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1.
Cell Reports Medicine ; : 100882, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2159932

ABSTRACT

Summary The nasal mucosa is an important initial site of host defense against SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, intramuscularly administered vaccines typically do not achieve high antibody titers in nasal mucosa. We measure anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG and IgA in nasal epithelial lining fluid (NELF) following intramuscular vaccination of 3,058 participants from the immunogenicity substudy of NCT04516746: A phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of AZD1222 vaccination. IgG is detected in NELF collected 14 days following first AZD1222 vaccination. IgG levels increase with a second vaccination and exceed pre-existing levels in baseline-SARS-CoV-2-seropositive participants. Nasal IgG responses are durable and display strong correlations with serum IgG, suggesting serum-to-NELF transudation. AZD1222 induces short-lived increases to pre-existing nasal IgA levels in baseline-seropositive vaccinees. Vaccinees display a robust recall IgG response upon breakthrough infection with overall magnitudes unaffected by time between vaccination and illness. Mucosal responses correlate with reduced viral loads and shorter durations of viral shedding in saliva.

2.
Science of The Total Environment ; 862:160700, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2150569

ABSTRACT

In this work, we report an impedimetric system for the detection of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike protein. The sensing platform is based on recombinant Spike protein (SCoV2-rS) immobilized on the phytic acid doped polyaniline films (PANI-PA). The affinity interaction between immobilized SCoV2-rS protein and antibodies in the physiological range of concentrations was registered by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Analytical parameters of the sensing platform were tuned by the variation of electropolymerization times during the synthesis of PANI-PA films. The lowest limit of detection and quantification were obtained for electropolymerization time of 20 min and equalled 8.00 ± 0.20 nM and 23.93 ± 0.60 nM with an equilibrium dissociation constant of 3 nM. The presented sensing system is label-free and suitable for the direct detection of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in real patient serum samples after coronavirus disease 2019 and/or vaccination.

3.
Sains Malaysiana ; 51(9):2985-2997, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2145716

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has become a real threat due to the emergence of new variants which are more deadly with higher infectivity. Vaccine constructs that target specific SARS-CoV-2 variants are needed for stemming COVID-19 fatality. The spike (S) glycoprotein is the major antigenic component that triggers the host immune response. Reverse vaccinology strategy was applied to the S protein of COVID-19 variant D614G to identify highly ranked antigenic proteins. In this study, a multi-epitope synthetic gene was designed using computational strategies for the COVID-19 D614G variant. The SARS-CoV-2 D614G variant protein sequence was retrieved from the NCBI database. The prediction of linear B-cell epitopes was carried out using Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based ABCpred and BepiPred 2.0 software. The top 15 highly antigenic epitopes sequences were then selected. Propred 1 and Propred servers were used to identify major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II binding epitopes within pre-determined B-cell epitopes to predict T-cell epitopes. The top 5 MHC class I and class II were selected. Further in-silico testing for its solubility, allergenicity, antigenicity, and other physiochemical properties was analyzed using Bpred. The constructed gene was subjected to assembly PCR and the gene product was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The findings from this study suggested that a highly antigenic specific region of the SARS-CoV-2 D614G variant can be predicted in-silico and amplified using the assembly PCR method. The designed synthetic gene was shown to elicit specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses towards the SARS-CoV-2 variants. © 2022 Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. All rights reserved.

