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1.
Nano Res ; 15(6): 5510-5516, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877966

ABSTRACT

Developing convenient and accurate SARS-CoV-2 antigen test and serology test is crucial in curbing the global COVID-19 pandemic. In this work, we report an improved indium oxide (In2O3) nanoribbon field-effect transistor (FET) biosensor platform detecting both SARS-CoV-2 antigen and antibody. Our FET biosensors, which were fabricated using a scalable and cost-efficient lithography-free process utilizing shadow masks, consist of an In2O3 channel and a newly developed stable enzyme reporter. During the biosensing process, the phosphatase enzymatic reaction generated pH change of the solution, which was then detected and converted to electrical signal by our In2O3 FETs. The biosensors applied phosphatase as enzyme reporter, which has a much better stability than the widely used urease in FET based biosensors. As proof-of-principle studies, we demonstrate the detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in both phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer and universal transport medium (UTM) (limit of detection [LoD]: 100 fg/mL). Following the SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests, we developed and characterized additional sensors aimed at SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, which is important to trace past infection and vaccination. Our spike protein IgG antibody tests exhibit excellent detection limits in both PBS and human whole blood ((LoD): 1 pg/mL). Our biosensors display similar detection performance in different mediums, demonstrating that our biosensor approach is not limited by Debye screening from salts and can selectively detect biomarkers in physiological fluids. The newly selected enzyme for our platform performs much better performance and longer shelf life which will lead our biosensor platform to be capable for real clinical diagnosis usage. Electronic Supplementary Material: Supplementary material (materials and methods for device fabrication, functionalization of In2O3 devices, photographs of the liquid gate measurement setup, mobilities of the nine devices labeled in Fig. 1(b), family curves of I DS-V DS with the liquid gate setup and current change after bubbling the substrate solution (current vs. time curve for S1 antigen detection)) is available in the online version of this article at 10.1007/s12274-022-4190-0.

2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 836492, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875412

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 can be associated with a prothrombotic state, increasing risk of morbidity and mortality. The SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein is purported to directly promote platelet activation via the S1 subunit and is cleaved from host cells during infection. High plasma concentrations of S1 subunit are associated with disease progression and respiratory failure during severe COVID-19. There is limited evidence on whether COVID-19 vaccine-induced spike protein is similarly cleaved and on the immediate effects of vaccination on host immune responses or hematology parameters. We investigated vaccine-induced S1 subunit cleavage and effects on hematology parameters using AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19), a simian, replication-deficient adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 vaccine. We observed S1 subunit cleavage in vitro following AZD1222 transduction of HEK293x cells. S1 subunit cleavage also occurred in vivo and was detectable in sera 12 hours post intramuscular immunization (1x1010 viral particles) in CD-1 mice. Soluble S1 protein levels decreased within 3 days and were no longer detectable 7-14 days post immunization. Intravenous immunization (1x109 viral particles) produced higher soluble S1 protein levels with similar expression kinetics. Spike protein was undetectable by immunohistochemistry 14 days post intramuscular immunization. Intramuscular immunization resulted in transiently lower platelet (12 hours) and white blood cell (12-24 hours) counts relative to vehicle. Similarly, intravenous immunization resulted in lower platelet (24-72 hours) and white blood cell (12-24 hours) counts, and increased neutrophil (2 hours) counts. The responses observed with either route of immunization represent transient hematologic changes and correspond to expected innate immune responses to adenoviral infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematology , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 108: 108847, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Different quickly-developed vaccines are introduced against COVID-19 with inconclusive results especially against some recent variants. Eventually, somewhere COVID-19 cases decline and in some countries it revived with some new mutant-variants (i.e. D614G, Delta and Omicron). OBJECTIVES: Proposing a universal vaccination strategy by screening globally-conserved SARS-CoV-2 spike-epitopes. METHODS: Presently, several conserved (186-countries) sequences including multiple-variants (ClustalX2) epitopic-regions (SVMTriP and IEDB) and in-silico mutants of SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein-fragments (Cut1-4) were screened for their stability against proteases, antigenicity (VaxiJen V2.0 and for glycosylation effects NetOGlyc-NetNGlyc), MHCI/II reactivity (IEDB-TOOLS) and CD4+ responses by molecular-docking (Haddock2.4/PatchDock). We also examined Molecular-Dynamic-Simulation (myPresto verson-5) of MHC-II 3LQZ with 3-Cuts and T-cell 2-molecules (1KGC/4JRX) with SM3-Cut. The MD-simulation was run with 5000-cycles after 300 k-heating/1-atm pressure adjustment for the system-equilibration. Finally, 1000 fs production was run. RESULTS: The cut4-mutant (SRLFRKSNLKPFERD) showed the highest combined-score 48.23548 and Immunogenicity-Score of 92.0887. The core-sequence SRLFRKSNL showed the highest Median-Percentile-Rank (7-HLA-allele) of 19. CD4+ immunogenicity also confirms the representation of the CUT4TM2 epitope SRLFRKSNL by MHC Class II. The epitope YNYKYRLFR from CUT4 showed an IC50 of ∼30 nM with allele HLA-DRB1*11:01 and HLA-DRB5*01:01 with plenty H-bonding. Cut4 double-mutants strongly interact with the exposed T-cell surface and are facilitated by its receptors. The MD-simulation data suggest that TM2 has a maximum RMSD value of 1.7 Å, DM2 is at 1.55 Å and SM3 is at 1.5 Å. These variations correspond to structural adjustments and involve binding/unbinding chemical interactions. The RMSD plot shows that 1KGC T-cell molecule is at 2.2 Å and the 4JRX is at 1.2 Å, which increases with the simulation time. CONCLUSIONS: Screening of conserved SARS-CoV-2 spike fragments helps to find the most stable antigenic-determinant which with some mutations showed better antigenicity. Further studies are necessary to develop global vaccination strategies against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Humans , Macrophages , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 1254-1263, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850917

