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1.
Pediatria de Atencion Primaria ; 24(93):e171-e182, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1837639

ABSTRACT

There has been an extraordinary effort, technical as well as economic to produce effective vaccines. The vaccines with known effectivity data are those that have published phase 3 results. The most relevant data of these clinical trials are resumed here grouped by type of vaccine. While data on effectivity are obtained from clinical trials, the effectiveness must be measured in real life, considering that vaccines have been implemented in Spain since December 27, 2020. The vaccines to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections seem safe and effective, with a moderate quality of the evidence. Currently, the adult population has been vaccinated (first age group with evidence of effectivity and safety) with the available vaccines and according to risk groups established by the Health Ministry, afterwards other groups have been added such as pregnant women and adolescents, and recently the schoolers 5 to 11 years after the publication of effectivity and safety in this age group of one of the vaccines authorized in the European Union. Despite the limitations of the published clinical trials, the current pandemic situation means a great public health threat and an enormous loss of lives due to SAS-Cov-2, which makes the risk benefit balance favorable to vaccination. © 2022, Spanish Association of Primary Care Pediatrics. All rights reserved.

2.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(9):5777, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837243

ABSTRACT

Hospital workers have increased exposure risk of healthcare-associated infections due to the frontline nature of their work. Olfactory dysfunction is highly prevalent. The objectives for this investigation are to study the prevalence of long-lasting olfactory dysfunction associated with COVID-19 infection in hospital workers during the first pandemic wave, to identify clinical characteristics and associated symptomatology, and to analyze how many patients with COVID-19 infection had developed olfactory dysfunction during infection and maintained a reduced olfactory function for approximately 10 weeks after diagnosis. Between June and July of 2020, a cross-sectional study was carried out at the Hospital Central de la Cruz Roja San José and Santa Adela in Madrid, Spain. One hundred sixty-four participants were included, of which 110 were patient-facing healthcare staff and 54 were non-patient-facing healthcare staff. Participants were split into three groups, according to COVID-19 diagnosis and presence of COVID-19 related olfactory symptomatology. Participants were asked to complete a structured online questionnaire along with Sniffin’ Stick Olfactory Test measurements. In this study, 88 participants were confirmed for COVID-19 infection, 59 of those participants also reported olfactory symptomatology. The prevalence of COVID-19 infection was 11.35%, and the prevalence for olfactory dysfunction was 67.05%. Olfactory dysfunction associated with COVID-19 infection leads to long-lasting olfactory loss. Objective assessment with Sniffin’ Stick Olfactory Test points to odor identification as the most affected process. Lemon, liquorice, solvent, and rose are the odors that are worst recognized. Mint, banana, solvent, garlic, coffee, and pineapple, although they are identified, are perceived with less intensity. The findings of this study confirmed a high prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among the hospital workers.

3.
Cureus ; 14(3), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1835757

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a disease of the respiratory system but severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may cause several immune-related complications including different neurological disorders, such as myelopathy with paraparesis.In this atypical case a female patient with progressive spastic paraparesis after COVID-19 infection, brisk reflexes and positive Babinski sign, reduced vibratory sensation to the thoracic level, elevated immunoglobulin levels (IgG) in cerebrospinal fluid, but negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spine, is presented. A 57-year-old woman with spastic paraparesis and inability to walk was admitted to our neurological department. About four months before hospitalization, she started feeling numbness and tingling in the feet and lumbar spine area. Gradually, numbness and tingling ascended to the thoracic spine level Th7/8, and she developed weakness mostly in her legs. In the neurological exam she had spastic paraparesis. MRI of the brain, cervical and thoracic spine did not reveal any signal abnormality. Serological testing for SARS-CoV-2 was performed and results were highly positive IgG and IgM+IgA levels. The lumbar puncture finding confirmed the suspicion of immune-related complications after SARS-CoV-2 infection (intrathecal IgG synthesis). This case draws attention to spastic paraparesis or progressive MRI-negative myelitis after SARS-CoV-2 infection, which obviously has immune-mediated pathogenesis that happen in response to the virus or its antibodies. Similarities in spastic paraparesis after human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and SARS-CoV-2 infections were observed. The patient had a good response to corticosteroid therapy and had good recovery. 

