG against this new virus variant. Also, as plasma collected in the US remains the main source of IG, the neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 for plasma collected elsewhere has been less well studied. Here, we confirm Omicron neutralization by US as well as European Union plasma-derived IG lots.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , Europe , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , United States
6.
Clin Exp Med ; 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075450

ABSTRACT

The serology surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies represents a useful tool for monitoring protective immunity in the population. We compared the performance of three SARS-CoV-2 antibody serological immunoassays in 600 vaccinated subjects after the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. All serum samples were evaluated by three different immunoassays for detecting anti-SARS-COV-2 antibodies. All SARS-CoV-2 antibody serological immunoassays could detect, when present, a post-vaccine humoral immune response. Median (interquartile range, IQR) anti-S-RBD IgG, Access SARS-CoV-2 IgG (1st IS) and Access SARS-CoV-2 IgG II levels of the subjects investigated were, respectively, 687 BAU/mL (131-2325), 419 IU/mL (58-1091) and 104 AU/mL (14-274). By studying a cohort of unvaccinated subjects, without previous COVID-19 infection, we found a high specificity for all methods. A high correlation was found between IgG titres. Considering the kinetics of subjects with multiple doses, we observed that percentage decreasing gradients were comparable across methods. Our results suggest that all the SARS-CoV-2 antibody serological immunoassays evaluated in this study are suitable for monitoring IgG titers over time. This study contributes to a better understanding of antibody response in vaccinated subjects using some currently available assays.

7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071946

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus caused a worldwide COVID-19 pandemic. So far, 6,120,834 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with 116,773 deaths have been reported in Poland. According to WHO, a total of 54,662,485 vaccine doses have been administered. New variants emerge that become dominant. The aim of this study was a comparison of antibody level after infection caused by Delta and Omicron variants. The study included 203 persons who underwent mild COVID-19 despite two doses of vaccine. The obtained results indicate that a significantly lower titer was observed in patients with the Omicron variant infection. Therefore, these patients may be at risk of reinfection with new strains of the Omicron variant. Due to the possibility of reinfection, booster vaccinations are necessary. Further epidemiological and clinical studies are necessary to develop new prevention strategies.

8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071924

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are at a much higher risk of complications and death following COVID-19 and are poor vaccine responders. The data are limited on the immune response to Covishield® in KTRs. We prospectively recruited a cohort of 67 KTRs aged >18 between April 2021 and December 2021. Each participant was given two intramuscular doses of Covishield®, each of 0.5 mL, at an interval of 12 weeks. A blood specimen of 5.0 mL was collected from each participant at two points within a few days before administering the first dose of the vaccine and at any time between 4-12 weeks after administering the second dose. The sera were tested for anti-RBD antibody (ARAb) titre and neutralising antibody (NAb). An ACE2 competition assay was used as a proxy for virus neutralization. According to the prior COVID-19 infection, participants were grouped as (i) group A: prior symptomatic COVID-19 infection, (ii) group B: prior asymptomatic COVID-19 infection as evidenced by detectable ARAb in the prevaccination specimen, (iii) Group C: no prior infection with COVID-19, (iv) group D: Unclassified, i.e., participants had no symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, but their prevaccination specimen was not available for ARAb testing before vaccination. Fifty of sixty-seven participants (74.6%) provided paired specimens (group A 14, group B 27, and group C 9) and 17 participants (25.4%) provided only postvaccination specimens (group D). In the overall cohort (n = 67), 91% and 77.6% of participants developed ARAb and NAb, respectively. Their ARAb titre and NAb proportion were 2927 (520-7124) U/mL and 87.9 (24.4-93.2) %, respectively. Their median ARAb titre increased 65.6 folds, from 38.2 U/mL to 3137 U/mL. Similarly, the proportion of participants with NAb increased from 56% to 86%, and the NAb proportion raised 2.7 folds, from 23% to 91%. A comparison of vaccine response between the study groups showed that all those with or without prior COVID-19 infection showed a significant rise in ARAb titre (p < 0.05) and NAb proportion (p < 0.05) after the two doses of vaccine administration. The median value of folds rise in anti-RBD and NAb between groups A and B were comparable. Hence, ARAb is present in more than 3/4th of KTRs before the ChAdOx1 vaccine in India. The titer of ARAb and the proportion of NAb significantly increased after the two doses of the ChAdOx1 vaccine in KTRs.