4.
Phytother Res ; 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128042

ABSTRACT

The mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated perturbations of metabolic pathways and modulation of antcin A, a steroid-like compound isolated from Taiwanofungus camphoratus, are not studied. Here, we investigated the metabolic alteration by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the regulatory effect of antcin A on SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-induced metabolic changes in the Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced human monocytes (THP-1) using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR) and MetaboAnalyst 5.0 software. The cytotoxic potential of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, antcin A, and dexamethasone was assessed by MTT assay. The metabolomic perturbations and their relation to human coronaviruses' receptors were evaluated by qPCR. This study indicated that the altered metabolites mediated by SARS-CoV-2 protein, such as methionine, phosphoenolpyruvic acid, canadine, glutamine, ethanolamine, and phenylalanine, were significantly reversed by antcin A. In addition, antcin A significantly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated up-regulation of TLR-4 and ACE2 receptors, while GRP78 inhibition was not statistically significant. This is the first study to use 1 H-NMR to investigate SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-induced metabolomic changes in PMA-induced THP-1 cells. Antcin A significantly reversed metabolomic alters while dexamethasone failed to fix them. Therefore, we believe that antcin A could be a potential candidate for therapeutic agents for viral infections related to a metabolic abnormality.

5.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2122882

ABSTRACT

Purpose Administration of three doses of Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine was completed in Japan in the spring of 2022. This study aimed to evaluate the antibody responses, and kinetics of three doses of vaccine in healthcare workers (HCWs). Patients and methods We conducted a longitudinal cohort study with HCWs, who had no history of COVID-19 or serologic evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, from a single hospital. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SP) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) titers were measured using an automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay system. Results A total of 636 HCWs participated in the study. The anti-SP IgG titers decreased slowly after the second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine in all participants, and robust antibody response was observed after the third dose of the vaccine. The peak anti-SP IgG titer after the third dose was approximately 4.1-fold higher than that after the first and second doses, and the rate of decrease in the anti-SP IgG titer after the third dose was significantly more gradual, than that after the second dose. After the second dose of vaccine, the antibody response was weaker in older participants than in younger participants, and in males than in females respectively, whereas the response to the third dose of vaccine did not differ significantly by sex or age. Adverse events following immunization were generally mild to moderate. Conclusion The third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine induced a significant and sustained increase in anti-SP IgG titers, and was generally safe and well-tolerated.

6.
Journal of Polymer Science ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2122145

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has significantly impacted human health, the global economy, and society. Viruses residing on common surfaces represent a potential source of contamination for the general population. Spike binding peptide 1, SBP1 is a 23 amino acid peptide, which has micromolar binding affinity (1.3 mu M) towards the spike protein receptor-binding domain. We hypothesize that if we can covalently immobilize this SBP1 peptide in a covalent crosslinked network system, we can develop a surface that would preferentially bind spike protein and, therefore, which could limit viral spread. A series of covalently crosslinked networks of hydroxy ethyl acrylate (HEA) with different primary chain lengths and crosslinker density was prepared. Later, this network system was functionalized using 2% SBP1 peptide. Our study found that with a shorter chain length and lower crosslinker density, the HEA network system alone could capture almost 80% of the spike protein. We reported that the efficiency could be enhanced almost by 17% with higher crosslinker density.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(22)2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116208

ABSTRACT

This study underlines the importance of SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 in prompting death in cultured non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and in vivo in lung tumors in mice. Interestingly, we found that recombinant spike S1 treatment at very low doses led to death of human A549 NSCLC cells. On the other hand, boiled recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 remained unable to induce death, suggesting that the induction of cell death in A549 cells was due to native SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein. SARS-CoV-2 spike S1-induced A549 cell death was also inhibited by neutralizing antibodies against spike S1 and ACE2. Moreover, our newly designed wild type ACE2-interacting domain of SARS-CoV-2 (wtAIDS), but not mAIDS, peptide also attenuated SARS-CoV-2 spike S1-induced cell death, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 spike S1-induced death in A549 NSCLC cells depends on its interaction with ACE2 receptor. Similarly, recombinant spike S1 treatment also led to death of human H1299 and H358 NSCLC cells. Finally, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) intoxication led to the formation tumors in lungs of A/J mice and alternate day intranasal treatment with low dose of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 from 22-weeks of NNK insult (late stage) induced apoptosis and tumor regression in the lungs. These studies indicate that SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 may have implications for lung cancer treatment.

