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1.
Rassegna di Patologia dell'Apparato Respiratorio ; 37(3):161-162, 2022.
Article in Italian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2156221
2.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysphagia can be a consequence of prolonged hospitalization in intensive care units (ICUs) due to severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. This study aims at Identifying the risk factors for dysphagia in ICU patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, and at determining the frequency of postextubation dysphagia in this population. METHODS: Observational, descriptive, retrospective, cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patients admitted into the ICUs from March to May 2020. The Modified Viscosity Volume Swallowing Test (mV-VST) was used to screening for dysphagia during the first 48 h of extubation in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. A logistic regression was applied to construct a predictive model of dysphagia. RESULTS: A total of 232 patients were admitted into the ICUs (age [median 60.5 years (95% CI: 58.5 to 61.9)]; male [74.1% (95% CI: 68.1 to 79.4)]; APACHE II score [median 17.7 (95% CI: 13.3 to 23.2)]; length of mechanical ventilation [median 14 days (95% CI: 11 to 16)]; prone position [79% (95% CI: 72.1 to 84.6)]; respiratory infection [34.5% (95% CI: 28.6 to 40.9)], renal failure [38.5% (95% CI: 30 to 50)])). 72% (167) of patients required intubation; 65.9% (110) survived; and in 84.5% (93) the mV-VST was performed. Postextubation dysphagia was diagnosed in 26.9% (25) of patients. APACHE II, prone position, length of ICU and hospital stay, length of mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, respiratory infection and kidney failure developed during admission were significantly associated (p < 0.05) with dysphagia. Dysphagia was independently explained by the APACHE II score (OR: 1.1; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.3; p = 0.04) and tracheostomy (OR: 10.2; 95% CI: 3.2 to 32.1) p < 0.001). The predictive model forecasted dysphagia with a good ROC curve (AUC: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.7 to 0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Dysphagia affects almost one-third of patients with SARS-COV-2 pneumonia requiring intubation in the ICU. The risk of developing dysphagia increases with prolonged mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, and poorer prognosis on admission (worst APACHE II score).

3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116014

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the related complications and mortality of COVID-19 due to the high rate of comorbidities combined with advanced age. This observational study investigated the clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in CHD and the risk factors for patients' death. Materials and Methods: The study included 26 CHD patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia detected by positive RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs and high-resolution computed tomography at hospital admission, aged 71 + 5.9 years, 14 of which (53.8%) were male, 20 (77%) under hemodiafiltration, and 6 (23%) on standard hemodialysis, with a median follow-up of 30 days. Results: Simple logistic regression analysis revealed that the factors associated with a higher risk of death were older age (OR: 1.133; 95%CI: 1.028-1.326, p = 0.0057), IL-6 levels at admission (OR: 1.014; 95%CI: 1.004-1.028, p = 0.0053), and C-reactive protein (OR: 1.424; 95%CI: 1.158-2.044, p < 0.0001). In the multiple logistic regression model, circulating IL-6 values at admission remained the only significant prognosticator of death. The ROC curve indicated the discriminatory cut-off value of 38.20 pg/mL of blood IL-6 for predicting death in chronic hemodialysis patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (sensitivity: 100%; specificity: 78%; AUC: 0.8750; p = 0.0027). Conclusions: This study identified a threshold of IL-6 levels at hospital admission for death risk in CHD patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. This might represent a valuable outcome predictor, feasibly better than other clinical, radiological, or laboratory parameters and preceding the IL-6 peak, which is unpredictable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Dialysis , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications
4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089984

