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1.
Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 11(B):293-298, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20245045

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are vulnerable against COVID-19 infection due to physiological and immunological changes. COVID-19 in pregnancy affects fetal well-being with a potential for vertical infection. AIM: This study aims to determine the incidence of vertical infection and anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in infants born to mothers with positive COVID-19 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Amniotic fluid, swabs of the newborn's nasopharynx and oropharynx, and swabs of the placenta were examined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2. Serological examination was performed by Electro-Chemiluminescence Immunoassay on infant's blood. RESULT(S): Four of 33 pregnant women gave birth to infants positive SARS-CoV-2 infection. RT-PCR examination of all amniotic fluid and placental swabs was negative for SARS-CoV-2. Four of 33 infants (12.1%) showed negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results but positive SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, another 4 newborns (12.1%) showed positive PCR results, but no SARS-CoV-2 antibodies detected. The remaining 25 babies (75.8%) showed both negative PCR and serologic results. CONCLUSION(S): No evidence of vertical transmission found in this study.Copyright © 2023 Cut Meurah Yeni, Zinatul Hayati, Sarjani M. Ali, Hasanuddin Hasanuddin, Rusnaidi Rusnaidi, Cut Rika Maharani.

2.
Chinese Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ; 37(1):1-10, 2021.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244920

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV- 2.COVID-19 is now a pandemic, and is not yet fully under control.As the surface spike protein (S) mediates the recognition between the virus and cell membrane and the process of cell entry, it plays an important role in the course of disease transmission.The study on the S protein not only elucidates the structure and function of virus-related proteins and explains their cellular entry mechanism, but also provides valuable information for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of COVII)-19.Concentrated on the S protein of SARS-CoV-2, this review covers four aspects: (1 ) The structure of the S protein and its binding with angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2) , the specific receptor of SARS-CoV-2, is introduced in detail.Compared with SARS-CoV, the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV- 2 S protein has a higher affinity with ACE2, while the affinity of the entire S protein is on the contrary.(2) Currently, the cell entry mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 meditated by the S protein is proposed to include endosomal and non-endosomal pathways.With the recognition and binding between the S protein and ACE2 or after cell entry, transmembrane protease serine 2(TMPRSS2) , lysosomal cathepsin or the furin enzyme can cleave S protein at S1/S2 cleavage site, facilitating the fusion between the virus and target membrane.(3) For the progress in SARS-CoV-2 S protein antibodies, a collection of significant antibodies are introduced and compared in the fields of the target, source and type.(4) Mechanisms of therapeutic treatments for SARS-CoV-2 varied.Though the antibody and medicine treatments related to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein are of high specificity and great efficacy, the mechanism, safety, applicability and stability of some agents are still unclear and need further assessment.Therefore, to curb the pandemic, researchers in all fields need more cooperation in the development of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and medicines to face the great challenge.Copyright © Palaeogeography (Chinese Edition).All right reserved.

3.
Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders - Drug Targets ; 23(4):578, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20243836