4.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2612-2618, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diabetes conveys an increased risk of infectious diseases and related mortality. We investigated risk of ascertained SARS-CoV-2 infection in diabetes subjects from the Veneto Region, Northeastern Italy, as well as the risk of being admitted to hospital or intensive care unit (ICU), or mortality for COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: Diabetic subjects were identified by linkage of multiple health archives. The rest of the population served as reference. Information on ascertained infection by SARS-CoV-2, admission to hospital, admission to ICU and mortality in the period from February 21 to July 31, 2020 were retrieved from the regional registry of COVID-19. Subjects with ascertained diabetes were 269,830 (55.2% men; median age 72 years). Reference subjects were 4,681,239 (men 48.6%, median age 46 years). Ratios of age- and gender-standardized rates (RR) [95% CI] for ascertained infection, admission to hospital, admission to ICU and disease-related death in diabetic subjects were 1.31 [1.19-1.45], 2.11 [1.83-2.44], 2.45 [1.96-3.07], 1.87 [1.68-2.09], all p < 0.001. The highest RR of ascertained infection was observed in diabetic men aged 20-39 years: 1.90 [1.04-3.21]. The highest RR of ICU admission and death were observed in diabetic men aged 40-59 years: 3.47 [2.00-5.70] and 5.54 [2.23-12.1], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These data, observed in a large population of ∼5 million people of whom ∼250,000 with diabetes, show that diabetes not only conveys a poorer outcome in COVID-19 but also confers an increased risk of ascertained infection from SARS-CoV-2. Men of young or mature age have the highest relative risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Diabetes Complications/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
5.
Pharmacophore ; 13(1):48-55, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822791

ABSTRACT

At the current time, obesity itself can be a pandemic for many risk factors such as what is occurring in western countries were quickly comforted by the increase in the frequency of obesity, whose effects on health were soon manifested by a significant increase in cardiovascular disease in the general population. Inflammatory proteins can be classified according to their functions into different categories, although they are mainly involved in the response of the acute phase of inflammation, among which is the C-reactive protein (CRP). This study aimed to provide the effects of obesity according to the inflammatory analysis with CRP test on obese patients having a high-frequency inflammation which is one of several causes lead toward the infection and catching by Coronavirus COVID-19 disease because the influence of the obesity on the immunity system, according to sex, ethnicity, and age. We focused that obese patients must avoid any high-level CRP concentration to prevent them from any risk factors of contamination by COVID-19 pandemic. Copyright (C) 2013 - All Rights Reserved - Pharmacophore

6.
Cureus Journal of Medical Science ; 14(4):5, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822581

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary symptoms are the primary manifestation of the COVID-19 disease, which originated in Wuhan in China in December 2019. However, it is now established to show widespread extrapulmonary manifestations, including gastrointestinal involvement. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting are considered the most common gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastric perforation in association with COVID-19 is rarely reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of a 71-year-old male COVID-19-infected patient, medically free, who presented to the emergency department complaining of severe abdominal pain for a one-week duration. He was diagnosed with a case of perforated viscus and septic shock. The patient was shifted to the operating room for exploratory laparotomy. We aim in this report to highlight this fatal complication of COVID-19 infection in order to improve patients' outcomes.

7.
Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health ; : 101059, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821169

ABSTRACT

Background Inflammatory markers are pivotal for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and sepsis. This study compared markers between hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and those with bacterial sepsis. Methods This retrospective single-centre cohort study included 50 patients with COVID-19 clinical stages II and III and 24 patients with bacterial sepsis. Both groups were treated according to the country's official standards. Leukocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, and D-dimer were registered at the time of patient's admission and 24, 48, and 72 h after initiating intrahospital treatment. Results Upon admission, marker levels were high, with a significant decrease at 72 h after antibiotic therapy in the sepsis group. The leukocyte count was higher in deceased patients with sepsis. The mean ferritin levels were 1105 mcg/dl for COVID-19 and 525 mcg/dL for sepsis. Higher ferritin levels in COVID-19 (P = 0.001) seemed to be a predictor of higher mortality. Upon admission, the median D-dimer level was 0.68 mg/L for COVID-19 and 3 mg/L for patients with sepsis, whether recovered or deceased. As D-dimer, procalcitonin levels were higher in patients with sepsis (P = 0.001). CRP levels were equally elevated in both entities but higher in deceased patients with COVID-19. Conclusion Ferritin was the main inflammatory marker for COVID-19, and leukocytes, procalcitonin, and D-dimer were the main markers of sepsis. Markers that were most affected in deceased patients were CRP for COVID-19 and leukocyte for sepsis. The therapeutic implications of these differences require further study.