ABSTRACT

The demographics and outcomes of ICU patients admitted for a COVID-19 infection have been characterized in extensive reports, but little is known about antimicrobial stewardship for these patients. We designed this retrospective, observational study to investigate our hypothesis that the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted antimicrobial stewardship practices and likely affected the rate of antibiotic de-escalation (ADE), patient outcomes, infection recurrence, and multidrug-resistant bacteria acquisition. We reviewed the prescription of antibiotics in three ICUs during the pandemic from March 2020 to December 2021. All COVID-19 patients with suspected or proven bacterial superinfections who received antibiotic treatment were included. The primary outcome was the rate of ADE, and secondary outcomes included the rate of appropriate empirical treatment, mortality rates and a comparison with a control group of infected patients before the COVID-19 pandemic. We included 170 COVID-19 patients who received antibiotic treatment for a suspected or proven superinfection, of whom 141 received an empirical treatment. For the latter, antibiotic treatment was de-escalated in 47 (33.3%) patients, escalated in 5 (3.5%) patients, and continued in 89 (63.1%) patients. The empirical antibiotic treatment was appropriate for 87.2% of cases. ICU, hospital, and day 28 and day 90 mortality rates were not associated with the antibiotic treatment strategy. The ADE rate was 52.2% in the control group and 27.6% in the COVID-19 group (p < 0.001). Our data suggest that empirical antibiotic treatment was appropriate in most cases. The ADE rates were lower in the COVID-19 group than in the control group, suggesting that the stress associated with COVID-19 affected our practices.

5.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076524

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the use of corticosteroids was associated with Intensive Care Unit (ICU) mortality among whole population and pre-specified clinical phenotypes. DESIGN: A secondary analysis derived from multicenter, observational study. SETTING: Critical Care Units. PATIENTS: Adult critically ill patients with confirmed COVID-19 disease admitted to 63 ICUs in Spain. INTERVENTIONS: Corticosteroids vs. no corticosteroids. MAIN VARIABLES OF INTEREST: Three phenotypes were derived by non-supervised clustering analysis from whole population and classified as (A: severe, B: critical and C: life-threatening). We performed a multivariate analysis after propensity optimal full matching (PS) for whole population and weighted Cox regression (HR) and Fine-Gray analysis (sHR) to assess the impact of corticosteroids on ICU mortality according to the whole population and distinctive patient clinical phenotypes. RESULTS: A total of 2017 patients were analyzed, 1171 (58%) with corticosteroids. After PS, corticosteroids were shown not to be associated with ICU mortality (OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.98-1.15). Corticosteroids were administered in 298/537 (55.5%) patients of "A" phenotype and their use was not associated with ICU mortality (HR=0.85 [0.55-1.33]). A total of 338/623 (54.2%) patients in "B" phenotype received corticosteroids. No effect of corticosteroids on ICU mortality was observed when HR was performed (0.72 [0.49-1.05]). Finally, 535/857 (62.4%) patients in "C" phenotype received corticosteroids. In this phenotype HR (0.75 [0.58-0.98]) and sHR (0.79 [0.63-0.98]) suggest a protective effect of corticosteroids on ICU mortality. CONCLUSION: Our finding warns against the widespread use of corticosteroids in all critically ill patients with COVID-19 at moderate dose. Only patients with the highest inflammatory levels could benefit from steroid treatment.

6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066250

ABSTRACT

Aortobronchial fistula is a rare cause of repeated hemoptysis and a potentially fatal condition if left untreated. We present the case of a 40-year-old man with repeated hemoptysis, excessive cough, and epistaxis ongoing for several days after SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia diagnosis. The patient had a history of patch aortoplasty for aortic coarctation and aortic valve replacement with a mechanical valve for aortic insufficiency due to bicuspid aortic valve at the age of 24. Computed tomography scan performed at presentation revealed a severely dilated ascending aorta, a thoracic aorta pseudoaneurysm at the site of the former coarctation, an aortobronchial fistula suggested by the thickened left lower lobe apical segmental bronchus in contact with the pseudoaneurysm and signs of alveolar hemorrhage in the respective segment. The patient was treated with thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) after prior hemi-aortic arch debranching and transposition of the left common carotid artery and subclavian artery through a closed-chest surgical approach. Our case report together with a systematic review of the literature highlight the importance of both considering an aortobronchial fistula in the differential diagnosis of hemoptysis in patients with prior history of thoracic aorta surgical intervention, regardless of associated pathology, and of taking into account endovascular and hybrid techniques as an alternative to open surgical repair, which carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, False , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal , Aortic Coarctation , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation , Bronchial Fistula , COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Male , Humans , Adult , Aortic Coarctation/complications , Aortic Coarctation/surgery , SARS-CoV-2 , Hemoptysis/complications , Hemoptysis/surgery , Bronchial Fistula/etiology , Bronchial Fistula/surgery , Bronchial Fistula/diagnosis , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications
7.
J Clin Med ; 11(16)2022 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979285