ABSTRACT

Background: East during COVID-19 is a potentially serious and fatal new infection that first broke out in Italys North Eastduring Spring 2020. Among subjects considered more clinically vulnerable, patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) have a known increased risk of infections, that could lead to poor prognosis and death due to adrenal crisis. Even the psychological and sociooccupational impact of COVID-19 could affect the health of AI patients, requiring a dynamic and continuous adaptation of the daily glucocorticoid (GC) therapy. Aim(s): To investigate if AI patients have a higher risk for COVID-19 infection than the general population, all residents in the red zone Veneto, in North-East Italy. Moreover, based on a purpose-built ADDI-COVID questionnaire, the study aimed to evaluate the subjective perception of an increased risk for COVID-19 infection and pandemic-related psycho-social impact, working life and self-adjustments of GC therapy. Method(s): Open-label, cross-sectional monocentric study on 84 (65 primary and 19 secondary) AI patients, all resident in Veneto, followed-up at the Endocrinology Unit, University-Hospital of Padua, for at least 3 years, in good and stable clinical conditions. At the end of the first COVID-19 wave (by August 2020), all patients underwent serological investigation of anti-SARS-CoV2 IgG and ADDI-COVID questionnaire. All AI patients enrolled were contacted during March-April 2021 to evaluate eventual COVID-19 infection occurrence after the second and third waves, completing a follow-up period of about 12 months. Result(s): All AI patients resulted negative to the serological test for anti-SARS-CoV2 IgG at the end of the first wave of COVID-19. After the second and third pandemic waves, COVID-19 infection occurred in 8 (10%) patients, and none needed intensive care or hospitalization. Half patients felt an increased risk of COVID-19 infection, significantly associated with an increased stress (p = 0,009) and the consequent increase of GC stress-dose (p = 0,002). Only one patient reported adrenal crisis stress correlated. The great majority of the 61 (73%) worker patients changed their working habits during the lockdown, which was inversely related with COVID-19-related stress (p = 0,0015). A significant association was found between workers and endocri- nologist contact (p= 0,046) since 18 among 20 AI patients who contacted the endocrinologist were workers. Discussion and Conclusion(s): Patients with AI residence in Veneto did not show a higher incidence of COVID19-infection compared with general population residents in Veneto after the first pandemic waves. However, the perception of increased COVID- 19 infection risk significantly impacted the psychological well-being, working habits and GC daily doses of AI patients. Especially during this pandemic period, therapeutic patient education was crucial to prevent and treat situations or conditions that could lead to an adrenal crisis. The endocrinologic consultation could help to strengthen the awareness of AI patients, especially if they were workers.

4.
Clinical Immunology ; Conference: 2023 Clinical Immunology Society Annual Meeting: Immune Deficiency and Dysregulation North American Conference. St. Louis United States. 250(Supplement) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242119

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiencies have shown an impaired humoral immune response to COVID-19 vaccination. It is therefore of paramount importance to investigate anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels in plasma pools and in immunoglobulin (IgG) products used to treat these patients. AIM: To assess the evolution of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (S protein) in plasma pools and IgG products and its neutralizing activity to original-type virus (Wuhan) and the variants of concern (VOC), including Omicron. Method(s): Healthy donors plasma pools collected in the US and Europe, and the subsequent intravenous (Flebogamma DIFand Gamunex-C, Grifols) and subcutaneous (Xembify, Grifols) IgG manufactured batches were followed from March 2020. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S protein IgG titers were determined in plasma pools and in IgG batches by ELISA. Neutralization assays analyzed the capacity of IgG products to neutralize original-type virus and VOC (Alpha, Beta, Delta, Omicron BA.1 and BA.5), using pseudo viruses expressing S protein. Results were expressed as the dilution producing 50% neutralization (ID50). Result(s): In plasma pools, anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies continuously increased throughout the study period regardless of the geographic origin. In the US, the first positive plasma pools were collected at the end of 2020. Since July 2021, an exponential increase over 30-fold of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies was reported. This trend continued increasing until the end of study period. Similarly, IgG products showed a similar evolution of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies. As expected, IgG batches released at the end of 2020 presented low SARS-CoV-2 neutralization activity. However, IgG products manufactured since August 2021 showed high neutralization activity against original-type virus and the rest of VOC. Regarding Omicron BA.5, a 5 to 10-fold increase was observed over time. Conclusion(s): This study reported the onset of elevated anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers in plasma pools and IgG products since mid-2021, reflecting the evolution of the pandemic and vaccine campaigns. Intravenous and subcutaneous IgG products efficiently neutralized the current circulating VOC, Omicron BA.5. Further research is warranted to assess whether a clinical protective titer against SARS-CoV-2 and passive immunization is achieved in patients with immunodeficiencies treated with IgG products.Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc.