8.
J Med Virol ; : e28300, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115782

ABSTRACT

Against the background of the current COVID-19 infection dynamics with its rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC), the immunity and the vaccine prevention of healthcare workers (HCWs) against SARS-CoV-2 continues to be of high importance. This observational cross-section study assesses factors influencing the level of anti-SARS-CoV-2-spike IgG after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. One thousand seven hundred and fifty HCWs were recruited meeting the following inclusion criteria: age ≥18 years, PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection convalescence and/or at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccination. anti-SARS-CoV-2-spike IgG titers were determined by SERION ELISA agile SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Mean anti-SARS-CoV-2-spike IgG levels increased significantly by number of COVID-19 vaccinations (92.2 BAU/ml for single, 140.9 BAU/ml for twice and 1144.3 BAU/ml for threefold vaccination). Hybrid COVID-19 immunized respondents (after infection and vaccination) had significantly higher antibody titers compared with convalescent only HCWs. Anti-SARS-CoV-2-spike IgG titers declined significantly with time after the second vaccination. Smoking and high age were associated with lower titers. Both recovered and vaccinated HCWs presented a predominantly good humoral immune response. Smoking and higher age limited the humoral SARS-CoV-2 immunity, adding to the risk of severe infections within this already health impaired collective.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(11)2022 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110306

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a health crisis worldwide; therefore, it is necessary to understand the factors related to its prognosis. In this study, we hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2-derived antigens presented by MHC class I may correlate with mortality in COVID-19 because they induce adaptive immune responses. Antigen coverage at the national level was inferred using country-specific HLA allele frequencies and relative predictions of binding antigens. We performed regression analysis between antigen coverage and the death rate due to COVID-19 across countries and found a negative correlation, although it was statistically significant only in HLA-B. This negative correlation was corroborated in multiple regression analysis with known risk factors, such as the prevalence of underlying disease. Furthermore, we analyzed antigen coverage in accordance with SARS-CoV-2 domains and identified a significant negative correlation when it was derived from the spike domain, which is reported to be favorable for COVID-19 prognosis. Taken together, the results indicate that the antigen coverage of SARS-CoV-2 specifically presented by HLA-B may act as a favorable factor when explaining COVID-19-induced mortality.

10.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099840

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 cell-cell fusion and syncytiation is an emerging pathomechanism in COVID-19, but the precise factors contributing to the process remain ill-defined. In this study, we show that metalloproteases promote SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-induced syncytiation in the absence of established serine proteases using in vitro cell-cell fusion assays. We also show that metalloproteases promote S2'-activation of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and that metalloprotease inhibition significantly reduces the syncytiation of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. In the presence of serine proteases, however, metalloprotease inhibition does not reduce spike protein-induced syncytiation and a combination of metalloprotease and serine protease inhibition is necessitated. Moreover, we show that the spike protein induces metalloprotease-dependent ectodomain shedding of the ACE2 receptor and that ACE2 shedding contributes to spike protein-induced syncytiation. These observations suggest a benefit to the incorporation of pharmacological inhibitors of metalloproteases into treatment strategies for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cell Fusion , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Metalloproteases , Serine Proteases
11.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099670

ABSTRACT

Since there is an urgent need for novel treatments to combat the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, in silico molecular docking studies were implemented as an attempt to explore the ability of selected bioactive constituents of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) to act as potent SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) antiviral compounds, aiming to explore their ability to interact with SARS-CoV-2 Spike key therapeutic target protein. Our results suggest that EVOO constituents display substantial capacity for binding and interfering with Spike (S) protein, both wild-type and mutant, via the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of Spike, or other binding targets such as angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) or the RBD-ACE2 protein complex, inhibiting the interaction of the virus with host cells. This in silico study provides useful insights for the understanding of the mechanism of action of the studied compounds at a molecular level. From the present study, it could be suggested that the studied active phytochemicals could potentially inhibit the Spike protein, contributing thus to the understanding of the role that they can play in future drug designing and the development of anti-COVID-19 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Olive Oil , Molecular Docking Simulation , COVID-19/drug therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Binding Sites , Protein Binding
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(45): 14403-14413, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096615