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 has been primarily associated with pneumonia, recent data show that its causative agent, the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, can infect many vital organs beyond the lungs, including the heart, kidneys and the brain. The literature agrees that COVID-19 is likely to have long-term mental health effects on infected individuals, which signifies a need to understand the role of the virus in the pathophysiology of brain disorders that is currently unknown and widely debated. Our docking and molecular dynamics simulations show that the affinity of the spike protein from the wild type (WT) and the South African B.1.351 (SA) variant towards MAO enzymes is comparable to that for its ACE2 receptor. This allows for the WT/SA⋅⋅⋅MAO complex formation, which changes MAO affinities for their neurotransmitter substrates, thereby impacting their metabolic conversion and misbalancing their levels. Knowing that this fine regulation is strongly linked with the etiology of various brain pathologies, these results are the first to highlight the possibility that the interference with the brain MAO catalytic activity is responsible for the increased neurodegenerative illnesses following a COVID-19 infection, thus placing a neurobiological link between these two conditions in the spotlight. Since the obtained insight suggests that a more contagious SA variant causes even larger disturbances, and with new and more problematic strains likely emerging in the near future, we firmly advise that the presented prospect of the SARS-CoV-2 induced neurological complications should not be ignored, but rather requires further clinical investigations to achieve an early diagnosis and timely therapeutic interventions.

5.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(6): 301, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850297

ABSTRACT

Escalated innate immunity plays a critical role in SARS-CoV-2 pathology; however, the molecular mechanism is incompletely understood. Thus, we aim to characterize the molecular mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein advances human macrophage (MÏ´) inflammatory and glycolytic phenotypes and uncover novel therapeutic strategies. We found that human MÏ´s exposed to Spike protein activate IRAK4 phosphorylation. Blockade of IRAK4 in Spike protein-stimulated MÏ´s nullifies signaling of IRAK4, AKT, and baseline p38 without affecting ERK and NF-κB activation. Intriguingly, IRAK4 inhibitor (IRAK4i) rescues the SARS-CoV-2-induced cytotoxic effect in ACE2+HEK 293 cells. Moreover, the inflammatory reprogramming of MÏ´s by Spike protein was blunted by IRAK4i through IRF5 and IRF7, along with the reduction of monokines, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, and CCL2. Notably, in Spike protein-stimulated MÏ´s, suppression of the inflammatory markers by IRAK4i was coupled with the rebalancing of oxidative phosphorylation over metabolic activity. This metabolic adaptation promoted by IRAK4i in Spike protein-activated MÏ´s was shown to be in part through constraining PFKBF3, HIF1α, cMYC, LDHA, lactate expression, and reversal of citrate and succinate buildup. IRAK4 knockdown could comparably impair Spike protein-enhanced inflammatory and metabolic imprints in human MÏ´s as those treated with ACE2, TLR2, and TLR7 siRNA. Extending these results, in murine models, where human SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein was not recognized by mouse ACE2, TLRs were responsible for the inflammatory and glycolytic responses instigated by Spike protein and were dysregulated by IRAK4i therapy. In conclusion, IRAK4i may be a promising strategy for severe COVID-19 patients by counter-regulating ACE2 and TLR-mediated MÏ´ hyperactivation. IRAK4i therapy counteracts MÏ´ inflammatory and glycolytic reprogramming triggered by Spike protein. This study illustrates that SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein activates IRAK4 signaling via ACE2 as well as TLR2 and TLR7 sensing in human MÏ´s. Remarkably, IRAK4i treatment can dysregulate both ACE-dependent and independent (via TLR sensing) SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein-activated inflammatory and metabolic imprints.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon Regulatory Factors/metabolism , Interferon Regulatory Factors/pharmacology , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/genetics , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinases/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism
6.
International Journal of Electrochemical Science ; 17, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847942