5.
Cancer Research Conference: American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, ACCR ; 83(8 Supplement), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20242045

ABSTRACT

The sudden onset of the 2019 SARS-CoV-2 pandemic required agile development of standards and efficient validation of assays to assess prevalence of infection as well as immune responses to infection and vaccination. Leveraging their experience in HPV serology and standards, the Vaccine, Immunity and Cancer Directorate (VICD) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNCLR) pivoted to address this unmet need in SARS-Co-V2 serology clinical testing and research. This standardization effort required the collection and processing of large volumes of blood from SARS-Co-V2 infected and uninfected individuals into serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Collaborations with specimen collection sites across the United States were established. Following qualification for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM levels in independent laboratories, VICD assembled reference evaluation panels, which were used to assist the FDA's performance evaluation of commercial assays submitted for EUA approval. To date, 185 different shipments of the standard or validation panel have been sent to both domestic and international labs. These materials are also available to the SARS-CoV-2 serology community for assay calibration and performance evaluation which greatly facilitates assay data harmonization. In addition, the NCI Serological Sciences Network (SeroNet) was born from this initiative and expertise, resulting in the establishment of Capacity Building Centers (CBCs) for sample collection from different healthy, cancer and immunocompromised cohorts at Mount Sinai, Arizona State University, the University of Minnesota, and Northwell Feinstein. The NCI and FNLCR simultaneously collaborated to develop a network of investigators focused on advancing research on the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination among diverse and vulnerable populations, including cancer patients. Their research has resulted in over 326 peer-reviewed publications. The CBC's have enrolled patients in longitudinal studies, resulting in a centralized collection of annotated, well characterized serum, PBMCs and clinical data. Numerous cancer cohorts, but predominantly Multiple Myeloma, are included. Furthermore, technology development was supported at the CBC's. Based upon this success, the VICD in collaboration with NCI is pursuing an even more innovative effort in pandemic preparedness to establish a Center for Serology and Data Emergency Preparedness (CESDEP);a global network able to activate and pivot to address pandemic-level threats, while continuing to expand the development of immunological assays that can inform clinical decisions for cancer and other immunocompromised patients.

6.
Pediatria Polska ; 98(1):79-82, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20241151

ABSTRACT

The most common causes of acute hepatitis in children are hepatitis A and autoimmune hepatitis. Hepatitis in the course of Wilson's disease is sporadically registered in adolescents. An increase of activity of aminotransferases both in the course of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and in the course of COVID-19 has been observed. Hepatitis is common in children with MIS-C and is associated with a more severe presentation and persistent elevation of liver function tests. To date, no cases of acute hepatitis in children due to COVID-19 have been reported. We present 2 cases of acute hepatitis in children where the only cause seems to be a previous asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.Copyright © 2023 Termedia Publishing House Ltd.. All rights reserved.

7.
Revue Medicale Suisse ; 16(697):1220-1221, 2020.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20240370
8.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Medical Series ; 20(1):34-41, 2023.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20237567

ABSTRACT

This retrospective case-series analysis evaluated 403 fully vaccinated with Vero Cell or Sputnik V vaccines patients hospitalized in the 6th City Clinical Hospital of Minsk in the period between January 01 and February 28, 2022 with the main diagnosis of "coronavirus infection (COVID-19)". The diagnosis was confirmed by PCR or SARS-CoV-2 virus antigen tests, as well as chest computed tomography data. The study revealed higher prevalence of older patients (over 65 years) infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and hospitalized in early 2022, at the height of the wave of the pandemic due to the spread of the Omicron variant. Most patients (91.8 %) had moderate symptoms. More than half of them received oxygen support. A relatively small number of inpatient, only 8 persons (1.9 %), were hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) and four of them needed mechanical ventilation. Comor-bid conditions and high incidence of mortality (63.5 %) were common in ICU patients. Hypertension and obesity prevailed in the structure of comorbid pathology of all inpatient persons (74.2 and 24.3 %, respectively). Patients of therapeutic departments had relatively short length of stay in the hospital, as well as low in-hospital mortality (0.5 %) and low incidence of complications (5.3 %).Copyright © 2023 The authors.

9.
Vakcinologie ; 15(2):68-70, 2021.
Article in Czech | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236887

ABSTRACT

A case report of 52-years-old male with erythema nodosum, fever and malaise that developed seven days after second dose of mRNA vaccine Comirnaty (Pfizer-BioNTech) against coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The most common causes of erythema nodosum were ruled out and the patient was treated with systemic corticotherapy with a very good effect. Because of the time association between the development of erythema nodosum and the second dose of mRNA vaccine, findings of high titres of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in the blood, the case was reported to national regulation authority (State Institute for Drug Control) as a possible side effect of the mRNA vaccine Comirnaty.Copyright © 2021, EEZY Publishing, s.r.o.. All rights reserved.