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is initiated by binding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on host cells. Food factors capable of suppressing the binding between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and ACE2 or reducing the ACE2 availability through ACE2 inhibitions may potentially reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. In this study, the chemical compositions of clove water and ethanol extracts were investigated, along with their potentials in suppressing SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-ACE2 binding, reducing ACE2 availability, and scavenging free radicals. Thirty-four compounds were tentatively identified in the clove water and ethanol extracts, with six reported in clove for the first time. Clove water and ethanol extracts dose-dependently suppressed SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding to ACE2 and inhibited ACE2 activity. The water extract had stronger inhibitory effects than the ethanol extract on a dry weight basis. The clove water extract also had more potent free radical scavenging activities against DPPH• and ABTS•+ (536.9 and 3525.06 µmol TE/g, respectively) than the ethanol extract (58.44 and 2298.01 µmol TE/g, respectively). In contrast, the ethanol extract had greater total phenolic content (TPC) and relative HO• scavenging capacity (HOSC) values (180.03 mg GAE/g and 2181.08 µmol TE/g, respectively) than the water extract (120.12 mg GAE/g and 1483.02 µmol TE/g, respectively). The present study demonstrated the potential of clove in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Syzygium , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Syzygium/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Protein Binding , Binding Sites , Free Radicals , Water , Ethanol
13.
Med Mol Morphol ; 55(4): 316-322, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085395

ABSTRACT

Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and with severe COVID-19 often have multiple coinfections, and their treatment is challenging. Here, we performed cytology analysis on sputum samples from two patients with severe COVID-19. The specimens were prepared using the rubbing method and stained with Papanicolaou stain. In both cases, several cells with frosted nuclei were observed, and the cytological findings per 100 cells were evaluated. The infected cells were mononuclear to multinuclear, showing chromatin aggregation at the nuclear margins, intranuclear inclusion bodies, eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, and mutual pressure exclusion of the nuclei. Immunocytochemical staining revealed that the cells were positive for AE1/AE3 and negative for CD68 expression, indicating their epithelial origin. Furthermore, infected cells with frosted nuclei were positive for surfactant protein A (SP-A) in Case 2, suggesting infection of type II alveolar pneumocytes or Clara cells. Moreover, in Case 2, the infected cells were positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) I + II and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, confirming double infection in these cells. In conclusion, sputum cytology is an important tool for determining the diversity of viral infection, and additional immunocytochemistry can be used for definitive diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Sputum , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A , Chromatin
14.
JACC Basic Transl Sci ; 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076294

ABSTRACT

SARS CoV-2 enters host cells via its Spike protein moiety binding to the essential cardiac enzyme angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2, followed by internalization. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are RNA sequences that are translated into Spike protein, which follows the same ACE2-binding route as the intact virion. In model systems, isolated Spike protein can produce cell damage and altered gene expression, and myocardial injury or myocarditis can occur during COVID-19 or after mRNA vaccination. We investigated 7 COVID-19 and 6 post-mRNA vaccination patients with myocardial injury and found nearly identical alterations in gene expression that would predispose to inflammation, coagulopathy, and myocardial dysfunction.