8.
Current Womens Health Reviews ; 18(4):24, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820137

ABSTRACT

Background: Pregnant women are a vulnerable group in viral outbreaks, especially in the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: The aim of this review was to identify maternal and neonatal outcomes in available articles on pregnancies affected by COVID-19. Methods: The articles that had assessed outcomes of pregnancy and perinatal of women with COVID-19 between Oct 2019 and Aug 2020 without language limitation were considered. We searched databases, selected relevant studies and extracted data regarding maternal and neonatal outcomes from each article. Results: Data of 11078 pregnant women with COVID-19 of 23 countries were assessed from 77 articles between December 8, 2019 and Aug 18, 2020. Most pregnant women reported in their third trimester, out of which 6229 (56.22%) cases were symptomatic at the time of admission. Common onset symptoms, abnormal laboratory findings, and chest computed tomography pattern were cough (40.88%%), lymphocytopenia (43.38%), and multiple ground-glass opacities (4.42%), respectively. 51.37% of all deliveries were done through cesarean section. 158 maternal mortality and 4.2% ICU admission were reported. Vertical transmission was not reported, but its possibility was suggested in thirty-two neonates. Ten neonatal deaths, thirteen stillbirths, and nineteen abortions were reported. 60% of newborns were not breastfed. Conclusion: This review showed fewer adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 in comparison with previous coronavirus outbreak infection in pregnancy. Limited data are available regarding the possibility of virus transmission in utero, during vaginal childbirth and breastfeeding. The effect of COVID-19 on the first and second trimesters and ongoing pregnancy outcomes in infected mothers is still questionable.

10.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 5111-5117, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817643

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) could be a predictive factor of severe COVID-19. However, most relevant studies are retrospective, and the optimal NLR cut-off point has not been determined. The objective of our research was identification and validation of the best NLR cut-off value on admission that could predict high in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Medical files of all patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia in our dedicated COVID-units between March and April 2020 (derivation cohort) and between October and December 2020 (validation cohort) were reviewed. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety-nine patients were included in the study (198 in the derivation and 101 in the validation cohort, respectively). Youden's J statistic in the derivation cohort determined the optimal cut-off value for the performance of NLR at admission to predict mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The NLR cut-off value of 5.94 had a sensitivity of 62% and specificity of 64%. In ROC curve analysis, the AUC was 0.665 [95% CI 0.530-0.801, p= 0.025]. In the validation cohort, the best predictive cut-off value of NLR was 6.4, which corresponded to a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 64% with AUC 0.766 [95% CI 0.651-0.881, p <0.001]. When the NLR cut-off value of 5.94 was applied in the validation cohort, there was no significant difference in death and survival in comparison with the derivation NLR cut-off. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) analysis showed no significant classification change in outcome between both NLR cut-off values (NRI:0.012, p=0.31). CONCLUSION: In prospective analysis, an NLR value of 5.94 predicted high in-hospital mortality upon admission in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia.

11.
Clinical Infectious Diseases ; : 3, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1816038
12.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(3):100557, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1815271

ABSTRACT

Effective control of SARS-CoV-2 infection on primary exposure may reveal correlates of protective immunity to future variants, but we lack insights into immune responses before or at the time virus is first detected. We use blood transcriptomics, multiparameter flow cytometry, and T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing spanning the time of incident non-severe infection in unvaccinated virus-naive individuals to identify rapid type 1 interferon (IFN) responses common to other acute respiratory viruses and cell proliferation responses that discriminate SARS-CoV-2 from other viruses. These peak by the time the virus is first detected and sometimes precede virus detection. Cell proliferation is most evident in CD8 T cells and associated with specific expansion of SARS-CoV-2-reactive TCRs, in contrast to virus-specific antibodies, which lag by 1-2 weeks. Our data support a protective role for early type 1 IFN and CD8 T cell responses, with implications for development of universal T cell vaccines.