ABSTRACT

The added role of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in SARS-CoV-2 detection in hospitalized patients with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia and at least one negative nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) has yet to be definitively established. We aimed to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize data from the literature on the diagnostic yield of BAL in this context. We searched Medline and Embase for all studies reporting outcomes of interest published up to October 2021. Two authors reviewed all titles/abstracts and retrieved the selected full texts according to predefined selection criteria. The summary estimate was derived using the random-effects model. Thirteen original studies, involving 868 patients, were included. The summary estimate of proportions of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in BAL fluid in patients with at least one previous negative NPS was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI]; 11-30%). Moreover, microbiological tests of BAL fluid led to the identification of other pathogens, mainly bacteria, in up to two-thirds of cases. BAL plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of patients with clinical suspicion of COVID-19 and previous negative NPS, as it allowed to detect the infection in a significant proportion of subjects, who would have been otherwise misclassified, with relevant implications in the prevention of disease spread, especially in hospital settings.

8.
Microorganisms ; 10(7)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by highly resistant pathogens in non-ICU COVID-19 departments pose important challenges. METHODS: We performed a comparative analysis of incidence and microbial epidemiology of BSI in COVID-19 vs. non-COVID-19, non-ICU departments between 1 September 2020-31 October 2021. Risk factors for BSI and its impact on outcome were evaluated by a case-control study which included COVID-19 patients with/without BSI. RESULTS: Forty out of 1985 COVID-19 patients developed BSI. The mean monthly incidence/100 admissions was 2.015 in COVID-19 and 1.742 in non-COVID-19 departments. Enterococcus and Candida isolates predominated in the COVID-19 group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.018, respectively). All Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were carbapenem-resistant (CR). In the COVID-19 group, 33.3% of Klebsiella pneumoniae was CR, 50% of Escherichia coli produced ESBL and 19% of Enterococcus spp. were VRE vs. 74.5%, 26.1% and 8.8% in the non-COVID-19 group, respectively. BSI was associated with prior hospitalization (p = 0.003), >2 comorbidities (p < 0.001), central venous catheter (p = 0.015), severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and lack of COVID-19 vaccination (p < 0.001). In the multivariate regression model also including age and multiple comorbidities, only BSI was significantly associated with adverse in-hospital outcome [OR (CI95%): 21.47 (3.86-119.21), p < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: BSI complicates unvaccinated patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and increases mortality. BSI pathogens and resistance profiles differ among COVID-19/non-COVID-19 departments, suggesting various routes of pathogen acquisition.

9.
Emerg Radiol ; 29(4): 645-653, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859010

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify a cut-off value of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume quantified by CT associated with a worse clinical outcome in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, sixty patients with a diagnosis of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia and a chest CT exam on admission were enrolled. Based on a total severity score (range 0-20), patients were divided into two groups: ordinary group (total severity score < 7) and severe/critical group (total severity score > 7). Clinical results and EAT volume were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The severe/critical patients, compared to the ordinary ones, were older (66.83 ± 11.72 vs 58.57 ± 16.86 years; p = 0.031), had higher body mass index (27.77 ± 2.11 vs 25.07 ± 2.80 kg/m2; p < 0.001) and higher prevalence of comorbidities. EAT volume was higher in severe/critical group, compared with the ordinary group (151.40 ± 66.22 cm3 vs 92.35 ± 44.46 cm3, p < 0.001). In severe/critical group, 19 (73%) patients were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU), compared with 6 (20%) patients in the ordinary group (p < 0.001). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is equal to 0.781 (p < 0.001) (95% CI: 0.662-0.900). The cut-off found, in correspondence with the highest value of the Youden Index, is 97 cm3: the sensitivity is equal to 83.3%, while the specificity is equal to 70% for predicting a worse outcome. The risk (odds ratio) of belonging to the severe/critical group in this population due to EAT ≥ 97 cm3 is 11.667 (95% CI: 3.384-40.220; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: An EAT volume of 97 cm3 has good sensitivity and specificity to predict a greater extent of pulmonary involvement and therefore a worse clinical outcome in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
10.
Ann Intensive Care ; 12(1): 23, 2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841046