10.
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20236652

ABSTRACT

Objective: The factors affecting the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies from mother to newborn and the duration of seropositivity rates in these infants have not yet been clearly demonstrated. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the levels of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in women infected in the pregnancy period and newborns born to these women and (2) to search the transplacental transfer ratio of spike-specific IgG. Method(s): Seventy pregnant women with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and their newborns were prospectively followed. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay was used for the detection of the in vitro quantitative determination of total antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Discussion(s): Spike-specific IgG was demonstrated in 89.1% (44 of 46) of pregnant women infected more than 14 days before delivery and in 92.6% (43 of 44) of their newborns. Median transfer ratio of spike-specific Ig was 0.87 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.34-0.90), 1.0 (IQR, 0.9-0.29), and 0.81 (IQR, 0.02-1.0) in first trimester (n = 4), second trimester (n = 14), and third trimester (n = 28) pregnant women, respectively. Antibody transfer ratio was correlated with time elapsed from infection (p < 0.001). Peak antibody transfer ratio above 1 was observed at a median 60 to 120 days after the infection from delivery. Antibody transfer ratio was high in pregnant women infected more than 60 days before delivery (p < 0.001). Transfer ratio was significantly higher in the severe-critically symptomatic women (n = 15) than the mild-moderately symptomatic women (n = 55) (p = 0.001). At 3 months, 18 of 25 infants (72%) had spike-specific IgG. Conclusion(s): Timing from infection to delivery and severity of maternal infection are critical in assessing the antibody generation and transport. Higher antibody transfer ratio can be detected in neonates when SARS-CoV-2 infection is present for more than 60 days before birth. Maternally derived antibody can persist for 3 months after birth.Copyright © 2023. The Author(s).

11.
Cancer Research, Statistics, and Treatment ; 5(2):205-211, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20235917

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with cancer are vulnerable to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Given the rising number of COVID-19 cases and relaxation of stringent COVID-19 protocols, assessment of the level of protective immunity to COVID-19 in patients with cancer has assumed importance. Objective(s): Our primary objective was to evaluate the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in patients with cancer. Material(s) and Method(s): We conducted a cross-sectional study on 100 patients with solid tumors attending our Oncology Department at the Believers Church Medical College, Kerala, India, between December 2020 and June 2021. Seroprevalence was assessed using the VITROS Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG test (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, Rochester, NY, USA). Additionally, we assessed the factors associated with seropositivity and collected data regarding the general experience of patients with cancer during the pandemic. Result(s): The median age of the participants was 62 years (IQR, 53-69.8);52 (52%) were males. The seroprevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was 11% (95% CI, 4.8-17.1). Age < 50 years was the only factor that was significantly associated with a higher rate of COVID-19 antibodies (77% vs 8.9% in patients >= 50 years;P = 0.007), and sex, smoking, and the use of alcohol did not show any association. The majority (77/100, 77%) of the patients were worried about contracting COVID-19 infection;some even deferred cancer-directed treatment because of the fear of visiting health care settings. Conclusion(s): Low seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in unvaccinated patients with cancer is a matter of concern as it indicates that many of these patients are still vulnerable to infection. There is an urgent need to continue implementing strict safety measures in oncology centers and to encourage widespread COVID-19 vaccination to prevent the uncontrolled spread of COVID-19 among patients with cancer. (Funded by the institution, Believers Church Medical College, Kerala).Copyright © 2023 Neurology India, Neurological Society of India Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