13.
J Med Life ; 15(3):350-358, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1811951

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which is an RNA virus similar to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the replication process. Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir is an approved drug to treat HCV infection. This study investigates the efficacy of Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir as a treatment for patients with moderate COVID-19 infection. This is a single-blinded parallel-randomized controlled trial. The participants were randomized equally into the intervention group that received Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (S.L. group), and the control group received Oseltamivir, Hydroxychloroquine, and Azithromycin (OCH group). The primary outcomes were the cure rate over time and the incidence of serious adverse events. The secondary outcomes included the laboratory findings. 250 patients were divided equally into each group. Both groups were similar regarding gender, but age was higher in the S.L. group (p=0.001). In the S.L. group, 89 (71.2%) patients were cured, while only 51 (40.8%) patients were cured in the OCH group. The cure rate was significantly higher in the S.L. group (RR=1.75, p<0.001). Kaplan-Meir plot showed a considerably higher cure over time in the S.L. group (Log-rank test, p=0.032). There were no deaths in the S.L. group, but there were six deaths (4.8%) in the OCH group (RR=0.08, p=0.013). Seven patients (5.6%) in the S.L. group and six patients (4.8%) in the OCH group were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (RR=1.17, P=0.776). There were no significant differences between treatment groups regarding total leukocyte and neutrophils count, lymph, and urea. Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir is suggestive of being effective in treating patients with moderate COVID-19 infection. Further studies are needed to compare Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir with new treatment protocols.

14.
J Med Cases ; 13(4):155-158, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1811543

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is known to have a wide spectrum of effects on the respiratory, cardiac, neurological, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, ocular and urological systems, but there is very little information on its effects on the human ovary. Our aims are to describe a unique case that developed amenorrhea during and after SARS-CoV-2 infection and to push researchers to do more researches to understand the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the ovaries. A 27-year-old female patient presented with amenorrhea. She had fever on the second day of the menstrual cycle, and her cycle had been interrupted on the same day. The patient had a sub-febrile temperature, myalgia, fatigue, sweating, loss of appetite, and mild sleep disorder. Based on clinical, laboratory, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) data of a nasopharyngeal swab sample, she had a positive result for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Till now there are limited publications on the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the ovaries. In particular, the potential adverse effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on fertility are unclear. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients need to be followed up for a long time, and clinicians need to pay attention to menstrual disturbances, especially in young female patients. More evidence, through both epidemiologic and clinical studies, as well as long-term follow-up studies, is needed to understand the impact of this infection on the human ovary, especially in reproductive-aged women.

15.
Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology ; 50(2):1-9, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1811128

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to the cancellation of non-emergent surgeries in order to optimize the use of resources. Once the elective medical services are restored, a technical and ethical strategy becomes critical to select candidate patients for elective surgery. Objective: To describe the results from the implementation of MeNTS (Medically Necessary Timesensitive Procedures), FI-CGA, and survey on COVID-19 symptoms Scales, as methods for the selection of patients who were candidates for elective surgery during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, in a third level institution in Cali, Colombia. Methods: The databases of the results on the administration of MeNTS, frailty index (FI-CGA) and COVID 19 symptoms scales in patients who were candidates for elective surgery in a third level clinic in Cali city, between March 1st and August 31st, 2020 were reviewed. Results: A total of 1,044 patients were included, of which 647 (62.0 %) were females, with a median age of 52 years (interquartile range [IQR] 38-62). 98 % of the patients were asymptomatic, the overall median score for MeNTS was 48 (IQR 44-52) and the average for FI-CGA was 0.0 (standard deviation 0.1). Conclusions: MeNTS, FI-CGA and the Symptoms Survey are easily accessible scales amidst the pandemic and are helpful to select patients with intermediate and low risk of perioperative morbidity in elective surgery during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and to clarify the potential of these tools in the selection of patients that meet the high-risk criteria. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] Introducción: La pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 ha ocasionado la suspensión de cirugías no urgentes con el fin de optimizar los recursos. Una vez los servicios médicos electivos son restablecidos, es fundamental disponer de una estrategia técnica y ética para la selección de los pacientes candidatos a cirugía electiva. Objetivo: Describir los resultados observados durante la implementación de las escalas MeNTS (Medically Necessary Time-sensitive Procedures), IF-VIG y Encuesta de síntomas para COVID-19, como métodos de selección de pacientes candidatos a cirugía electiva durante la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 en una institución de nivel tres en la ciudad de Cali, Colombia. Metodología: Se revisaron las bases de datos de los resultados de la aplicación de escalas de MeNTS, índice de fragilidad (IF-VIG) y los síntomas para COVID 19, en pacientes candidatos a cirugía electiva en una clínica de tercer nivel en la ciudad de Cali, entre marzo 1 y agosto 31 del 2020. Resultados: En total 1.044 pacientes fueron incluidos, de los cuales 647 (62,0 %) fueron mujeres con una mediana de edad de 52 años (rango intercuartil [RIC] 38-62). El 98 % de los pacientes estuvieron asintomáticos, la mediana general de la puntuación total de MeNTS fue 48 (RIC 44-52) y el promedio para IF-VIG fue de 0,0 (desviación estándar 0,1). Conclusiones: MeNTS, IF-VIG y Encuesta de síntomas, son escalas fácilmente accesibles durante tiempos de pandemia y son de utilidad para seleccionar pacientes de riesgo intermedio y bajo de morbilidad perioperatoria en cirugía electiva durante la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2. Se requieren futuros estudios para confirmar estos hallazgos y para clarificar su potencial en la selección de pacientes con criterios que los definan como de riesgo alto. (Spanish) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology / Revista Colombiana de Anestesiología is the property of Sociedad Colombiana de Anestesiologia y Reanimacion and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