9.
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology ; 40(10):84, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067776

ABSTRACT

Objectives. To investigate the safety and efficacy of SARS-Cov-2 vaccination in a large international cohort of patients with primary Sjogren syndrome due to scarcity of data in this population. Methods. By the first week of May 2021, all Big Data Sjogren Consortium centers had been contacted and asked for Registry patients to be included in the study if they had received at least one dose of any SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. The in-charge physician asked patients about local and systemic reactogenicity, using a pre-defined electronic questionnaire to collect epidemiologic data, COVID 19 vaccination data, and COVID 19 vaccination side effects. Adverse events were defined as those reported by the patient at the site of injection within 7 days from vaccination (reactogenicity) as local adverse events, systemic symptoms as systemic side effects, and postvaccination AEs of special interest related to SS as SS flares. Results. The vaccination data of 1237 patients (1170 women, with a mean age at diagnosis of primary SjS of 50.5 13.2) were received. A total of 835 patients (67 percent) reported any adverse event, including local (53 percent) and systemic (50 percent) AEs. Subjective symptoms (63%) were the most common local AEs, followed by objective signs at the injection site (16%) and general symptoms were the most commonly reported systemic AEs (46 percent), followed by musculoskeletal (25 percent), gastrointestinal (9 percent), cardiopulmonary (3 percent), and neurological (2 percent). People under 60 years old had a higher risk of developing AE after vaccination (OR 2.48, CI 95 1.89-3.27 percent), as did those with low systemic SS activity (OR 1.62, CI 95 1.22-2.15) and those who received mRNA vaccines, according to a multivariate analysis (OR 1.57, CI 95 percent 1.12- 2.18). The risk of developing systemic AEs was also higher in women (OR 2.85, CI 95 percent 1.60-5.2346), White people (OR 1.73, CI 95 1.14-2.65), and those who received a deficient vaccination regimen (OR 1.78, CI 95 1.12-2.88 percent). In addition to 141 (11%) patients who reported a significant worsening/exacerbation of their pre-vaccination sicca symptoms as a result of post-vaccination SS flares, 15 (1.2%) patients (13 women, mean age at vaccination 41.9 years) reported active involvement in the glandular (n=8), articular (n=7), cutaneous (n=6), pulmonary (n=2), and peripheral nervous system (n=1) domains as post-vaccination systemic flare. All side effects and flares subsided within 1-3 weeks, with no lasting effects or deaths. In terms of vaccination efficacy, breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed after vaccination in three (0.24 percent) patients, all of whom recovered completely, and positive anti-SARS-Cov-2 antibodies were detected in approximately 95 percent of vaccinated SjS patients, according to data available. Conclusions. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with primary SjS, like other vaccines with adequate response and no safety signals, raised no concerns about the vaccine's efficacy or safety.

10.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(8):335-337, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067752

ABSTRACT

Background: Occupational hazards and risks are a common public health issue, especially when healthcare workers safety is concerned;they are on high risk of catching infections such like COVID-19. The possibility of cross-infection between dental practitioners and patients is significantly higher due to the close exposure of dental staff to patient oral environment. Aim(s): To assess the prevalence of SARS-COV-2 antibodies in dental workers working in the Peshawar Dental College and Hospital, Peshawar. Study Design: Cross sectional study Place and Duration of Study: Department of Orthodontics, Peshawar Dental College & Hospital, Peshawar from 1st January 2020 to 31st December 2020. Methodology: One hundred and thirty three dental workers were enrolled. The investigation was run to detect immunoglobulin G and M antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2-2. The aspirated aerosol and air was evacuated and dissipated into the atmosphere. Result(s): Mean age was 29.4+/-1.4 years and males were dominant 74 (55.6%) and male workers found greater with positive antibodies. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 33.0%. Proportionately dental assistants (20.5% vs 16.9%) and ancillary staff (20.5% vs 10.1%) had higher prevalence. Sore throat and body aches were more common in positive antibodies cases while travel history was found significantly associated with it (40.9% vs 25.0%, p-value, 0.05). Conclusion(s): High frequency of SARS-COV-2 antibodies was found in dental workers showing a high infection rate of COVID-19 in healthcare workers in local settings. Copyright © 2022 Lahore Medical And Dental College. All rights reserved.