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Survivors of viral ARDS are at risk of long-term physical, functional and neuropsychological complications resulting from the lung injury itself, but also from potential multiorgan dysfunction, and the long stay in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recovery profiles after severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in intensive care unit survivors have yet to be clearly defined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The goal of this single-center, prospective, observational study was to systematically evaluate pulmonary and extrapulmonary function at 12 months after a stay in the ICU, in a prospectively identified cohort of patients who survived SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Eligible patients were assessed at 3, 6 and 12 months after onset of SARS-CoV-2. Patients underwent physical examination, pulmonary function testing, chest computed tomography (CT) scan, a standardized six-minute walk test with continuous oximetry, overnight home respiratory polygraphy and have completed quality of life questionnaire. The primary endpoint was alteration of the alveolar-capillary barrier compared to reference values as measured by DLCO, at 12 months after onset of SARS-CoV-2 symptoms. RESULTS: In total, 85 patients (median age 68.4 years, (interquartile range [IQR] = 60.1-72.9 years), 78.8% male) participated in the trial. The median length of hospital stay was 44 days (IQR: 20-60) including 17 days in ICU (IQR: 11-26). Pulmonary function tests were completed at 3 months (n = 85), 6 months (n = 80), and 12 months (n = 73) after onset of symptoms. Most patients showed an improvement in DLCO at each timepoint (3, 6, and 12 months). All patients who normalized their DLCO did not subsequently deteriorate, except one. Chest CT scans were abnormal in 77 patients (96.3%) at 3 months and although the proportion was the same at 12 months, but patterns have changed. CONCLUSION: We report the results of a comprehensive evaluation of 85 patients admitted to the ICU for SARS-CoV-2, at one-year follow-up after symptom onset. We show that most patients had an improvement in DLCO at each timepoint. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registration number: NCT04519320.

11.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 16: 17534666221096040, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822140

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to better understand the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in non-critically ill hospitalized patients secondarily presenting with clinical deterioration and increase in oxygen requirement without any identified worsening factors. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled patients without clinical or biological evidence for superinfection, without left ventricular dysfunction and for whom a pulmonary embolism was discarded by computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography. We investigated lung ventilation and perfusion (LVP) by LVP scintigraphy, and, 24 h later, left and right ventricular function by Tc-99m-labeled albumin-gated blood-pool scintigraphy with late (60 mn) tomographic albumin images on the lungs to evaluate lung albumin retention that could indicate microvascular injuries with secondary edema. RESULTS: We included 20 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. All had CT evidence of organizing pneumonia and normal left ventricular ejection fraction. No patient demonstrated preserved ventilation with perfusion defect (mismatch), which may discard a distal lung thrombosis. Patterns of ventilation and perfusion were heterogeneous in seven patients (35%) with healthy lung segments presenting a relative paradoxical hypoperfusion and hypoventilation compared with segments with organizing pneumonia presenting a relative enhancement in perfusion and preserved ventilation. Lung albumin retention in area of organizing pneumonia was observed in 12 patients (60%), indicating microvascular injuries, increase in vessel permeability, and secondary edema. CONCLUSION: In hospitalized non-critically ill patients without evidence of superinfection, pulmonary embolism, or cardiac dysfunction, various types of damage may contribute to clinical deterioration including microvascular injuries and secondary edema, inconsistencies in lung segments vascularization suggesting a dysregulation of the balance in perfusion between segments affected by COVID-19 and others. SUMMARY STATEMENT: Microvascular injuries and dysregulation of the balance in perfusion between segments affected by COVID-19 and others are present in non-critically ill patients without other known aggravating factors. KEY RESULTS: In non-critically ill patients without evidence of superinfection, pulmonary embolism, macroscopic distal thrombosis or cardiac dysfunction, various types of damage may contribute to clinical deterioration including 1/ microvascular injuries and secondary edema, 2/ inconsistencies in lung segments vascularization with hypervascularization of consolidated segments contrasting with hypoperfusion of not affected segments, suggesting a dysregulation of the balance in perfusion between segments affected by COVID-19 and others.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Deterioration , Heart Diseases , Pulmonary Embolism , Superinfection , Albumins , Critical Illness , Edema/diagnostic imaging , Edema/etiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Neovascularization, Pathologic , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
12.
Infect Dis Rep ; 14(2): 205-212, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753468

ABSTRACT

Pandoraea pnomenusa is a Gram-negative bacterium of the Pandoraea genus and is mainly associated with the colonization of structurally abnormal airways. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many microorganisms have been associated with coinfection and superinfection in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, but so far, no coinfection or superinfection by P. pnomenusa has been reported. We present the first case describing this association in a previously healthy patient. Clinical manifestations, treatment, and outcomes are shown.