16.
Front Psychiatry ; 13:801135, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The overload of healthcare systems around the world and the danger of infection have limited the ability of researchers to obtain sufficient and reliable data on psychopathology in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The relationship between severe acute respiratory syndrome with the coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and specific mental disturbances remains poorly understood. AIM: To reveal the possibility of identifying the typology and frequency of psychiatric syndromes associated with acute COVID-19 using cluster analysis of discrete psychopathological phenomena. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Descriptive data on the mental state of 55 inpatients with COVID-19 were obtained by young-career physicians. Classification of observed clinical phenomena was performed with k-means cluster analysis of variables coded from the main psychopathological symptoms. Dispersion analysis with p level 0.05 was used to reveal the clusters differences in demography, parameters of inflammation, and respiration function collected on the basis of the original medical records. RESULTS: Three resulting clusters of patients were identified: (1) persons with anxiety;disorders of fluency and tempo of thinking, mood, attention, and motor-volitional sphere;reduced insight;and pessimistic plans for the future (n = 11);(2) persons without psychopathology (n = 37);and (3) persons with disorientation;disorders of memory, attention, fluency, and tempo of thinking;and reduced insight (n = 7). The development of a certain type of impaired mental state was specifically associated with the following: age, lung lesions according to computed tomography, saturation, respiratory rate, C-reactive protein level, and platelet count. CONCLUSION: Anxiety and/or mood disturbances with psychomotor retardation as well as symptoms of impaired consciousness, memory, and insight may be considered as neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 and should be used for clinical risk assessment.

17.
Front Immunol ; 13:832223, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809390

ABSTRACT

Better methods to interrogate host-pathogen interactions during Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections are imperative to help understand and prevent this disease. Here we implemented RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) using Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) long-reads to measure differential host gene expression, transcript polyadenylation and isoform usage within various epithelial cell lines permissive and non-permissive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2-infected and mock-infected Vero (African green monkey kidney epithelial cells), Calu-3 (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells), Caco-2 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma epithelial cells) and A549 (human lung carcinoma epithelial cells) were analyzed over time (0, 2, 24, 48 hours). Differential polyadenylation was found to occur in both infected Calu-3 and Vero cells during a late time point (48 hpi), with Gene Ontology (GO) terms such as viral transcription and translation shown to be significantly enriched in Calu-3 data. Poly(A) tails showed increased lengths in the majority of the differentially polyadenylated transcripts in Calu-3 and Vero cell lines (up to ~101 nt in mean poly(A) length, padj = 0.029). Of these genes, ribosomal protein genes such as RPS4X and RPS6 also showed downregulation in expression levels, suggesting the importance of ribosomal protein genes during infection. Furthermore, differential transcript usage was identified in Caco-2, Calu-3 and Vero cells, including transcripts of genes such as GSDMB and KPNA2, which have previously been implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infections. Overall, these results highlight the potential role of differential polyadenylation and transcript usage in host immune response or viral manipulation of host mechanisms during infection, and therefore, showcase the value of long-read sequencing in identifying less-explored host responses to disease.