12.
Germs ; 12(4):507-518, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20234801

ABSTRACT

Introduction In this study, we aimed to monitor anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid antibodies positivity in healthcare workers (HCWs) vaccinated with two doses of inactivated CoronaVac (Sinovac, China) vaccine. Methods Overall, 242 volunteer HCWs were included. Of the participants, 193 were HCWs without history of prior documented COVID-19 (Group 1), while 49 had history of prior documented COVID-19 before vaccination (Group 2). The participants were followed up for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies positivity at four different blood sampling time points (immediately before the second vaccine dose and at the 1st, 3rd months and 141-150 days after the second dose). We investigated the serum IgG class antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 RBD region and IgG class antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) method using commercial kits. Results We found positive serum anti-RBD IgG antibody in 76.4% of the participants (71% in Group 1;98% in Group 2) 28 days after the first dose. When the antibody levels of the groups were compared at the four blood sampling time points, Group 2 anti-RBD IgG levels were found to be significantly higher than those in Group 1 at all follow-up time points. Although anti-RBD IgG positivity persisted in 95.6% of all participants in the last blood sampling time point, a significant decrease was observed in antibody levels compared to the previous blood sampling time point. Anti-nucleocapsid IgG antibody was positive in 12 (6.2%) of participants in Group 1 and 32 (65.3%) in Group 2 at day 28 after the first dose. At the fourth blood sampling time point, anti-nucleocapsid antibodies were found to be positive in a total of 20 (9.7%) subjects, 10 (6.1%) in Group 1 and 10 (23.8%) in Group 2. Conclusions In this study, it was determined that serum antibody levels decreased in both groups after the third month after the second dose in HCWs vaccinated with CoronaVac vaccine.Copyright © GERMS 2022.

13.
British Journal of Haematology ; 201(Supplement 1):179, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20232561

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Earlier estimates of SARS-CoV- 2 do not accurately account for the extent of undiagnosed infections in children, who typically experience mild or asymptomatic disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV- 2 antibodies in children from District Swabi, one of the populous districts of Pakistan, and to identify symptoms most frequently associated with seropositivity. Methodology: We used ELISA to test for the presence of antibodies, IgM and IgG, in blood samples collected from 246 children of school-going age (5-16 years old) selected randomly from the district of Swabi, Pakistan. This study was approved by Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Ethical Board, and Advanced Studies Review Board. Data were collected on a purposefully built questionnaire. Result(s): Overall, 2.0% of our participants were seropositive for IgM, whereas 23.1% were seropositive for IgG. Older age, female gender, and contact history were significantly associated with higher seropositivity. Symptoms associated with seropositivity were: fever (98.0%), cough (90.0%), sore throat (79.0%), coryza (68.0%), myalgia (61.0%), loss of sense of smell and taste (49.0%), and vomiting or diarrhoea (8.0%). Although 77.6% of our IgG seropositive participants recalled experiencing flu-like symptoms, none of the participants in this study had visited the doctor or were tested for SARS-COV- 2. We found IgG titres to be significantly higher in symptomatic children. Conclusion(s): The number of undiagnosed infections in children may be substantially larger than the official accounts. Sparse data are available regarding coronavirus disease in children, particularly in low middle-income countries (LMIC). The most frequently symptoms were fever, cough, sore throat, coreza, myalgia, loss of sense of smell and taste and lastly vomiting and diarrhoea. Serological studies provide valuable insight into the immunological status of a population, and can prove vital when considering future strategies.

14.
Diabetic Medicine ; 40(Supplement 1):55, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20231904

ABSTRACT

Aims/Hypothesis: Covid-19 has been associated with poorer outcomes in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Most existing data relate to hospitalised patients with few data available on seroprevalence and the effects of Covid-19 on people with diabetes in the general population. We examined antibody responses to SARS Cov-2 infection and vaccination in people with and without diabetes. Method(s): From June 2020, capillary blood samples collected remotely from 1828 individuals (type 1 diabetes n = 267) were analysed for SARS-CoV- 2 antibodies to RBD (infection pre-Jan 2021/vaccination post -Jan 21) and N (infection post Jan 21) antigens using low serum volume luciferase-based assays developed "in house". Questionnaire data recording experiences of Covid-19 and vaccinations dates were collected simultaneously with the samples. Median antibody levels were compared using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Result(s): There was evidence of SARS CoV-2 infection in 317/1828 (17%) of individuals screened with no evidence of more severe self-reported Covid-19 symptoms in those with diabetes (no participants were hospitalised) and almost a quarter of those with type 1 diabetes were asymptomatic. Although samples were collected at variable time points from vaccination, robust antibody responses to vaccination were observed (Pfizer, AstraZeneca, and Moderna) after the second vaccination with no differences in antibody levels between those with and without diabetes (p = 0.3). Conclusion(s): Hospitalised individuals with Covid-19 and type 1 diabetes were at greater risk of complications but this study shows that among the non-hospitalised population, clinical symptoms, antibody responses to infection, and vaccination in those with type 1 diabetes was similar to control subjects.