15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071514

ABSTRACT

The adsorption kinetics of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein subunit with the receptor binding domain at abiotic surfaces was investigated. A combination of sensitive methods was used such as atomic force microscopy yielding a molecular resolution, a quartz microbalance, and optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy. The two latter methods yielded in situ information about the protein adsorption kinetics under flow conditions. It was established that at pH 3.5-4 the protein adsorbed on mica and silica surfaces in the form of compact quasi-spherical aggregates with an average size of 14 nm. The maximum coverage of the layers was equal to 3 and 1 mg m-2 at pH 4 and 7.4, respectively. The experimental data were successfully interpreted in terms of theoretical results derived from modeling. The experiments performed for flat substrates were complemented by investigations of the protein corona formation at polymer particles carried out using in situ laser Doppler velocimetry technique. In this way, the zeta potential of the protein layers was acquired as a function of the coverage. Applying the electrokinetic model, these primary data were converted to the dependence of the subunit zeta potential on pH. It was shown that a complete acid-base characteristic of the layer can be acquired only using nanomolar quantities of the protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Protein Corona , Humans , Adsorption , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Polymers , Surface Properties , Quartz , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , SARS-CoV-2 , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry , Proteins
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071501

ABSTRACT

In SARS-CoV-2-infected humans, disease progression is often associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome involving severe lung injury, coagulopathy, and thrombosis of the alveolar capillaries. The pathogenesis of these pulmonary complications in COVID-19 patients has not been elucidated. Autopsy study of these patients showed SARS-CoV-2 virions in pulmonary vessels and sequestrated leukocytes infiltrates associated with endotheliopathy and microvascular thrombosis. Since SARS-CoV-2 enters and infects target cells by binding its spike (S) protein to cellular angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and there is evidence that vascular endothelial cells and neutrophils express ACE2, we investigated the effect of S-proteins and cell-cell communication on primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMEC) and neutrophils expression of thrombogenic factors and the potential mechanisms. Using S-proteins of two different SARS-CoV-2 variants (Wuhan and Delta), we demonstrate that exposure of HLMEC or neutrophils to S-proteins, co-culture of HLMEC exposed to S-proteins with non-exposed neutrophils, or co-culture of neutrophils exposed to S-proteins with non-exposed HLMEC induced transcriptional upregulation of tissue factor (TF), significantly increased the expression and secretion of factor (F)-V, thrombin, and fibrinogen and inhibited tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), the primary regulator of the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, in both cell types. Recombinant (r)TFPI and a thiol blocker (5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)) prevented S-protein-induced expression and secretion of Factor-V, thrombin, and fibrinogen. Thrombomodulin blocked S-protein-induced expression and secretion of fibrinogen but had no effect on S-protein-induced expression of Factor-V or thrombin. These results suggests that following SARS-CoV-2 contact with the pulmonary endothelium or neutrophils and endothelial-neutrophil interactions, viral S-proteins induce coagulopathy via the TF pathway and mechanisms involving functional thiol groups. These findings suggest that using rTFPI and/or thiol-based drugs could be a viable therapeutic strategy against SARS-CoV-2-induced coagulopathy and thrombosis.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cell Communication , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelium/metabolism , Fibrinogen , Humans , Lipoproteins , Lung/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Sulfhydryl Compounds , Thrombin , Thrombomodulin , Thromboplastin , Thrombosis/etiology
17.
Mater Des ; 223: 111263, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069463

ABSTRACT

Here, we firstly introduce a detection system consisting of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and Au nanorods (AuNRs) for an ultrasensitive, rapid, quantitative and on-site detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) effect. Briefly, the UCNPs capture the S protein of lysed SARS-CoV-2 in the swabs and subsequently they are bound with the anti-S antibodies modified AuNRs, resulting in significant nonradiative transitions from UCNPs (donors) to AuNRs (acceptors) at 480 nm and 800 nm, respectively. Notably, the specific recognition and quantitation of S protein can be realized in minutes at 800 nm because of the low autofluorescence and high Yb-Tm energy transfer in upconversion process. Inspiringly, the limit of detection (LOD) of the S protein can reach down to 1.06 fg mL-1, while the recognition of nucleocapsid protein is also comparable with a commercial test kit in a shorter time (only 5 min). The established strategy is technically superior to those reported point-of-care biosensors in terms of detection time, cost, and sensitivity, which paves a new avenue for future on-site rapid viral screening and point-of-care diagnostics.

18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066130

ABSTRACT

In this study, we performed all-atom MD simulations of RBD-ACE2 complexes for BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, and BA.3 Omicron subvariants, conducted a systematic mutational scanning of the RBD-ACE2 binding interfaces and analysis of electrostatic effects. The binding free energy computations of the Omicron RBD-ACE2 complexes and comprehensive examination of the electrostatic interactions quantify the driving forces of binding and provide new insights into energetic mechanisms underlying evolutionary differences between Omicron variants. A systematic mutational scanning of the RBD residues determines the protein stability centers and binding energy hotpots in the Omicron RBD-ACE2 complexes. By employing the ensemble-based global network analysis, we propose a community-based topological model of the Omicron RBD interactions that characterized functional roles of the Omicron mutational sites in mediating non-additive epistatic effects of mutations. Our findings suggest that non-additive contributions to the binding affinity may be mediated by R493, Y498, and Y501 sites and are greater for the Omicron BA.1.1 and BA.2 complexes that display the strongest ACE2 binding affinity among the Omicron subvariants. A network-centric adaptation model of the reversed allosteric communication is unveiled in this study, which established a robust connection between allosteric network hotspots and potential allosteric binding pockets. Using this approach, we demonstrated that mediating centers of long-range interactions could anchor the experimentally validated allosteric binding pockets. Through an array of complementary approaches and proposed models, this comprehensive and multi-faceted computational study revealed and quantified multiple functional roles of the key Omicron mutational site R493, R498, and Y501 acting as binding energy hotspots, drivers of electrostatic interactions as well as mediators of epistatic effects and long-range communications with the allosteric pockets.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
19.
Talanta ; : 123981, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2061903

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (SARS-CoV-2-S) was used as a template molecule and polypyrrole (Ppy) was applied as an electro-generated conducting polymer, which was acting as a matrix for the formation of molecular imprints. Two types of Ppy-layers: molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIP-Ppy) and non-imprinted polypyrrole (NIP-Ppy) were electrochemically deposited on the working platinum electrode. The performance of electrodes modified by MIP-Ppy and NIP-Ppy layers was evaluated by pulsed amperometric detection (PAD). During the assessment of measurement results registered by PAD, the integrated Cottrell equation (Anson plot) was used to calculate the amount of charge passed through the MIP-Ppy and NIP-Ppy layers. The interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins and molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIP-Ppy) was assessed by the Anson plot based calculations. This assessment reveals that SARS-CoV-2-S glycoproteins are interacting with MIP-Ppy more strongly than with NIP-Ppy.

20.
Viral Immunol ; 35(8): 545-552, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051255

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody level is used to predict immune protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 is a major target for virus-neutralizing antibody. A number of neutralizing epitopes were mapped on receptor binding domain (RBD) and N-terminal domain (NTD) of S1 subunit of the spike. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody usually decreases over time after recovery. Level of neutralizing antibody and binding antibody to several domains from COVID-19 recovered patients was observed longitudinally in this study. Sequentially collected serum samples from 35 patients demonstrated both similar and different trends of neutralizing antibodies versus binding antibodies to each domain. Twenty-three individuals showed similarly decreasing pattern of neutralizing titer, binding antibodies to RBD, NTD, fusion protein (S2), and nucleocapsid (NP). Interestingly, eight individuals had stably high neutralizing titer (≥320) for 3-12 months, whereas their binding antibodies to RBD, NTD, and NP rapidly decreased. Moreover, their binding antibodies to S2 were stable over time similar to the persistence of neutralizing antibody levels. The long-lasting antibody to S2 suggested an anamnestic response to cross-reactive epitopes from previous infections with other related coronaviruses. These data indicate a difference in kinetics and longevity of antibodies to various domains and epitopes of the SARS-CoV-2 proteins. A better understanding in this difference may help improve vaccine design to induce long-lasting immunity to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
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