ABSTRACT

Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV CoV-2) pathogen and protein biomarkers can improve the diagnosis accuracy for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Electrochemical biosensors have attracted extensive attention in the scientific community because of their simple design, fast response, good portability, high sensitivity and high selectivity. In this review, we summarized the progress in the electrochemical detection of COVID-19 pathogen and SARS-CoV-2 biomarkers, including SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and nucleocapsid protein and their antibodies. © 2022. The Authors. Published by ESG. All Rights Reserved.

7.
J Med Virol ; 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844141

ABSTRACT

Cleavage of the severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein has been demonstrated to contribute to viral-cell fusion and syncytia formation. Studies have shown that variants of concern (VOC) and variants of interest (VOI) show differing membrane fusion capacity. Mutations near cleavage motifs, such as the S1/S2 and S2' sites, may alter interactions with host proteases and, thus, the potential for fusion. The biochemical basis for the differences in interactions with host proteases for the VOC/VOI spike proteins has not yet been explored. Using sequence and structure-based bioinformatics, mutations near the VOC/VOI spike protein cleavage sites were inspected for their structural effects. All mutations found at the S1/S2 sites were predicted to increase affinity to the furin protease but not TMPRSS2. Mutations at the spike residue P681 in several strains, such P681R in the Delta strain, resulted in the disruption of a proline-directed kinase phosphorylation motif at the S1/S2 site, which may lessen the impact of phosphorylation for these variants. However, the unique N679K mutation in the Omicron strain was found to increase the propensity for O-linked glycosylation at the S1/S2 cleavage site, which may prevent recognition by proteases. Such glycosylation in the Omicron strain may hinder entry at the cell surface and, thus, decrease syncytia formation and induce cell entry through the endocytic pathway as has been shown in previous studies. Further experimental work is needed to confirm the effect of mutations and posttranslational modifications on SARS-CoV-2 spike protein cleavage sites.

8.
Computation ; 10(4):25, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820189

ABSTRACT

Some clinical studies have indicated activity of ivermectin, a macrocyclic lactone, against COVID-19, but a biological mechanism initially proposed for this anti-viral effect is not applicable at physiological concentrations. This in silico investigation explores potential modes of action of ivermectin and 14 related compounds, by which the infectivity and morbidity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus may be limited. Binding affinity computations were performed for these agents on several docking sites each for models of (1) the spike glycoprotein of the virus, (2) the CD147 receptor, which has been identified as a secondary attachment point for the virus, and (3) the alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha 7nAChr), an indicated point of viral penetration of neuronal tissue as well as an activation site for the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway controlled by the vagus nerve. Binding affinities were calculated for these multiple docking sites and binding modes of each compound. Our results indicate the high affinity of ivermectin, and even higher affinities for some of the other compounds evaluated, for all three of these molecular targets. These results suggest biological mechanisms by which ivermectin may limit the infectivity and morbidity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and stimulate an alpha 7nAChr-mediated anti-inflammatory pathway that could limit cytokine production by immune cells.

