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1.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 2021 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490843

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has created challenges for intensivists, as high ventilatory demands and prolonged hypermetabolism make it difficult to sustain nutrition status. The purpose of this survey was to determine current practices in nutrition therapy and identify barriers to its delivery. METHODS: A survey about delivering nutrition therapy to critically ill patients with COVID-19 was sent to clinicians at academic and community hospitals from September to December 2020. RESULTS: Of 440 who viewed the survey, 199 (45%) completed the questionnaire. Respondents were composed of 30%, physicians and 70% registered dietitians, with 51% representing community programs, 43% academic institutions, and 6% Veterans Affairs centers. Half (49%) had protocols for managing critically ill patients with COVID-19, and 21% had a protocol for nutrition therapy. Although most respondents (83%) attempted to feed by the intragastric route, only 9% indicated that energy/protein needs were met. The biggest barriers to delivery of enteral nutrition (EN) involved the patients unpredictable clinical course and fear of aspiration given the lack of respiratory reserve. Intensivists were reluctant to add supplemental parenteral nutrition (PN) because of perceived lack of benefit. CONCLUSION: The survey results would suggest that strategies for nutrition therapy based on the intragastric infusion of EN are unsuccessful in meeting the energy/protein needs of critically ill patients with COVID-19. It is likely these barriers exist in providing nutrition to non-Covid-19 critically ill patients. Intensivists need protocols that optimally deliver intragastric EN, consider early postpyloric infusion, and address adding supplemental PN in a deteriorating nutrition status.

2.
Respirology ; 26(9): 869-877, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia present with typical findings on chest computed tomography (CT), but the underlying histopathological patterns are unknown. Through direct regional correlation of imaging findings to histopathological patterns, this study aimed to explain typical COVID-19 CT patterns at tissue level. METHODS: Eight autopsy cases were prospectively selected of patients with PCR-proven COVID-19 pneumonia with varying clinical manifestations and causes of death. All had been subjected to chest CT imaging 24-72 h prior to death. Twenty-seven lung areas with typical COVID-19 patterns and two radiologically unaffected pulmonary areas were correlated to histopathological findings in the same lung regions. RESULTS: Two dominant radiological patterns were observed: ground-glass opacity (GGO) (n = 11) and consolidation (n = 16). In seven of 11 sampled areas of GGO, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) was observed. In four areas of GGO, the histological pattern was vascular damage and thrombosis, with (n = 2) or without DAD (n = 2). DAD was also observed in five of 16 samples derived from areas of radiological consolidation. Seven areas of consolidation were based on a combination of DAD, vascular damage and thrombosis. In four areas of consolidation, bronchopneumonia was found. Unexpectedly, in samples from radiologically unaffected lung parenchyma, evidence was found of vascular damage and thrombosis. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19, radiological findings of GGO and consolidation are mostly explained by DAD or a combination of DAD and vascular damage plus thrombosis. However, the different typical CT patterns in COVID-19 are not related to specific histopathological patterns. Microvascular damage and thrombosis are even encountered in the radiologically normal lung.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Autopsy , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 539-560, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058334

ABSTRACT

The newly emerged ribonucleic acid (RNA) enveloped human beta-coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection caused the COVID-19 pandemic, severely affects the respiratory system, and may lead to death. Lacking effective diagnostics and therapies made this pandemic challenging to manage since the SARS-CoV-2 transmits via human-to-human, enters via ACE2 and TMPSSR2 receptors, and damages organs rich in host cells, spreads via symptomatic carriers and is prominent in an immune-compromised population. New SARS-CoV-2 informatics (structure, strains, like-cycles, functional sites) motivated bio-pharma experts to investigate novel therapeutic agents that act to recognize, inhibit, and knockdown combinations of drugs, vaccines, and antibodies, have been optimized to manage COVID-19. However, successful targeted delivery of these agents to avoid off-targeting and unnecessary drug ingestion is very challenging. To overcome these obstacles, this mini-review projects nanomedicine technology, a pharmacologically relevant cargo of size within 10 to 200 nm, for site-specific delivery of a therapeutic agent to recognize and eradicate the SARS-CoV-2, and improving the human immune system. Such combinational therapy based on compartmentalization controls the delivery and releases of a drug optimized based on patient genomic profile and medical history. Nanotechnology could help combat COVID-19 via various methods such as avoiding viral contamination and spraying by developing personal protective equipment (PPE) to increase the protection of healthcare workers and produce effective antiviral disinfectants surface coatings capable of inactivating and preventing the virus from spreading. To quickly recognize the infection or immunological response, design highly accurate and sensitive nano-based sensors. Development of new drugs with improved activity, reduced toxicity, and sustained release to the lungs, as well as tissue targets; and development of nano-based immunizations to improve humoral and cellular immune responses. The desired and controlled features of suggested personalized therapeutics, nanomedicine, is a potential therapy to manage COVID-19 successfully. The state-of-the-art nanomedicine, challenges, and prospects of nanomedicine are carefully and critically discussed in this report, which may serve as a key platform for scholars to investigate the role of nanomedicine for higher efficacy to manage the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Nanomedicine/trends , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Nanotechnology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
4.
Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol ; 54(1): e118, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635380

ABSTRACT

The normal development of the pulmonary system is critical to transitioning from placental-dependent fetal life to alveolar-dependent newborn life. Human lung development and disease have been difficult to study due to the lack of an in vitro model system containing cells from the large airways and distal alveolus. This article describes a system that allows human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to differentiate and form three-dimensional (3D) structures that emulate the development, cytoarchitecture, and function of the lung ("organoids"), containing epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations, and including the production of surfactant and presence of ciliated cells. The organoids can also be invested with mesoderm derivatives, differentiated from the same human pluripotent stem cells, such as alveolar macrophages and vasculature. Such lung organoids may be used to study the impact of environmental modifiers and perturbagens (toxins, microbial or viral pathogens, alterations in microbiome) or the efficacy and safety of drugs, biologics, and gene transfer. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol: hESC/hiPSC dissection, definitive endoderm formation, and lung progenitor cell induction.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Lung/cytology , Organoids/cytology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Differentiation , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Endoderm/cytology , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Lung/growth & development , Lung/physiology , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Patient-Specific Modeling , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-Lapse Imaging
5.
Head Neck ; 42(7): 1503-1506, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-263453

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has rapidly transformed health care delivery around the globe. Because of the heavy impact of COVID-19 spread, cancer treatments have necessarily been de-prioritized, thus exposing patients to increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to delayed care. In this scenario, cancer specialists need to assess critical oncology patients case by case to carefully balance risk vs benefit in treating tumors and preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we report early insights into how the management of patients with sinonasal and anterior skull base cancer might be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. We provide recommendations for preoperative tests, indications for immediate care vs possible delayed treatment, and warnings relating to dural resection and intracranial dissection, given the potential neurotropism of SARS-CoV2 and practical suggestions for managing cancer care in a period of limited resources. We also postulate some thoughts on the promising role of telemedicine in multidisciplinary case discussions and posttreatment surveillance.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Nose Neoplasms , Pandemics/prevention & control , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Skull Base Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Clinical Decision-Making , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Infection Control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Nose Neoplasms/diagnosis , Nose Neoplasms/therapy , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/therapy , Patient Care Team , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Skull Base Neoplasms/diagnosis , Skull Base Neoplasms/therapy , Telecommunications , Telemedicine , Time-to-Treatment
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