11.
Akusherstvo i Ginekologiya (Russian Federation) ; - (12):146-152, 2021.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067443

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study association between COVID-19, vaccination and severity of subjective sensations during menstruation. Material(s) and Method(s): 538 women were interviewed using questionnaire posted at social networks. Result(s): Intensification of unpleasant sansations during menstruation was reported by 19 % of patients who had COVID-19 and by 10.9% of women who were not infected with COVID-19 (p=0.017);the results of PCR tests for COVID-19 were positive in 24,6% of respondents, and unconfirmed coronavirus infection was in 9.9% (p<0.001);20.3% of women had positive test results for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and 11.2% of respondents women had negative test results or did not undergo test for antibodies;55.6% of women were hospitalized in the acute phase of COVID-19 infection, and 18.3% of women received outpatient treatment. The dynamics of unpleasant sensations in vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients did not differ significantly. The score assessment of the duration, intensity of menstrual bleeding and intensity of pain in women, who had COVID-19, did not find significant differences compared with women, who were not infected with COVID-19. The duration of the last menstruation was shorter in women vaccinated against COVID-19 than in women, who were not vaccinated: 5 (4-6) and 5 (5-6) days, respectively, (p=0,043). Conclusion(s): Despite the fact that women who were infected with COVID-19 infection reported on intensification of unpleasant sensations during menstruation more often compared with those who were not infected, detailed questionnaire survey did not confirm significant association betweem the disease and symptoms intensity. Any association between vaccination and intensity of unpleasant sensations during menstruation was also not found. Copyright © A group of authors, 2021.

12.
Mediterranean Journal of Infection, Microbes and Antimicrobials ; 11(1) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066934

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies are produced in persons who have been infected by the virus or have received the vaccine. Many features of these antibodies, including their dynamics and neutralization capacities, are still unclear. Understanding the immune response of the host is very important for the development of appropriate treatment methods, vaccines, and epidemiological control strategies. The present study aimed to monitor the change in antibody levels over time in individuals diagnosed with SARSCoV- 2 infections and to determine their neutralization capacity. Material(s) and Method(s): Anti-nucleocapsid and anti-spike antibody titers were measured using different kits on monthly obtained serum samples of patients of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The neutralizing antibodies were evaluated using a microneutralization assay. Result(s): A total of 134 serum samples taken from 43 patients with a mild-moderate disease course were analyzed. Anti-spike antibody positivity was detected on day seven at the earliest and day 334 at the latest following a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. The mean antibody levels were observed to increase gradually to a peak after three months, and then started to decrease after month six. Anti-nucleocapsid IgM and IgG antibodies were detected alone or in combination. The highest neutralizing antibody titer was 1/80 in the first month, which was seen to drop below 1/10 after four months. Conclusion(s): The combined use of kits for the detection of antibodies against different antigens or testing total antibodies would result in a more accurate and earlier detection of the antibodies that start to emerge on the seventh day and decrease six months after SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity. In addition, the dramatic decrease in neutralizing antibody titers after four months may be one of the causes of early reinfections. Copyright © 2022 by the Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Specialty Society of Turkey.

13.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 10(E):1169-1173, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The implementation of the vaccine on a large scale has almost reached all provinces in Indonesia. East Kalimantan, one of the provinces affected by COVID-19, has also implemented a vaccine program. Seroprevalence surveys are essential to describe the success of vaccine program based on antibody titer test. AIM: This study aims to determine the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titer value based on the type of vaccine received by the academic community in Samarinda, one of the cities most affected by COVID-19 in East Kalimantan. METHODOLOGY: The study was population-based. The study sampled 100 people from the community. Participants must be in good health, aged 16–60, with a positive COVID-19 test, no comorbid illnesses or other chronic problems, no blood transfusions, and most importantly, have received the least initial dosage of immunization. The data will be analyzed using SPSS 26 and STATA 16. A normality test and Tobit regression test to determine the antibody distribution in each vaccine type. RESULTS: The results showed that Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine provided a significant (p = 0.001) increase in antibody prediction of 1090 U/ml (95% CI: 764–1416), while Pfizer provided a significant (p = 0.000) rise of 766 U/ ml (95% CI: 307–1226). CONCLUSION: According to the results of a seroprevalence survey conducted among the academic community in East Kalimantan, receivers of inactivated vaccinations outnumbered those of mRNA and vector-based vaccines. It can be determined that booster immunizations for students and academic staff are required to guard against COVID-19 infection. As boosters, both Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccine and Pfizer’s COVID-19 Vaccine are strongly recommended.