9.
Curr Pharmacol Rep ; 8(2): 149-170, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813961

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to test the binding affinity of methylxanthines (caffeine/theine, methylxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and xanthine) to three potential target proteins namely Spike protein (6LZG), main protease (6LU7) and nucleocapsid protein N-terminal RNA binding domain (6M3M) of SARS-CoV-2. Proteins and ligand were generated using AutoDock 1.5.6 software. Binding affinity of methylxanthines with SARS-CoV-2 target proteins was determined using Autodock Vina. MD simulation of the best interacting complexes was performed using GROMACS 2018.3 (in duplicate) and Desmond program version 2.0 (academic version) (in triplicate) to study the stabile interaction of protein-ligand complexes. Among the selected methylxanthines, theophylline showed the best binding affinity with all the three targets of SARS-CoV-2 (6LZG - 5.7 kcal mol-1, 6LU7 - 6.5 kcal mol-1, 6M3M - 5.8 kcal mol-1). MD simulation results of 100 ns (in triplicate) showed that theophylline is stable in the binding pockets of all the selected SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Moreover, methylxanthines are safer and less toxic as shown by high LD50 value with Protox II software as compared to drug chloroquine. This research supports the use of methylxanthines as a SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor. It also lays the groundwork for future studies and could aid in the development of a treatment for SARS-CoV-2 and related viral infections. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40495-021-00276-3.

10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 150: 113021, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute -respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) through interaction of the spike protein (SP) with the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and its receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2(ACE2). Repair mechanisms induced following virus infection can restore the protective barrier through wound healing. Then, cells from the epithelial basal layer repopulate the damaged area, followed by cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as changes in gene expression. METHODS: Using Beas-2B cells and SP, we investigated whether ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) contributes to restoration of the bronchial epithelial layer. ACE2 expression was measured by RT-PCR and Western blotting. SP-ACE2 interaction was analyzed by flow cytometry and visualized through immunostaining. Cell migration was assessed using single cell path tracking and wound healing assay. RESULTS: Upon ACE2 overexpression in HeLa, HEK293T, and Beas-2B cells following the transfection of pCMV-ACE2 plasmid DNA, SP binding on each cell was increased in the ACE2 overexpression group compared to pCMV-transfected control cells. SP treatment delayed the migration of BEAS-2B cells compared to the control. SP also reduced cell migration, even under ACE2 overexpression; SP binding was greater in ACE2-overexpressed cells than control cells. UDCA interfered significantly with the binding of SP to ACE2 under our experimental conditions. UDCA also restored the inhibitory migration of Beas-2B cells induced by SP treatment. CONCLSION: Our data demonstrate that UDCA can contribute to the inhibition of abnormal airway epithelial cell migration. These results suggest that UDCA can enhance the repair mechanism, to prevent damage caused by SP-ACE2 interaction and enhance restoration of the epithelial basal layer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Movement , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Ursodeoxycholic Acid/pharmacology
11.
Mater Today Chem ; 25: 100924, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799775

ABSTRACT

Due to the unprecedented and ongoing nature of the coronavirus outbreak, the development of rapid immunoassays to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its highly contagious variants is an important and challenging task. Here, we report the development of polyclonal antibody-functionalized spherical gold nanoparticle biosensors as well as the influence of the nanoparticle sizes on the immunoassay response to detect the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein by dynamic light scattering. By monitoring the increment in the hydrodynamic diameter (ΔDH) by dynamic light scattering measurements in the antigen-antibody interaction, SARS-CoV-2 S-protein can be detected in only 5 min. The larger the nanoparticles, the larger ΔDH in the presence of spike protein. From adsorption isotherm, the calculated binding constant (K D ) was 83 nM and the estimated limit of detection was 13 ng/mL (30 pM). The biosensor was stable up to 90 days at 4 °C. Therefore, the biosensor developed in this work could be potentially applied as a fast and sensible immunoassay to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection in patient samples.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792660

ABSTRACT

In this study, we combine all-atom MD simulations and comprehensive mutational scanning of S-RBD complexes with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) host receptor in the native form as well as the S-RBD Delta and Omicron variants to (a) examine the differences in the dynamic signatures of the S-RBD complexes and (b) identify the critical binding hotspots and sensitivity of the mutational positions. We also examined the differences in allosteric interactions and communications in the S-RBD complexes for the Delta and Omicron variants. Through the perturbation-based scanning of the allosteric propensities of the SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD residues and dynamics-based network centrality and community analyses, we characterize the global mediating centers in the complexes and the nature of local stabilizing communities. We show that a constellation of mutational sites (G496S, Q498R, N501Y and Y505H) correspond to key binding energy hotspots and also contribute decisively to the key interfacial communities that mediate allosteric communications between S-RBD and ACE2. These Omicron mutations are responsible for both favorable local binding interactions and long-range allosteric interactions, providing key functional centers that mediate the high transmissibility of the virus. At the same time, our results show that other mutational sites could provide a "flexible shield" surrounding the stable community network, thereby allowing the Omicron virus to modulate immune evasion at different epitopes, while protecting the integrity of binding and allosteric interactions in the RBD-ACE2 complexes. This study suggests that the SARS-CoV-2 S protein may exploit the plasticity of the RBD to generate escape mutants, while engaging a small group of functional hotspots to mediate efficient local binding interactions and long-range allosteric communications with ACE2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Humans , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
13.
Progress in Biochemistry and Biophysics ; 49(3):540-552, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1791632