15.
Nieren- und Hochdruckkrankheiten ; 52(4):124, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20231859

ABSTRACT

Objective: Humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are reduced in adult kidney recipients. After pediatric kidney transplantation there are only few data available - mostly limited to monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Method(s): Cellular and humoral immune responses have been monitored before and after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in pediatric kidney recipients. After in vitro stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 antigen (spike glycoprotein) virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells (SARS-CoV-2-Tvis) have been identified by cytokine flow cytometry. SARS-CoV-2 IgG was measured by CMIA. Result(s): Immune response after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was analyzed in a total of 30 pediatric kidney recipients (age at 1st vaccine dose 5.2 - 17.8 years, median 14.8 years;43% male;30/30 2 vaccine doses;23/30 3 vaccine doses). At time of vaccination 22 patients (73%) received a tacrolimus (Tac)-based immunosuppression combined with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF;n = 15) or everolimus (n = 6) or neither of them (n = 1);3 patients were exposed to cyclosporine A and 5 patients to a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)- free immunosuppression. MMF was used in 18/30 patients. After 1st dose of mRNA vaccine SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detectable in 50% of pediatric kidney recipients, after 2nd dose in 78% and after 3rd dose in 88%. After the 2nd vaccine dose absence of humoral immune response (< 33.8 BAU/ml) was only found in case of MMF use (predominately combined with Tac). Peak IgG values (> 2,080 BAU/ml) were only detected in MMF-free regimens (6/7). Cellmediated response partially differed from humoral response, e. g., in some patients SARS-CoV2-Tvis were found despite lack of virus-specific antibodies. After 1st vaccine dose SARS-CoV-2-Tvis were detectable in 50% of pediatric kidney recipients, after 2nd dose in 92%. After 2nd vaccine dose absence or very low levels of SARS-CoV-2-Tvis (< 0.3 cells/mul) were only found in Tac-based immunosuppressive regimens, whereas higher levels (> 1.3 cells/mul) were exclusively detected in patients with MMFfree medication. Conclusion(s): After pediatric kidney transplantation humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were suboptimal, but more pronounced than in adult kidney recipients. Use of Tac and MMF was associated with impaired immune response to vaccination. SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral response corresponded only partially to cell-mediated response. Additional monitoring of SARS-CoV- 2-Tvis might be recommendable to improve assessment of the individual vaccine response and thereby to personalize the decision on the necessity of further vaccine doses.

16.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0525622, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238742

ABSTRACT

The 50% plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT50) has been previously used to assess the neutralization capacity of donor plasma against wild-type and variant of concern (VOC) severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Emerging data suggest that plasma with an anti-SARS-CoV-2 level of ≥2 × 104 binding antibody units/mL (BAU/mL) protects against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 infection. Specimens were collected using a cross-sectional random sampling approach. For PRNT50 studies, 63 previously analyzed specimens by PRNT50 versus SARS-CoV-2 wild-type, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta were analyzed by PRNT50 versus Omicron BA.1. The 63 specimens plus 4,390 specimens (randomly sampled regardless of serological evidence of infection) were also tested using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay (anti-spike [S]; Abbott, Chicago, IL, USA; Abbott Quant assay). In the vaccinated group, the percentages of specimens with any measurable PRNT50 versus wild-type or VOC were wild type (21/25 [84%]), Alpha (19/25 [76%]), Beta (18/25 [72%]), Gamma (13/25 [52%]), Delta (19/25 [76%]), and Omicron BA.1 (9/25 [36%]). In the unvaccinated group, the percentages of specimens with any measurable PRNT50 versus wild type or VOC were wild-type SARS-CoV-2 (16/39 [41%]), Alpha (16/39 [41%]), Beta (10/39 [26%]), Gamma (9/39 [23%]), Delta (16/39 [41%]), and Omicron BA.1 (0/39) (Fisher's exact tests, vaccinated versus unvaccinated for each variant, P < 0.05). None of the 4,453 specimens tested by the Abbott Quant assay had a binding capacity of ≥2 × 104 BAU/mL. Vaccinated donors were more likely than unvaccinated donors to neutralize Omicron when assessed by a PRNT50 assay. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 Omicron emergence occurred in Canada during the period from November 2021 to January 2022. This study assessed the ability of donor plasma collected earlier (January to March 2021) to generate any neutralizing capacity against Omicron BA.1 SARS-CoV-2. Vaccinated individuals, regardless of infection status, were more likely to neutralize Omicron BA.1 than unvaccinated individuals. This study then used a semiquantitative binding antibody assay to screen a larger number of specimens (4,453) for individual specimens that might have high-titer neutralizing capacity against Omicron BA.1. None of the 4,453 specimens tested by the semiquantitative SARS-CoV-2 assay had a binding capacity suggestive of a high-titer neutralizing capacity against Omicron BA.1. These data do not imply that Canadians lacked immunity to Omicron BA.1 during the study period. Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is complex, and there is still no wide consensus on correlation of protection to SARS-CoV-2.