14.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):875, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063532

ABSTRACT

Purpose: For purpose of SARS-CoV-2 infection control, vaccination was started in worldwide, however, low reactivity of antibody production after vaccination is a concern for solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. In general, antibody titers would be peaked within one month after vaccination for the healthy population, there are few report about SOT recipients vaccination. We explored antibody transitions in SOT recipients after vaccination. Method(s): A total of 641 solid organ transplant recipients were enrolled (481 kidney, 51 liver, 54 heart, 20 lung, and 35 simultaneous pancreas-kidney). All participants were administered the two-dose regimen mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2, Pfizer or mRNA-1273, Moderna), as indicated. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were measured total 5 times throughout vaccination (Elecsys, Roche). Result(s): The antibody titer and positive rate were both elevated until three months and declined at six months after vaccination (positive rate;10.4%, 41.2%, 68.6%, 56.9%, in each) (Fig.1). Lung and kidney-pancreas transplant recipients showed poor antibody titer elevation compared with other organ transplantation (Fig. 2). Antibody titers be significant low by more than 60 years old compared with other ages (Fig.3). Conclusion(s): The antibody titer and positive rate transition of SOT recipients were quite different compared with the health population. The acquisition of antibody was different depends on type of SOT. (Figure Presented).

15.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):1060, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063522

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Liver transplant (LT) recipients have a decreased response to 2 doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine compared to the general population, so we aimed to understand response to a third dose to inform vaccination strategies. Method(s): LT recipients in our observational cohort who received 3 homologous mRNA vaccines and available antibody levels pre- and post-dose 3 (D3) were identified. Those who reported a prior COVID-19 diagnosis or used belatacept were excluded. The peak anti-spike antibody level collected between the second (D2) and third dose (D3), was compared to the antibody level at 1 month post-D3. Samples were tested with Roche Elecsys Anti-Sars-CoV-2 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (positive >=0.8 U/mL) or EUROIMMUN EIA (positive >=1.1 AU). Result(s): 146 participants completed 3 homologous doses of BNT162b2 (53%) or mRNA-1273 (47%) vaccines between 5/15/2021 - 11/8/2021. The median (IQR) time of peak pre-D3 antibody collection was 89 (31, 104) days post-D2. The median time of 1-month post-D3 antibody collection was 30 (23, 33) days. The median time between D2 and D3 was 168 (149-188) days. Overall, 125/146 (86%) were seropositive pre-D3, and 139/146 (95%) were seropositive post-D3 (Figure 1). There were no seroreversions post D3, and among the 21 seronegative recipients pre-D3, 14 (67%) seroconverted post-D3. Risk factors significantly associated with persistent seronegativity post-D3 were less time since LT (1.3 vs 6 years, p=0.042), mycophenolate use (100% vs 37%, p=0.001), BNT162b2 series (100% vs 50%, p=0.01), and pre-D3 seronegative status (86% vs 10%, p<0.001). Conclusion(s): Most LT recipients have excellent responses to a third homologous mRNA vaccine dose, greater than that seen in other transplant recipients. Persons seronegative after D2, however, show weaker response and may remain at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection despite D3.