ABSTRACT

The coronaviruses (CoVs), which are a family of positive-strand RNA viruses, infect the mammals and birds. Seven CoVs are responsible for human-to-human transmission, especially the SARS-CoV-2, thereby posing a daunting challenge to global public health security. As the most common modification in viral glycoproteins, glycosylation plays the crucial role in host recognition, immunity avoidance, virus replication, assembly and transmission. In this review, we summarized and discussed the latest studies about glycosylation in coronaviridae members. Focused on the spike protein, nearly one hundred of N/O-glycosyltion sites have been reported. The N-glycans from spike protein are dominated by the high-mannose and complex-type, while the O-glycosylation is rather complicated. Significantly, it is known that the viral glycosylation depend on host cells, thus the glycan pattern of the produced recombinant viral glycoproteins might be different from that of native viral proteins, which represent a crucial determinant for vaccine design. The latest results based on bioinformatics, biochip, mass spectrography and genetic technology facilitate the overall perspective for glycosylation researching in CoVs. By summarizing the distribution of glycosylation sites, the structure of glycans, the biological functions and the research technologies, this review will help promote diagnosis, treatment and vaccine development related to coronaviruses.

14.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 62: 103800, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The persistence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 pandemic, partly due to the appearance of highly infectious variants, has made booster vaccinations necessary for vulnerable groups. Here, we present data regarding the decline of the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine-induced humoral immune response in a monocentric cohort of MS patients. METHODS: 96 MS patients undergoing eight different DMTs, all without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, were evaluated for anti-Spike IgG levels, 21 days (T1) and 5-6 months (T2) after the second SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine dose. The anti-Spike IgG titre from MS subjects was compared with 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). RESULTS: When compared with SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels at T2 in HC, we observed comparable levels in interferon-ß 1a-, dimethyl fumarate-, teriflunomide- and natalizumab-treated MS subjects, but an impaired humoral response in MS subjects undergoing glatiramer acetate-, cladribine-, fingolimod- and ocrelizumab-treatments. Moreover, comparison between SARS-CoV-2 IgG Spike titre at T1 and T2 revealed a faster decline of the humoral response in patients undergoing dimethyl fumarate-, interferon-ß 1a- and glatiramer acetate-therapies, while those receiving teriflunomide and natalizumab showed higher persistence compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The prominent decline in humoral response in MS subjects undergoing dimethyl fumarate-, interferon-ß 1a- and glatiramer acetate-therapies should be considered when formulating booster regimens as these subjects would benefit of early booster vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Dimethyl Fumarate/therapeutic use , Glatiramer Acetate/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
15.
Biotechniques ; 72(5): 207-218, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779828

ABSTRACT

We have developed a new Western blotting method of native proteins from agarose-based gel electrophoresis using a buffer at pH 6.1 containing basic histidine and acidic 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid. This gel electrophoresis successfully provided native structures for a variety of proteins and macromolecular complexes. This paper is focused on the Western blotting of native protein bands separated on agarose gels. Two blotting methods from agarose gel to PVDF membrane are introduced here, one by contact (diffusion) blotting and another by electroblotting after pre-treating the agarose gels with SDS. The contact blotting resulted in the transfer of native GFP, native human plexin domain containing protein 2 (PLXDC2) and native SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which were detected by conformation-specific antibodies generated in-house.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Blotting, Western , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel/methods , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Gels , Humans , Proteins/chemistry , Sepharose/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
16.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(4)2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776155

ABSTRACT

Predicting disease severity in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 is difficult. Soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (sACE2) arises from the shedding of membrane ACE2 (mACE2), which is a receptor for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We evaluated the predictive value of sACE2 compared with known biomarkers of inflammation and tissue damage (CRP, GDF-15, IL-6, and sFlt-1) in 850 patients with and without SARS-CoV-2 with different clinical outcomes. For univariate analyses, median differences between biomarker levels were calculated for the following patient groups (classified by clinical outcome): RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive (Groups 1-4); RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 negative following previous SARS-CoV-2 infection (Groups 5 and 6); and 'SARS-CoV-2 unexposed' patients (Group 7). Median levels of CRP, GDF-15, IL-6, and sFlt-1 were significantly higher in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 compared with discharged patients (all p < 0.001), whereas levels of sACE2 were significantly lower (p < 0.001). ROC curve analysis of sACE2 provided cut-offs for predicting hospital admission (≤0.05 ng/mL (positive predictive value: 89.1%) and ≥0.42 ng/mL (negative predictive value: 84.0%)). These findings support further investigation of sACE2, as a single biomarker or as part of a panel, to predict hospitalization risk and disease severity in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