18.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Olfactory training is the only evidence-based treatment for post viral olfactory dysfunction. Smell disorders after SARS-CoV-2 infection have been attributed to neuroinflammatory events within the olfactory bulb and the central nervous system. Therefore, targeting neuroinflammation is one potential strategy for promoting recovery from post-COVID-19 chronic olfactory dysfunction. Palmitoylethanolamide and luteolin (PEA-LUT) are candidate anti-inflammatory/ neuroprotective agents. OBJECTIVE: To investigate recovery of olfactory function in patients treated with PEA-LUT oral supplements plus olfactory training versus olfactory training plus placebo. METHODS: Multicenter double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eligible subjects had prior COVID-19 and persistent olfactory impairment >6 months after follow-up SARS-CoV-2 negative testing, without prior history of olfactory dysfunction sinonasal disorders. Participants were randomized to daily oral supplementation with ultramicronized PEA-LUT 770 mg plus olfactory training (intervention group) or olfactory training with placebo (control). Sniffin' Sticks assessments were used to test the patients at baseline and 90 days. RESULTS: A total of 185 patients, including intervention (130) and control (55) were enrolled. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement in olfactory threshold, discrimination, and identification scores compared to controls (p=0.0001). Overall, 92% of patients in the intervention group improved versus 42% of controls. Magnitude of recovery was significantly greater in the intervention group versus control (12.8 + 8.2 versus mean 3.2 + 3), with >10-fold higher prevalence of anosmia in control versus intervention groups at the 90-day endpoint. CONCLUSION: Among individuals with olfactory dysfunction post COVID-19, combining PEA-LUT with olfactory training resulted in greater recovery of smell than olfactory training alone. (ITALIAN;Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT04853836).

19.
Journal of Aerosol Science ; : 106002, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1804404

ABSTRACT

To understand the transmission characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) through air, samples from different locations occupied by coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients were analyzed. Three sampling strategies were used to understand the presence of virus in the air in different environmental conditions. In the first strategy, which involved hospital settings, air samples were collected from several areas of hospitals like COVID-intensive-care units (ICUs), nurse-stations, COVID-wards, corridors, non-COVID-wards, personal protective equipment (PPE) doffing areas, COVID rooms, out-patient (OP) corridors, mortuary, COVID casualty areas, non-COVID ICUs and doctors’ rooms. Out of the 80 air samples collected from 6 hospitals from two Indian cities- Hyderabad and Mohali, 30 samples showed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids. In the second sampling strategy, that involved indoor settings, one or more COVID-19 patients were asked to spend a short duration of time in a closed room. Out of 17 samples, 5 samples, including 4 samples collected after the departure of three symptomatic patients from the room, showed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids. In the third strategy, involving indoor settings, air samples were collected from rooms of houses of home-quarantined COVID-19 patients and it was observed that SARS-CoV-2 RNA could be detected in the air in the rooms occupied by COVID-19 patients but not in the other rooms of the houses. Taken together, we observed that the air around COVID-19 patients frequently showed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in both hospital and indoor residential settings and the positivity rate was higher when 2 or more COVID-19 patients occupied the room. In hospitals, SARS-CoV-2 RNA could be detected in ICUs as well as in non-ICUs, suggesting that the viral shedding happened irrespective of the severity of the infection. This study also provides evidence for the viability of SARS-CoV-2 and its long-range transport through the air. Thus, airborne transmission could be a major mode of transmission for SARS-CoV-2 and appropriate precautions need to be followed to prevent the spread of infection through the air.

20.
Cell Reports ; 39(4):110744, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1803707

ABSTRACT

Summary Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, which has led to a devastating global health crisis. The emergence of variants that escape neutralizing responses emphasizes the urgent need to deepen our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 biology. Using a comprehensive identification of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) by mass spectrometry (ChIRP-MS) approach, we identify 107 high-confidence cellular factors that interact with the SARS-CoV-2 genome during infection. By systematically knocking down their expression in human lung epithelial cells, we find that the majority of the identified RBPs are SARS-CoV-2 proviral factors. In particular, we show that HNRNPA2B1, ILF3, QKI, and SFPQ interact with the SARS-CoV-2 genome and promote viral RNA amplification. Our study provides valuable resources for future investigations into the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 replication and the identification of host-centered antiviral therapies.

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