16.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):771, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063506

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a major impact on solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, with mortality rate up to 22%. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are known to have poor responses even after 2nddose in SOT in Europe and the United States. We investigated immune response by detecting SARS-CoV-2 antibody (Ab) post two-doses of messenger RNA (mRNA)-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccinesin Japanese renal transplant recipients as prospective observational study. Method(s): 352 recipients who have no history of COVID-19, were confirmed no SARS-CoV-2 antibody before vaccination and received 2nd dose of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine are enrolled in this study.Antibody detection test was performed by using the Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay after more than 4weeks following 2nddose of it. Negative for N-Ab (0.4U/ml>) and positive for S-Ab (0.8U/ml<) considered to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 Ab.As a healthy control, SARS-CoV-2 Ab was determined in 990 healthy volunteers (HV) as well as 98 kidney donors as control for chronic kidney disease (Donor). Result(s): The rate of positive for S-Ab was 56.2% in recipients while that was 100% in HV and Donor. Titer of S-Ab (U/ml) was 77 in recipients although that was 2400 in HV and 1100 in Donor, respectively, which indicating significantly lower in recipients. (Fig. 1) Interestingly, positive rate for s-Ab by detecting time following 2ndvaccination in recipients was 44% in 4-6 weeks, 54% in 6-8 weeks, 67% in 8-10 weeks, 72% in 10-12 weeks, 80% in 12-weeks, which suggesting that recipients have delayed response to 2ndvaccination while that was 100% in any time point in HV and Donor. (Fig.2) Moreover, to elucidate difference between responder (n=198) and non-responder (n=154) in recipients, we compared clinical background that influencedoutcome. In non-responder, there were significant difference in older age at vaccination, less lymphocyte, previousdoses of rituximab, concomitant use of mycophenolate mofetil and oral administration of more than three immunosuppressants. (Table.1) Conclusion(s): Kidney recipients have delayed response with lower titer of SARSCoV- 2 antibodyfollowing second dose of mRNA-based COVID-19 Vaccine.

17.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):696, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063494

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Recent data has shown poor antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among adult kidney transplant (tx) recipients, with seroconversion ranging between 22%-58% after two mRNA vaccine doses. Here, we evaluated the antibody and T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and evaluate the effects of intensified immunosuppression on such response in pediatric (ped) kidney tx recipients. Method(s): Between April and November 2021, 31 ped renal tx patients (pts)aged 13-22 years old had SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG assessment after receiving 2 doses of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA or 1 dose of viral vector vaccine. Pts were evaluated by their level of immunosuppression: A) standard immunosuppression (tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil +/- steroids) or B) intensified immunosuppression (standard immunosuppression + solumedrol pulse, IVIG, rituximab, and/or tocilizumab within 11 months prior to and up to 5 months after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination). A subgroup of 18 pts had SARS-CoV-2 Tc assessment post-vaccination. Result(s): 23 of 31 (74.2%) pts seroconverted at a median assessment time of 83 days (IQR 43-124) post-vaccination. There was no difference in the use of steroid-based or steroid-free immunosuppression between the two groups or the type of vaccine received (Table 1). 15 of 17 (88.2%) of those who received standard immunosuppression seroconverted post-vaccination compared to 8 of 14 (57.1%) in those who received intensified immunosuppression (Table 1;p = 0.10). In a subgroup of pts who had SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific Tc testing, 7 of 7 (100%) in the standard immunosuppression group had positive Tc compared to 7 of 11 (63.6%) in the intensified immunosuppression group (Table 1, p = 0.12). There was no leukopenia or difference in the WBC count in either group at the time of Tc testing (Table 1;p = 0.97). No pts developed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusion(s): Ped renal tx recipients appear to have higher rates of seroconversion after the standard 2-dose mRNA or 1-dose viral vector SARS-CoV-2 vaccination compared to adult renal tx recipients. The intensified immunosuppression group appears to have a trend towards lower SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG and Tc conversion, however, results are limited by the small sample size. Larger studies are needed to better understand the humoral and cellular response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in this group. (Figure Presented).

18.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):771-772, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063483

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Kidney transplant recipients are vulnerable to develop severe form of COVID19 Infection. Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccine has significantly improved incidence of COVID19, seroconversion rates in immunosuppressed patients post vaccine is variable and unpredictable. We aim to evaluate the rates of antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine and identify factors affecting immunogenicity among kidney transplant recipients Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 327 kidney transplant recipients who received 2 doses of mRNA Vaccine and did not develop COVID19 prior to antibody testing. SARS- CoV- 2 antibody response and risk factors associated with negative serology were evaluated after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine. Patients who tested positive were divided into four quartiles based on titers and analyzed using ANOVA. Result(s): 250 (76.5%) recipients had positive titers and 77 (24%) did not. Poor response was associated with older age (p=0.06) and male gender(p=0.03). Race, immunosuppression regimen and trough levels were not significant. Analysis of recipients who developed antibody revealed age, time from transplant, history of diabetes and steroid as factors affecting titer level (Table 1). Conclusion(s): Understanding immunologic response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in kidney transplant recipient is important to prevent life threatening infection. Identification of transplant recipients at risk of low vaccine response can be a guide to formulate personalized therapy.