17.
J Cell Biochem ; 123(5): 964-986, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763245

ABSTRACT

The continuous spread and evolution of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the rapid surge in infection cases in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) evoke a dire need for effective therapeutics. In this study, we explored the inhibitory potential of a library of 605 phytocompounds, selected from Indian medicinal plants with reported antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities, against the receptor-binding domain of spike proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and the variants of concern, including variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma), B.1.617.2 (Delta), and B.1.1.529 (Omicron). Our approach was based on extensive molecular docking, assessment of drug-likeness, and robust molecular dynamics simulations. We also identified promising inhibitory candidates against the host (human) proteins associated with SARS-CoV-2 spike activation and attachment, namely, ACE2 receptor, proteases TMPRSS2 and CTSL, and the endocytic regulator AAK1. In addition, we screened promising inhibitory compounds against the human proinflammatory cytokines- IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, that are associated with the adverse cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients. Our analysis returned an encouraging list of promising inhibitory candidates that includes: abietatriene against the spike proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and the variants of concern; taraxerol against the human ACE2, CTSL and TNF-α; ß-amyrin against the human TMPRSS2; cynaroside against the human AAK1 and IL-1ß; and friedelin against the human IL-6 and IFN-γ. Our findings provide substantial evidence for the inhibitory potential of these compounds and encourage further in vitro and in vivo studies to validate their use as safe and effective therapeutics against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
18.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(3)2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760343

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease that spreads rapidly in humans. In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a COVID-19 pandemic. Identifying a multi-target-directed ligand approach would open up new opportunities for drug discovery to combat COVID-19. The aim of this work was to perform a virtual screening of an exclusive chemical library of about 1700 molecules containing both pharmacologically active compounds and synthetic intermediates to propose potential protein inhibitors for use against SARS-CoV-2. In silico analysis showed that our compounds triggered an interaction network with key residues of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-protein), blocking trimer formation and interaction with the human receptor hACE2, as well as with the main 3C-like protease (3CLpro), inhibiting their biological function. Our data may represent a step forward in the search for potential new chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of COVID-19.

19.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 20(6): 647-671, 2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761413

ABSTRACT

The widespread outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 in late 2019 caused many people worldwide to die or suffer from certain clinical complications even after the recovery. The virus has many social and economic adverse effects. Studies on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have specified that spike, surface glycoprotein antigen, is considered as a major target to stimulate the immune system. This glycoprotein binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 on the surface of human cells especially lung epithelial cells and facilitates the virus entry. Therefore, the immune response stimulated by vaccination targeting this antigen may cause immunity against the whole virus. Currently, many companies are working on SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. They include 'traditional' vaccines like attenuated or inactivated virus platforms as well as the brand-new generations of vaccines such as viral vector-based, subunit, nucleic acid-based, and virus-like particle vaccines. Certainly, each vaccine platform presents several advantages and disadvantages affecting its efficacy and safety which is the main topic of this paper.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Humans , Mass Vaccination , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virus Internalization
20.
Talanta ; 244: 123381, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747550

ABSTRACT

The early diagnosis of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) requires either an accurate detection of genetic material or a sensitive detection of viral proteins. In this work, we designed an immunoassay platform for detecting trace levels of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. It is based on surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) of methylene blue (MB) adsorbed onto spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and coated with a 6 nm silica shell. The latter shell in the SERRS nanoprobe prevented aggregation and permitted functionalization with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Specificity of the immunoassay was achieved by combining this functionalization with antibody immobilization on the cover slides that served as the platform support. Different concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 antigen could be distinguished and the lack of influence of interferents was confirmed by treating SERRS data with the multidimensional projection technique Sammon's mapping. With SERRS using a laser line at 633 nm, the lowest concentration of spike protein detected was 10 pg/mL, achieving a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.046 ng/mL (0.60 pM). This value is comparable to the lowest concentrations in the plasma of COVID-19 patients at the onset of symptoms, thus indicating that the SERRS immunoassay platform may be employed for early diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
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