13.
Acad Radiol ; 29(6): 861-870, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704817

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess and correlate pulmonary involvement and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with the degree of coronary plaque burden based on the CAC-DRS classification (Coronary Artery Calcium Data and Reporting System). METHODS: This retrospective study included 142 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (58 ± 16 years; 57 women) who underwent non-contrast CT between January 2020 and August 2021 and were followed up for 129 ± 72 days. One experienced blinded radiologist analyzed CT series for the presence and extent of calcified plaque burden according to the visual and quantitative HU-based CAC-DRS Score. Pulmonary involvement was automatically evaluated with a dedicated software prototype by another two experienced radiologists and expressed as Opacity Score. RESULTS: CAC-DRS Scores derived from visual and quantitative image evaluation correlated well with the Opacity Score (r=0.81, 95% CI 0.76-0.86, and r=0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.89, respectively; p<0.0001) with higher correlation in severe than in mild stage SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (p<0.0001). Combined, CAC-DRS and Opacity Scores revealed great potential to discriminate fatal outcomes from a mild course of disease (AUC 0.938, 95% CI 0.89-0.97), and the need for intensive care treatment (AUC 0.801, 95% CI 0.77-0.83). Visual and quantitative CAC-DRS Scores provided independent prognostic information on all-cause mortality (p=0.0016 and p<0.0001, respectively), both in univariate and multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary plaque burden is strongly correlated to pulmonary involvement, adverse outcome, and death due to respiratory failure in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, offering great potential to identify individuals at high risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Vascular Calcification , Calcium , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Lung , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging
14.
Vis J Emerg Med ; 27: 101273, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665519
15.
J Virol Methods ; 300: 114419, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636503

ABSTRACT

The new virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCov-2) causing Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread quickly in several countries and it has become pandemic. Different types of clinical manifestations are attributed to this infection. Some mechanisms related to the infection regarding the immune response are not still elucidated. Herein we reported a case of a 66-years-old patient affected by myelodysplasia who was referred to our hospital because of clinical and radiological manifestations of viral pneumonia. The clinical course has become complicated due to bacterial secondary over-infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa during stay in internal medicine unit whilst a persistent positive oral and naso-pharyngeal swab test was reported up to 100 days of admission. The patient had a fast clinical and radiological worsening that led her to be admitted to an intensive care unit. Despite intubation and mechanical ventilation she died in a few days.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Retrospective Studies
16.
Braz J Anesthesiol ; 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536455

ABSTRACT

The prone position is extensively used to improve oxygenation in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Occasionally, these patients exhibit cardiac and respiratory functions so severely compromised they cannot tolerate lying in the supine position, not even for the time required to insert a central venous catheter. The authors describe three cases of successful ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein cannulation in prone position. The alternative approach here described enables greater safety and well-being for the patient, reduces the number of episodes of decompensation, and risk of tracheal extubation and loss of in-situ vascular lines.

17.
Indian J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 38(2): 218-219, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506569

ABSTRACT

In the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, the physician finds difficulty in differentiating the symptoms due to cardiac disease from that of SARS-CoV-2. We would like to present one such mystified situation (hemosiderosis versus SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia) we encountered.