19.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):766, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063482

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study compares SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses between the twodose mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 vaccine series across groups of incrementally immunosuppressed patients. Method(s): Semiquantitative testing for antibodies against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was performed using the Roche Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 S enzyme immunoassay (EIA), 15-45 days after the second vaccine dose for SARS-CoV-2 naive patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal disease (RMD), and solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) from an observational cohort. Anti-RBD titers were divided into categories of >=50, >=100 and >=250 U/mL based on levels associated with plasma neutralizing capacity in COVID-19 convalescent patients. Participants were stratified by increasing intensity of immunosuppression: RMD not on immunosuppression, RMD on immunosuppression, SOTR not on mycophenolate (MMF), and SOTR on MMF. Response rates between mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 recipients were compared using modified Poisson regression weighted for age, time since vaccination, and number of immunosuppressive medications. This analysis was repeated for several thresholds of positive response: 50, 100, and 250 U/mL. Result(s): Of 1868 participants, 55.8% of RMD and 52.7% of SOTRs received BNT162b2;the remainder received mRNA-1273. Demographics, diagnoses, and immunosuppressive regimens were similar across vaccine groups. Among RMD participants not on immunosuppression, the chance of anti-RBD >=250U/ml was comparable among BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 recipients (IRR= 0.91 1.03 1.16 p= 0.67). mRNA-1273 recipients had a higher chance than BNT162b2 recipients to achieve anti-RBD >=250U/ml among RMD participants on immunosuppression (IRR = 1.15 1.241.34, p<0.001);SOTRs not on MMF (IRR = 1.24 1.561.96, p <0.001);and SOTRs on MMF (IRR=1.28 2.625.37, p= 0.01). Similar trends were observed with titer cutoffs of >=100 and >=50 U/mL (Table 1). Conclusion(s): The two-dose mRNA-1273 vaccine series was more likely to induce stronger humoral immunogenicity compared to BNT162b2 in immunosuppressed patients;this effect was more pronounced with greater immunosuppression. These findings suggest importance in the choice of mRNA vaccine platform in optimizing immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and can help inform vaccination strategies for booster doses in high-risk, immunosuppressed populations.

20.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):770, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063470

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The impact of antigenic imprinting, when immune memory of one antigen influences the response to subsequent similar antigens, on the antibody response in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is currently unknown. This study examines the relationship between seasonal coronaviruses (sCoV) and SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels pre- and post-vaccination in SOTRs. Method(s): Plasma from 52 SOTRs pre- and post-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (2 doses, mRNA) was analyzed using the Meso Scale Diagnostic Coronavirus Panel 3 (an electrochemiluminescence detection-based multiplexed sandwich immunoassay) for IgG antibodies against alpha sCoVs (229E, NL63), beta sCoVs (HKU1, OC43), and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins. Changes in IgG titers were determined by paired Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Spearman correlation analysis was used to determine associations between pre-vaccination anti-sCoVs and post-vaccination anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Result(s): Vaccination increased both anti-SARS-CoV-2 (fold change (FC) 1.9, p<0.001) and anti-beta sCoV (HKU1 [FC 0.05, p<0.001], OC43 [FC 0.8, p<0.001]) IgG titers in SOTRs, but did not increase anti-alpha sCoV IgG. Furthermore, prevaccination anti-beta sCoV (HKU1 [rho= -0.3, p=0.03], OC43 [rho= -0.3, p<0.03]) IgG titers were negatively correlated with post-vaccination anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Conclusion(s): These exploratory findings suggest that prior exposure to seasonal betacoronaviruses may lead to antigenic imprinting in SOTRs that negatively impacts the antibody response to vaccination against the novel pandemic betacoronavirus, SARS-CoV-2.

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