17.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S100, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2322005

ABSTRACT

Intro: Different vaccines against COVID-19 have been approved by the World Health Organization (WHO) at different stages, however, limited data is available on long-term kinetics of antibodies induced by vaccines. This study was performed to investigate the persistence and dynamicity of BBV-152 (Covaxin)- and AZD1222 (Covishield)-induced immunoglobulin-G (IgG) antibodies over the year and neutralizing antibodies' status after the one-month post booster dose. Method(s): This 52-week longitudinal cohort study documented antibody persistence and neutralizing antibody status among 278 health-care workers (HCWs) from four different healthcare and research facilities in Odisha, enrolled in January 2021 and continued until March 2022. An automated chemiluminescence immune assay (CLIA) platform from Abbott Diagnostics was used to quantify IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2's spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) and a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). If any participants developed any symptoms of COVID-19, nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and sent to ICMR- RMRC, Bhubaneswar for RT-PCR confirmation. Finding(s): Among the 243 participants, 119 HCWs (48.97%) were Covaxin recipients and the remaining 124 (51.02%) were Covishield recipients. During the seven follow- ups, 104 participants (42.79%) were identified as vaccine breakthrough cases. In 139 non-infected HCWs, the median antibody titer significantly waned after ten months of double dose, both for Covaxin (342.7 AU/mL at DD1 vs 43.9 AU/mL at DD10) and Covishield (2325.8 AU/mL at DD3 vs 595.2 AU/mL at DD10). No statistically significant differences in antibody titers were observed based on age, gender, comorbidities, and blood groups. The median inhibition activity of sVNT was increased significantly for Covaxin and Covishield booster recipients. Among the booster dose recipients, 24 had breakthrough cases by the Omicron variant. Conclusion(s): Results of this longitudinal cohort study can be used to implement vaccination strategies and could also aid in tracking and designing vaccine mandates to minimize vaccine escape.Copyright © 2023

18.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S67, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2321999

ABSTRACT

Intro: The COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread worldwide, and it is likely to overlap with the dengue epidemics in tropical countries. Although most children and young people who develop COVID-19 have no symptoms or very mild ones at the time, we now know that a small number develop Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome (PIMS) a few weeks afterwards. Due to overlapping of clinical and laboratory features, it may be difficult to distinguish PIMS from dengue fever. So this study was undertaken to analyse the clinical features and laboratory investigations in these patients. Method(s): We retrospectively studied the case records of 21 patients diagnosed as pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (based on WHO case definition) and dengue fever (either NS1 antigen positive or IgM antibody positive). A total of 106 patients were diagnosed with dengue fever. Out of these SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were positive in 57 patients. However, only 21 patients full filled the case definition for multi-inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Clinical features and laboratory investigations were entered in a proforma and results analysed. Finding(s): Out of 21 children's maximum children were older than 10 years age (76.2%). Commonest finding on abdominal sonography was gall bladder wall edema followed by ascites. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 18 (85.7 %) patients at admission and in 14 (66.7%) platelets were less than 50000/mm3.LDH was raised in 19 (90.4%), Ferritin in 18 (85.7%) and D-Dimer in 13 (61.9%) of patients (Table 2). Fever was seen in all the patients,17 (80.9%) patients had shock on admission. Rash was seen in 15 (71.4 %) of the patients. All the patients were discharged. Conclusion(s): Many of clinical features are common to both diseases. However, increased levels of serum ferritin, d-dimer and CRP are more commonly seen in pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome due to covid as compared to lower platelet counts which are more frequently seen in dengue fever patients.Copyright © 2023

