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Exp Ther Med ; 22(4): 1162, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377025


Since its outbreak, in December, 2019, in the Chinese city of Wuhan, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into an ongoing global pandemic. Due to the novel antigenic properties of this virus, the world population could not develop immunity effectively and this led to the subsequent spread of COVID-19. This caused an unprecedented emergency situation with significant negative effects on health and well-being both on an individual and societal level. Apart from health, economic and social consequences, the impact of this pandemic on mental health is increasingly being reported in the scientific literature. The present review aimed to provide a comprehensive discussion of the possible neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, together with the related underlying molecular pathways. In addition, the present review focused on populations which are at a higher risk of developing psychiatric disturbances due to the COVID-19 pandemic and discussed possible routes of clinical management and therapeutics to minimize the burden associated with psychiatric disorders. Moreover, research findings exploring the prevalence of COVID-19-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms across vulnerable groups, including children, adolescents and COVID-19 survivors are presented, with particular emphasis on those with severe disease who required hospitalization and/or intensive care unit admission. Based on the available literature, the identification of potential determinants associated with PTSD across the different populations is underlined. Lessons learnt from the pandemics across the globe together with the ongoing research on COVID-19 and its impact on mental health, highlight the utmost importance for evidence-based, proactive and targeted interventions in high-risk groups aiming to mitigate the risks and manage vulnerabilities.

Neuroscientist ; 28(5): 438-452, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194426


The interactions of viruses with the nervous system were thought to be well understood until the recent outbreaks of Zika and SARS-CoV-2. In this review, we consider these emerging pathogens, the range and mechanisms of the neurological disease in humans, and how the biomedical research enterprise has pivoted to answer questions about viral pathogenesis, immune response, and the special vulnerability of the nervous system. ZIKV stands out as the only new virus in a generation, associating with congenital brain defects, neurological manifestations of microcephaly in newborns, and radiculopathy in adults. COVID-19, the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, has swept the planet in an unprecedented manner and is feared worldwide for its effect on the respiratory system, but recent evidence points to important neurological sequelae. These can include anosmia, vasculopathy, paresthesias, and stroke. Evidence of ZIKV and SARS-CoV-2 genetic material from neural tissue, and evidence of infection of neural cells, raises questions about how these emerging viruses produce disease, and where new therapies might emerge.

COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Adult , Humans , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2 , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology