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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has evolved quickly, with different variants of concern resulting in the need for countries to offer booster vaccinations. While studies have assessed homologous schedules in detail, the effectiveness of heterologous booster vaccine schedules against severity and mortality with newer variants, remains to be explored fully. METHODS: Utilising a Hospital Information System for COVID-19 established in Chiang Mai, Thailand, we conducted a cohort study by linking patient-level data on laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases to the national immunization records, during delta-predominant and omicron predominant periods. RESULTS: Compared to omicron, COVID-19 cases during delta period were ten times more likely to have severe outcomes and in-hospital deaths. During omicron, a third vaccine dose had 89% reduced risk of both severe COVID-19 and deaths. Third dose received 14-90 days prior to the date of positive test showed highest protection (93%). Severe outcomes were not observed with third dose during delta, and fourth dose during omicron period. All the vaccine types used for boosting in Thailand offered similar protection against severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Booster doses provided very high level of protection against severe COVID-19 outcomes and deaths. Booster campaigns should focus on improving coverage utilising all available vaccines to ensure optimal protection.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 952697, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099173

ABSTRACT

Currently, neutralizing antibody and vaccine strategies have been developed by targeting the SARS-CoV-2 strain identified during the early phase of the pandemic. Early studies showed that the ability of SARS-CoV-2 RBD or NTD antibodies to elicit infection enhancement in vivo is still controversial. There are growing concerns that the plasma and neutralizing antibodies from convalescent patients or people receiving vaccines mediate ADE of SARS-CoV-2 variants infections in immune cells. Here, we constructed engineered double-mutant variants containing an RBD mutation and D614G in the spike (S) protein and natural epidemic variants to gain insights into the correlation between the mutations in S proteins and the ADE activities and tested whether convalescent plasma and TOP10 neutralizing antibodies in our laboratory mediated the ADE effects of these SARS-CoV-2 variants. We found that one out of 29 convalescent plasma samples caused the ADE effect of pandemic variant B.1.1.7 and that the ADE effect of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 was not detected for any of these plasma samples. Only one antibody, 55A8, from the same batch of convalescent patients mediated the ADE effects of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants in vitro, including six double-mutant variants and four epidemic variants, suggesting that ADE activities may be closely related to the antibody itself and the SARS-CoV-2 variants' S proteins. Moreover, the ADE activity of 55A8 depended on FcγRII on immune cells, and the introduction of LALA mutations at the Fc end of 55A8 eliminated the ADE effects in vitro, indicating that 55A8LALA may be a clinical drug used to prevent SARS-CoV-2 variants. Altogether, ADE may occur in rare convalescent patients or vaccinees with ADE-active antibodies who are then exposed to a SARS-CoV-2 variant. These data suggested that potential neutralizing antibodies may need to undergo ADE screening tests for SARS-CoV-2 variants, which should aid in the future design of effective antibody-based therapies.

3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(42): e303, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of severe outcomes with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) delta variant remains low in children and adolescents, but less is known about its effect on the SARS-CoV-2-naïve population. This study evaluated clinical manifestations and risk factors for moderate-to-critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in mostly SARS-CoV-2-naïve children and adolescents in 2021. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective study included patients aged 0-18 years who were hospitalized with COVID-19 at 8 referring hospitals in South Korea during the predelta-predominant and delta-predominant periods in 2021. Each case was labeled as either hospitalization with medical needs or for isolation. Severity was categorized as mild, moderate, severe, or critical with regard to pneumonia presence and illness severity. RESULTS: Among 753 cases, most (99.5%) had no prior history of COVID-19 or vaccination against COVID-19. The proportions of hospitalization with medical needs (3.5% vs. 19.7%), moderate illness (0.9% vs. 4.0%), and severe/critical illness (0.8% vs. 5.3%) increased during delta predominance. The risk of moderate-to-critical COVID-19 among hospitalizations with medical needs was higher among patients aged 12-18 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-11.8) and with obesity (aOR, 6.9; 95% CI, 2.4-19.6) but not among patients infected during delta predominance. However, children with obesity experienced more severe COVID-19 during delta predominance (aOR, 6.1; 95% CI, 1.2-29.6). CONCLUSION: Despite its similar severity among most SARS-CoV-2-naïve children and adolescents, the delta variant may affect COVID-19 severity in those with high-risk underlying medical conditions. Underlying conditions, particularly obesity, may cause severe COVID-19 in children and adolescents, warranting strong consideration for vaccinating high-risk children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Retrospective Studies , Hospitalization , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology
4.
Virus Evol ; 8(2): veac089, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087850

ABSTRACT

New variants of SARS-CoV-2 show remarkable heterogeneity in their relative fitness over both time and space. In this paper we extend the tools available for estimating the selection strength for new SARS-CoV-2 variants to a hierarchical, mixed-effects, renewal equation model. This formulation allows us to estimate selection effects at the global level while incorporating both measured and unmeasured heterogeneity among countries. Applying this model to the spread of Omicron in forty countries, we find evidence for very strong but very heterogeneous selection effects. To test whether this heterogeneity is explained by differences in the immune landscape, we considered several measures of vaccination rates and recent population-level infection as covariates, finding moderately strong, statistically significant effects. We also found a significant positive correlation between the selection advantage of Delta and Omicron at the country level, suggesting that other region-specific explanatory variables of fitness differences do exist. Our method is implemented in the Stan programming language, can be run on standard consumer-grade computing resources, and will be straightforward to apply to future variants.

5.
J Pharm Anal ; 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086481

ABSTRACT

The strikingly rapidly mutating nature of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome has been a constant challenge during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In this study, various techniques, including reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, antigen-detection rapid diagnostic tests, and high-throughput sequencing were analyzed under different scenarios and spectra for the etiological diagnosis of COVID-19 at the population scale. This study aimed to summarize the latest research progress and provide up-to-date understanding of the methodology used for the evaluation of the immunoprotection conditions against future variants of SARS-CoV-2. Our novel work reviewed the current methods for the evaluation of the immunoprotection status of a specific population (endogenous antibodies) before and after vaccine inoculation (administered with biopharmaceutical antibody products). The present knowledge of immunoprotection status regarding the COVID-19 complications was also discussed. Knowledge on the immunoprotection status of specific populations could help guide the design of pharmaceutical antibody products, inform practice guidelines, and develop national regulations with respect to the timing of and need for extra rounds of vaccine boosters.

6.
Antiviral Res ; 208: 105450, 2022 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085916

ABSTRACT

FB2001 is a drug candidate that targets the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 via covalently binding to cysteine 145. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory activities of FB2001 against several SARS-CoV-2 variants in vitro and in vivo (in mice), and we also evaluated the histopathological analysis and immunostaining of FB2001 on lung and brain which have been rarely reported. The results showed that FB2001 exhibited potent antiviral efficacy against several current SARS-CoV-2 variants in Vero E6 cells, namely, B.1.1.7 (Alpha): EC50 = 0.39 ± 0.01 µM, EC90 = 0.75 ± 0.01 µM; B.1.351 (Beta): EC50 = 0.28 ± 0.11 µM, EC90 = 0.57 ± 0.21 µM; B.1.617.2 (Delta): EC50 = 0.27 ± 0.05 µM, EC90 = 0.81 ± 0.20 µM; B.1.1.529 (Omicron): EC50 = 0.26 ± 0.06 µM and EC50 = 0.042 ± 0.007 µM (in the presence of a P-glycoprotein inhibitor). FB2001 remained potent against SARS-CoV-2 replication in the presence of high concentrations of human serum, which indicating that human serum had no significant effect on the in vitro inhibitory activity. Additionally, this inhibitor exhibited an additive effect against SARS-CoV-2 when combined with Remdesivir. Furthermore, FB2001 significantly reduced the SARS-CoV-2 copy numbers and titers in the lungs and brains in vivo, and alleviated the pathological symptoms. In addition, FB2001 could alleviated local bleeding, erythrocyte overflow, edema, and inflammatory cell infiltration in brain tissue, and inhibitors reducing viral titers and improving inflammation in the brain have been rarely reported. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was established and verified to predict the FB2001 concentration in human lungs. When FB2001 was administered at 200 mg twice a day for 5 days, the observed Ctrough ss in plasma and predicted Ctrough ss of lung total concentration were 0.163 and 2.5 µg/mL, which were approximately 9 and 132-fold higher than the EC50 of 0.019 µg/mL (0.042 µM) against Omicron variant. Taken together, our study suggests that FB2001 is a promising therapeutic agent in COVID-19 treatment and can be combined with remdesivir to achieve improved clinical outcomes. Owing to its good safety and tolerability in healthy human (NCT05197179 and NCT04766931), FB2001 has been approved for Phase II/III clinical trial (NCT05445934).

7.
Cell Host Microbe ; 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082311

ABSTRACT

The rapid emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants challenges vaccination strategies. Here, we collected 201 serum samples from persons with a single infection or multiple vaccine exposures, or both. We measured their neutralization titers against 15 natural variants and 7 variants with engineered spike mutations and analyzed antigenic diversity. Antigenic maps of primary infection sera showed that Omicron sublineages BA.2, BA.4/BA.5, and BA.2.12.1 are distinct from BA.1 and more similar to Beta/Gamma/Mu variants. Three mRNA COVID-19 vaccinations increased neutralization of BA.1 more than BA.4/BA.5 or BA.2.12.1. BA.1 post-vaccination infection elicited higher neutralization titers to all variants than three vaccinations alone, although with less neutralization to BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5. Those with BA.1 infection after two or three vaccinations had similar neutralization titer magnitude and antigenic recognition. Accounting for antigenic differences among variants when interpreting neutralization titers can aid the understanding of complex patterns in humoral immunity that informs the selection of future COVID-19 vaccine strains.

8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 961198, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080141

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an outbreak emerged of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which leads to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The World Health Organisation announced the outbreak a global health emergency on 30 January 2020 and by 11 March 2020 it was declared a pandemic. The spread and severity of the outbreak took a heavy toll and overburdening of the global health system, particularly since there were no available drugs against SARS-CoV-2. With an immediate worldwide effort, communication, and sharing of data, large amounts of funding, researchers and pharmaceutical companies immediately fast-tracked vaccine development in order to prevent severe disease, hospitalizations and death. A number of vaccines were quickly approved for emergency use, and worldwide vaccination rollouts were immediately put in place. However, due to several individuals being hesitant to vaccinations and many poorer countries not having access to vaccines, multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants quickly emerged that were distinct from the original variant. Uncertainties related to the effectiveness of the various vaccines against the new variants as well as vaccine specific-side effects have remained a concern. Despite these uncertainties, fast-track vaccine approval, manufacturing at large scale, and the effective distribution of COVID-19 vaccines remain the topmost priorities around the world. Unprecedented efforts made by vaccine developers/researchers as well as healthcare staff, played a major role in distributing vaccine shots that provided protection and/or reduced disease severity, and deaths, even with the delta and omicron variants. Fortunately, even for those who become infected, vaccination appears to protect against major disease, hospitalisation, and fatality from COVID-19. Herein, we analyse ongoing vaccination studies and vaccine platforms that have saved many deaths from the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pharmaceutical Preparations
9.
Pathogens ; 11(10)2022 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071675

ABSTRACT

The burden of influenza in Mexico has been high. We aimed to characterize its epidemiological patterns before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A retrospective cohort study was conducted and 5652 PCR-confirmed cases of influenza (October 2019-April 2022) were analyzed. The highest incidence (144 per million) was observed in December 2019 and rapidly decreased right before the start of the pandemic (February 2020). No cases were documented in the 2020-2021 season, and infections reemerged at a low level (8 per million) in December 2021. The case-fatality rates were around 5% in both seasons (p = 0.591). The dominant strains were AH1N1 and AH3N2 in the 2019-2020 and 2021-2022 seasons, respectively. In multiple analysis, males and older patients were at increased risk of a fatal outcome. Flu vaccination and infection by B lineages (vs. AH1N1) showed a protective effect. Our results suggest that the spread of the influenza virus reemerged in the 2021-2022 season when the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) was dominant. Efforts focusing on the prevention of transmission of respiratory viral pathogens, together with flu vaccination, may be useful to reduce the risk of an influenza outbreak.

10.
Sci Total Environ ; : 159350, 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069671

ABSTRACT

Wastewater Based Epidemiology (WBE) is an important tool to fight against COVID-19 as it provides insights into the health status of the targeted population from a small single house to a large municipality level in acost-effective, rapid and non-invasive way. The implementation of WBE-based surveillance could reduce the burden on the public health system, management of pandemics, help make informed decisions and protect public health. In this study, a house of COVID-19 patients was targeted for monitoring the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 genetic markers in wastewater samples (WS) with clinical specimens (CS) over a period of 30 days. RT-qPCR technique was employed to target nonstructural (ORF1ab) and structural-nucleocapsid (N) protein genes of SARS-CoV-2, according to the validated experimental protocol. Physiological, environmental, and biological parameters were also measured following the American Public Health Association (APHA) standard protocol. SARS-CoV-2 viral shedding in wastewater peaked when the highest number of COVID-19 cases were clinically diagnosed. Throughout the study period, 7450 to 23,000 gene copies/1000 mL were detected, where we found 47 % (57/120) positive samples from WS and 35 % (128/360) from CS. When the COVID-19 patient number was the lowest (2), the highest CT value (39.4; i.e., lowest copy number) was identified from WS. On the other hand, when the COVID-19 patients were the highest (6), the lowest CT value (25.2 i.e., highest copy numbers) was obtained from WS. An increased signal of the SARS-CoV-2 viral load from the COVID-19 patient signal was found in the WS earlier than in CS. Using customized primer sets in a traditional PCR approach, we confirmed that all SARS-CoV-2 variants from CS and WS were Delta variants (B.1.617.2). To our knowledge, this is the first follow-up study to determine a relationship between COVID-19 patients and the discharge of SARS-CoV-2 RNA genetic markers in wastewater from a single house including all family members for clinical sampling from a developing country (Bangladesh) without a proper sewage system. The findings of the study indicate that monitoring the genetic markers of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in wastewater could identifyCOVID-19 cases, which reduces the burden on the public health system in COVID-19 pandemics.

11.
Antiviral Res ; 208: 105428, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068666

ABSTRACT

The continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants prolongs COVID-19 pandemic. Although SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapeutics are currently available, there is still a need for development of safe and effective drugs against SARS-CoV-2 and also for preparedness for the next pandemic. Here, we discover that astersaponin I (AI), a triterpenoid saponin in Aster koraiensis inhibits SARS-CoV-2 entry pathways at the plasma membrane and within the endosomal compartments mainly by increasing cholesterol content in the plasma membrane and interfering with the fusion of SARS-CoV-2 envelope with the host cell membrane. Moreover, we find that this functional property of AI as a fusion blocker enables it to inhibit the infection with SARS-CoV-2 variants including the Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron with a similar efficacy, and the formation of syncytium, a multinucleated cells driven by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated cell-to-cell fusion. Finally, we claim that the triterpene backbone as well as the attached hydrophilic sugar moieties of AI are structurally important for its inhibitory activity against the membrane fusion event. Overall, this study demonstrates that AI is a natural viral fusion inhibitor and proposes that it can be a broad-spectrum antiviral agent against current COVID-19 pandemic and future outbreaks of novel viral pathogens.

12.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066546

ABSTRACT

From a country with one of the highest SARS-CoV-2 morbidity and mortality rates, Brazil has implemented one of the most successful vaccination programs. Brazil's first model city vaccination program was performed by the CoronaVac vaccine (Sinovac Biotech) in the town of Serrana, São Paulo State. To evaluate the vaccination effect on the SARS-CoV-2 molecular dynamics and clinical outcomes, we performed SARS-CoV-2 molecular surveillance on 4375 complete genomes obtained between June 2020 and April 2022 in this location. This study included the period between the initial SARS-CoV-2 introduction and during the vaccination process. We observed that the SARS-CoV-2 substitution dynamics in Serrana followed the viral molecular epidemiology in Brazil, including the initial identification of the ancestral lineages (B.1.1.28 and B.1.1.33) and epidemic waves of variants of concern (VOC) including the Gamma, Delta, and, more recently, Omicron. Most probably, as a result of the immunization campaign, the mortality during the Gamma and Delta VOC was significantly reduced compared to the rest of Brazil, which was also related to lower morbidity. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed the evolutionary history of the SARS-CoV-2 in this location and showed that multiple introduction events have occurred over time. The evaluation of the COVID-19 clinical outcome revealed that most cases were mild (88.9%, 98.1%, 99.1% to Gamma, Delta, and Omicron, respectively) regardless of the infecting VOC. In conclusion, we observed that vaccination was responsible for reducing the death toll rate and related COVID-19 morbidity, especially during the gamma and Delta VOC; however, it does not prevent the rapid substitution rate and morbidity of the Omicron VOC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Phylogeny , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
13.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065754

ABSTRACT

According to the temporary recommendations of the 2021 World Health Organization (WHO), in addition to whole-genome sequencing, laboratories in various countries can also screen for known mutations utilizing targeted RT-PCR-based mutation detection assays. The aim of this work was to generate a laboratory technique to differentiate the main circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants in 2021-2022, when a sharp increase in morbidity was observed with the appearance of the Omicron variant. Real-time PCR methodology is available for use in the majority of scientific and diagnostic institutions in Russia, which makes it possible to increase the coverage of monitoring of variants in the territories of all 85 regions in order to accumulate information for the Central Services and make epidemiological decisions. With the methodology developed by the Central Research Institute of Epidemiology of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing (FSSCRP Human Wellbeing) (CRIE), more than 6000 biological samples have been typed, and 7% of samples with the Delta variant and 92% of samples with the Omicron variant have been identified as of 25 August 2022. Reagents for 140,000 definitions have been supplied to regional organizations.

14.
Bull Natl Res Cent ; 46(1): 255, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064872

ABSTRACT

Background: To protect the global population from the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory ß-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a number of vaccines are currently being used in three dosages (i.e., along with the booster dose) to induce the immunity required to combat the SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. So far, several antivirals and the commercial vaccines have been found to evoke the required humoral and cellular immunity within a huge population around world. However, an important aspect to consider is the avoidance mechanism of the host protective immunity by SARS-CoV-2 variants. Main body of the abstract: Indeed, such an immune escape strategy has been noticed previously in case of SARS-CoV-1 and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Regarding the SARS-CoV-2 variants, the most important aspect on vaccine development is to determine whether the vaccine is actually capable to elicit the immune response or not, especially the viral spike (S) protein. Short conclusion: Present review thus focused on such elicitation of immunity as well as pondered to the avoidance of host immunity by the SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain and its variants.

15.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-344091

ABSTRACT

Background. The need for COVID-19 vaccine booster shots is controversial. When boosters were under active review in the U.S. in 2021, Krause et al.[1] and others have argued that need for a COVID-19 booster for all adults has not been sufficiently established. In late 2021, U.S. regulators initially limited booster eligibility, waited months before allowing boosters for all adults, and even longer before recommending them, with public health officials sending mixed messages on booster value. We conduct a systematic review of COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) for primary and booster doses. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting COVID-19 vaccine efficacy or VE against four endpoints: any infection, symptomatic infection, hospitalization, and death for the four principal vaccines used in developed Western countries (BNT162b2, mRNA1273, Ad26.CoV2.S, and ChAdOx1-S), waning VE, and booster VE, during the period of Delta-variant prevalence. We reviewed all studies appearing on PubMed over Jan. 1, 2021 through March 31, 2022, supplemented with our own knowledge of other sources. 63 studies met defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Findings. The mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2, mRNA1273) had very high initial VE but experienced significant VE waning after approximately six months, including against severe disease and mortality, with BNT162b2 declining faster than mRNA1273. Both mRNA vaccines outperformed the Ad26.CoV2.S and ChAdOx1-S viral vector vaccines. Booster doses reduced symptomatic infection, severe disease, and mortality. Initial evidence supports booster value against the Omicron variant. Interpretation. Strong epidemiological evidence supports waning VE for primary COVID-19 vaccination and the value of a booster dose, roughly 6 months after initial vaccination. The emergence of the Omicron variant strengthens the value of booster doses to recipients. Boosters also provide spillover benefits to others, both vaccinated and unvaccinated, by reducing downstream infections;reducing shortage risk for scarce COVID treatments;and reducing hospital overload.

16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; 28(16):221-228, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056462

ABSTRACT

Because of the frequent occurrence of epidemics in Jiangnan since ancient times,the local medical schools have accumulated rich experience in epidemic prevention,among which Yushan medical school,Wumen medical school,and Qiantang medical school are famous. The physicians have inherited the theory in Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases and developed the therapies for febrile diseases. Adhering to the idea of integrating cold and febrile diseases,the physicians in Jiangnan flexibly adapt ZHANG Zhongjing's theory by combining regional climate,patient physique and other factors to explain the pathogenesis,which is of great significance for the prevention and treatment of epidemics. Therefore,traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has demonstrated good curative effect on coronavirus disease-2019(COVID-19)in China. However,the SARS-CoV-2 variants(Delta and Omicron)characterized by strong infectivity,pathogenicity,and immune escape capacity keep emerging,which bring great challenges to the global prevention and control of this pandemic. To this end,we studied the ways of Jiangnan medical school for the prevention and treatment of epidemics, reviewed the evolution of TCM treatment protocols for COVID-19,and summarized China's experience in fighting against the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Further,we explored the measures of TCM in treating SARS-CoV-2 variants from prevention,treatment,and rehabilitation according to the theory for epidemic prevention of Jiangnan medical school. This paper provides reference for the prevention and treatment of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant and facilitates the development of TCM epidemiology. © 2022, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Institute of Chinese Materia Medica. All rights reserved.

17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2352-2355, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054901

ABSTRACT

We assessed cross-reactivity to BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 of neutralizing antibodies elicited by ancestral, Delta, and Omicron BA.1 SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. Primary infection elicited homologous antibodies with poor cross-reactivity to Omicron strains. This pattern remained after BA.1 challenge, although ancestral- and Delta-infected mice were protected from BA.1 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Mice , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins , Cross Reactions
18.
Se Pu ; 40(9): 773-781, 2022 Sep.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055456

ABSTRACT

The rapid global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has introduced various challenges in global public health systems. The poor applicability and sensitivity of the reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and antigen-based tests, as well as the persistent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with different mutations hinder satisfactory epidemic prevention and control. Therefore, there is an urgent need for diagnostic technologies capable of distinguishing SARS-CoV-2 variants with high sensitivity and low (or no) equipment dependence. Diagnosis based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) has low equipment requirements and is programmable, sensitive, and easy to use. Various nucleic acid detection tools with great clinical potential have been developed for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Therefore, this review focuses on the reported state-of-the-art CRISPR diagnostic technologies developed for the detection and differentiation of SARS-CoV-2 variants, summarizes their characteristics and provides an outlook for their development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/diagnosis , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(6):740-744, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2055477

ABSTRACT

Objective: Taking the three outbreaks caused by Delta variant (B.1.617.2) in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province and Zhengzhou, Henan Province as examples, to explore different transmission pattern of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic and to provide basis for scientific prevention and control.

20.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We compare the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes among co-circulating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants between January 2021 and May 2022 in Navarra, Spain. METHODS: We compared the frequency of hospitalization and severe disease (intensive care unit admission or death) due to COVID-19 among the co-circulating variants. Variants analyzed were non-variants of concern (non-VOCs), Alpha, Delta, Omicron BA.1, and Omicron BA.2. Logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (aOR). RESULTS: The Alpha variant had a higher risk of hospitalization (aOR, 1.86 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.28-2.71]) and severe disease (aOR, 2.40 [95% CI, 1.31-4.40]) than non-VOCs. The Delta variant did not show a significantly different risk of hospitalization (aOR, 0.73 [95% CI, .40-1.30]) and severe disease (aOR, 3.04 [95% CI, .57-16.22]) compared to the Alpha variant. The Omicron BA.1 significantly reduced both risks relative to the Delta variant (aORs, 0.28 [95% CI, .16-.47] and 0.23 [95% CI, .12-.46], respectively). The Omicron BA.2 reduced the risk of hospitalization compared to BA.1 (aOR, 0.52 [95% CI, .29-.95]). CONCLUSIONS: The Alpha and Delta variants showed an increased risk of hospitalization and severe disease, which decreased considerably with the Omicron BA.1 and BA.2. Surveillance of variants can lead to important differences in severity.

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