18.
Med Intensiva ; 2021 Oct 26.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482804

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine if the use of corticosteroids was associated with Intensive Care Unit (ICU) mortality among whole population and pre-specified clinical phenotypes. DESIGN: A secondary analysis derived from multicenter, observational studySetting: Critical Care UnitsPatients: Adult critically ill patients with confirmed COVID-19 disease admitted to 63 ICUs in Spain. INTERVENTIONS: corticosteroids vs no corticosteroidsMain variables of interest: Three phenotypes were derived by non-supervised clustering analysis from whole population and classified as (A: severe, B: critical and C: life-threatening). We performed a Multivariate analysis after propensity optimal full matching (PS) for whole population and weighted Cox regression (HR) and Fine-Gray analysis(sHR) to assess the impact of corticosteroids on ICU mortality according to the whole population and distinctive patient clinical phenotypes. RESULTS: A total of 2,017 patients were analyzed, 1171(58%) with corticosteroids. After PS, corticosteroids were shown not to be associated with ICU mortality (OR:1.0,95%CI:0.98-1.15). Corticosteroids were administered in 298/537(55.5%) patients of "A" phenotype and their use was not associated with ICU mortality (HR=0.85[0.55-1.33]). A total of 338/623(54.2%) patients in "B" phenotype received corticosteroids. No effect of corticosteroids on ICU mortality was observed when HR was performed (0.72[0.49-1.05]). Finally, 535/857(62.4%) patients in "C" phenotype received corticosteroids. In this phenotype HR (0.75[0.58-0.98]) and sHR (0.79[0.63-0.98]) suggest a protective effect of corticosteroids on ICU mortality. CONCLUSION: Our finding warns against the widespread use of corticosteroids in all critically ill patients with COVID-19 at moderate dose. Only patients with the highest inflammatory levels could benefit from steroid treatment.

19.
Ther Adv Infect Dis ; 8: 20499361211042959, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403194

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy in patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 is poorly understood and remains controversial. METHODS: We evaluated a large cohort of patients with COVID-19-related hypoxemic respiratory failure at the temporary COVID-19 hospital in Mexico City. The primary outcome was the success rate of HFNC to prevent the progression to invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). We also evaluated the risk factors associated with HFNC success or failure. RESULTS: HFNC use effectively prevented IMV in 71.4% of patients [270 of 378 patients; 95% confidence interval (CI) 66.6-75.8%]. Factors that were significantly different at admission included age, the presence of hypertension, and the Charlson comorbidity index. Predictors of therapy failure (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI) included the comorbidity-age-lymphocyte count-lactate dehydrogenase (CALL) score at admission (1.27, 1.09-1.47; p < 0.01), Rox index at 1 hour (0.82, 0.7-0.96; p = 0.02), and no prior steroid treatment (0.34, 95% CI 0.19-0.62; p < 0.0001). Patients with HFNC success rarely required admission to the intensive care unit and had shorter lengths of hospital stay [19/270 (7.0%) and 15.0 (interquartile range, 11-20) days, respectively] than those who required IMV [104/108 (96.3%) and 26.5 (20-36) days, respectively]. CONCLUSION: Treating patients with HFNC at admission led to improvement in respiratory parameters in many patients with COVID-19.

20.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100553, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 signal blockade showed preliminary beneficial effects in treating inflammatory response against SARS-CoV-2 leading to severe respiratory distress. Herein we describe the outcomes of off-label intravenous use of Sarilumab in severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. METHODS: 53 patients with SARS-CoV-2 severe pneumonia received intravenous Sarilumab; pulmonary function improvement or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rate in medical wards, live discharge rate in ICU treated patients and safety profile were recorded. Sarilumab 400 mg was administered intravenously on day 1, with eventual additional infusion based on clinical judgement, and patients were followed for at least 14 days, unless previously discharged or dead. FINDINGS: Of the 53 SARS-CoV-2pos patients receiving Sarilumab, 39(73·6%) were treated in medical wards [66·7% with a single infusion; median PaO2/FiO2:146(IQR:120-212)] while 14(26·4%) in ICU [92·6% with a second infusion; median PaO2/FiO2: 112(IQR:100-141.5)].Within the medical wards, 7(17·9%) required ICU admission, 4 of whom were re-admitted to the ward within 5-8 days. At 19 days median follow-up, 89·7% of medical inpatients significantly improved (46·1% after 24 h, 61·5% after 3 days), 70·6% were discharged from the hospital and 85·7% no longer needed oxygen therapy. Within patients receiving Sarilumab in ICU, 64·2% were discharged from ICU to the ward and 35·8% were still alive at the last follow-up. Overall mortality rate was 5·7%. INTERPRETATION: IL-6R inhibition appears to be a potential treatment strategy for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and intravenous Sarilumab seems a promising treatment approach showing, in the short term, an important clinical outcome and good safety.

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