19.
Infectious Diseases: News, Opinions, Training ; 11(1):28-33, 2022.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2326096

ABSTRACT

While providing medical care to patients with a new coronavirus infection, medical workers are at risk of developing COVID-19 significantly more often than the general population. In addition to morbidity risks, an important question is the duration of the immune response to COVID-19. The aim of our study is to assess the incidence of COVID-19 and the duration of the persistence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among hospital medical staff. Material and methods. We conducted a retrospective non-randomized single-center study, based on the analysis of the laboratory database of the Municipal Clinical Hospital No. 52 (Moscow). The results of the 2160 employees were included into analysis. The inclusion criteria were as follows: at least one result of antibody determination to SARS-CoV-2 in period from June 2020 to January 2021;the date of the last antibody determination to SARS-CoV-2 no earlier than November 1, 2020. Additionally, a group of 100 employees were selected for further investigation of the persistence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, a group of 100 employees was selected, who had a confirmed fact of seroconversion for IgG and the presence of at least three results of IgG to SARS-CoV-2 determination with an interval of at least 4 weeks. Results. According to IgG determination results, by January 2021, 66.6% of all hospital employees have already been ill with COVID-19. The medical staff who worked with patients with COVID-19 been ill with COVID-19 in 78.2% of cases. The share of sick medical personnel who did not work with this group of patients was 55.3%. The first termination of antibodies persistence to SARS-CoV-2 from employees was marked from 3-4 months of observation. After 7-9 months, 23% of the observed group became seronegative. Odds ratio for the risk of COVID-19 for medical staff, who worked with COVID-19 patients was 2.89 (95% CI 2.34-3.56) to other medical staff and 3.6 (95% CI 2.82-4.59) to non-medical staff. Conclusion. The incidence of COVID-19 and the risk of infection among medical workers is significantly higher than among the general population, which dictates the need of further improvement of COVID-19 prevention measures among medical workers.Copyright © 2022 by the authors.

20.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 130(Supplement 2):S26, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2325779

ABSTRACT

Intro: While the pediatric population has largely remained free of severe COVID- 19, in some situations SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with complications like Multiple Inflammatory Syndrome in children (MIS-C). Recently, cases of hepatitis in children have caused tremendous worry across the globe, we describe a unique presentation from 2021, subsequent to asymptomatic infection of SARS-CoV-2, a unique form of severe hepatitis designated by us as COVID-19 Associated Hepatitis in Children (CAH-C). The clinical presentations, temporal association, and viral parameters of CAH-C cases, and contrast to that of MIS-C cases are presented here. Method(s): As a retrospective and follow-up case-control study we reviewed all children within 14 years presenting with "sudden onset of hepatitis, elevated transaminases, non-obstructive jaundice. After performing all routine tests among them, those lacking marked inflammatory responses and without evidence of (a) other known causes of acute hepatitis (A-E) or previous underlying liver disease, and (b) multi-system involvement", being unique such cases were classified as CAH-C, and are described here. Finding(s): Among 475 children who tested positive, 37/47 cases had features of CAH-C, having symptoms of hepatitis only, with un-elevated inflammatory markers, 100% positivity for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and uneventful recovery. The remaining 10/47 having MIS-C had protracted illness, multiple system involvement, required admission to critical care, and a mortality rate of 30%. Among controls, only 26/50 (52%) had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Discussion(s): During the pandemic, various COVID-19 complications have been observed posing safety concerns, where our study identified a unique form of acute hepatitis in children designated as CAH-C. Conclusion(s): With the emergence of newer variants, including the Delta variant which predominated the second wave of infections in India and spread worldwide with changing presentations and complications, CAH-C is such new entity in children. It needs early identification and differentiation from other emerging syndromes during the ongoing pandemic for preventing adversities through timely intervention.Copyright © 2023

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