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1.
Mycoses ; 65(S1):23-42, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2029402

ABSTRACT

Whereas risk factors for the most common species - I C. albicans i and I C. glabrata - i are well described, little is known on risk factors for I C. krusei i fungemia. 46.5 % of I C. albicans i infected haemato-oncology patients died compared with 62.5 % of the C. I krusei i patients. B Results: b From 1380 patients with I Candida- i positive blood cultures, 786 were I C. albicans i (57 %) and 40 were I C. krusei i (2.9 %). B Methods: b A total of 143 isolates, 74 isolates of I C. glabrata i with 30 susceptible and 19 azole-resistant strains, 17 echinocandin-resistant, 8 multi-resistant strains and 69 isolates of I C. albicans i with 31 susceptible and 16 azole-resistant strains as well as 17 echinocandin-resistant and 4 multi-resistant strains were phenotypically and genotypically characterised. In the I C. krusei i group, all patients with CVC died and all patients without survived. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Mycoses is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology ; 37(S1):41-102, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2029370

ABSTRACT

Compared with conventional practice, ROTEM-guided blood product transfusion resulted in fewer units of platelets (0.22 I vs i 0.66 units per patient, I P i = 0.32) and cryoprecipitate (0.61 I vs i 1.24 units/patient, I P i = 0.26) per patient. Twelve patients used one drug, one patient used two drugs, four patients used three drugs, two patients used four drugs, and one patient used five drugs. B 19 b B Non-cirrhotic, non-hepatitis hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report b B M Gururatsakul b I Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Chulabhorn Hospital, HRH Princess Chulabhorn College of Medical Science, Chulabhorn Royal Academy, Bangkok, Thailand;i I Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Cairns Hospital, Cairns, Queensland, Australia i B I Introduction: i b Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) generally develops in patients with underlying chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis B or chronic hepatitis C virus infections, or non-alcohol-associated steatohepatitis. We aimed to assess COVID-19 vaccination rates in patients with liver disease, comparing them with the general population, to identify if this was a vulnerable patient group who needed particular follow-up. B I Methods: i b We performed a cross-sectional study, collecting COVID-19 vaccination data from patients who had attended an outpatient liver clinic between 1 July 2021 and 30 September 2021. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
British Journal of Haematology ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2029286

ABSTRACT

Summary Administration of plasma therapy may contribute to viral control and survival of COVID‐19 patients receiving B‐cell‐depleting agents that impair humoral immunity. However, little is known on the impact of anti‐CD20 pre‐exposition on the kinetics of SARS‐CoV‐2‐specific antibodies. Here, we evaluated the relationship between anti‐spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) kinetics and the clinical status or intra‐host viral evolution after plasma therapy in 36 eligible hospitalized COVID‐19 patients, pre‐exposed or not to B‐cell‐depleting treatments. The majority of anti‐CD20 pre‐exposed patients (14/17) showed progressive declines of anti‐spike IgG titres following plasma therapy, contrasting with the 4/19 patients who had not received B‐cell‐depleting agents (p = 0.0006). Patients with antibody decay also depicted prolonged clinical symptoms according to the World Health Organization (WHO) severity classification (p = 0.0267) and SARS‐CoV‐2 viral loads (p = 0.0032) before complete virus clearance. Moreover, they had higher mutation rates than patients able to mount an endogenous humoral response (p = 0.015), including three patients with one to four spike mutations, potentially associated with immune escape. No relevant differences were observed between patients treated with plasma from convalescent and/or mRNA‐vaccinated donors. Our study emphasizes the need for an individualized clinical care and follow‐up in the management of COVID‐19 patients with B‐cell lymphopenia. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of British Journal of Haematology is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
2nd IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Technologies, CONIT 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029223

ABSTRACT

It's been over two years since the novel Coronavirus first appeared and with the constantly evolving new variants found around the world, the havoc of n-Coronavirus seems to be unstoppable. With more than 264 million people being affected by the n-coronavirus as of 2nd December 2021 and 5.2 million deaths around the world, there is a dire need to increase the COVID-19 testing to stop the virus from spreading further. With COVID - 19 devastating the economic situation of various countries across the globe, it has become necessary to come up with a fast, efficient, and inexpensive way to test the presence of the n-Coronavirus in people. However, the methods currently being used to test COVID 19 are rather very expensive and unavailable to a large section of society. One of the most feasible solutions to this problem is through radiological detection i.e., with Chest X - ray images. Contrary to the prevalent testing methods, Chest X - ray scans are much lesser in cost and are readily available. One major problem that arises is that COVID and pneumonia have very similar X-RAY results, so having a binary classification (COVID and NOT COVID) isn't enough. In this paper, we have put forward a model based on Convolutional NN for detection of Pneumonia, COVID - 19, and Normal patients using X - ray photos of Chest. We achieved an AUC score of 90% in our results while classifying the X-Ray Images. Besides Accuracy, we have also made the ROC Curve, confusion matrix, and classification report for our model. To keep our model lightweight, we have used a Genetic Algorithm to get the best hyperparameters possible for the model. © 2022 IEEE.

5.
Health Secur ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2028992

ABSTRACT

From April 23 to November 2021, a wave of COVID-19 infections caused by a new Alpha variant swept across Taiwan, resulting in 14,458 positive cases and 830 deaths among over 3.8 million people tested. To cope with the sudden increase in sample volume, as of December 14, 2021, a network of 249 laboratories with a total diagnostic capacity of 158,492 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction tests per day was established in 22 administrative regions. As of April 2022, over 9.5 million specimens were tested. Fully automated high-throughput and point-of-care nucleic acid testing, and rapid antigen testing, were simultaneously implemented to expand the country's daily diagnostic capacity. Saliva testing and sample pooling were also introduced to increase screening efficiency in certain situations. Antibody testing and genomic sequencing were also adopted for more precise epidemic investigation. Other challenges encountered and overcome include a lack of resources and interfacing of laboratory information management systems for case reporting, limited specimen allocation and delivery, and limited staff for diagnostic processing.

6.
Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2028950

ABSTRACT

Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS CoV-2 infection (PASC), more commonly referred to as Long COVID, is one of the most daunting health-care grand challenges facing the United States today. Affecting millions of Americans, Long COVID extracts a huge cost both socially and economically. In this article, we provide a preliminary estimate of the annual income loss and medical costs due to Long COVID in the United States. With many Long COVID patients either meeting the diagnostic criteria for myalgic encephalomyelitis / chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) or exhibiting symptoms consistent with ME/CFS, we utilize ME/CFS to help guide our estimates. Based on the nearly 86 million documented US COVID survivors as of June 25, 2022, and considering a range of 5% to 20% of those survivors currently afflicted with Long COVID, we estimate annual medical costs to range from $43 billion to $172 billion, and lost income to range from $101 billion to $430 billion. This corresponds to an annual economic impact (exclusive of costs of disability services, social services, and lost income on the part of caretakers) ranging from roughly $140 billion to $600 billion. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

7.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1):2117503, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028942

ABSTRACT

The origins of preexisting SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive antibodies and their potential impacts on vaccine efficacy have not been fully clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that S2 was the prevailing target of the preexisting S protein cross-reactive antibodies in both healthy human and SPF mice. A dominant antibody epitope was identified on the connector domain of S2 (1147-SFKEELDKYFKNHT-1160, P144), which could be recognized by preexisting antibodies in both human and mouse. Through metagenomic sequencing and fecal bacteria transplant, we demonstrated that the generation of S2 cross-reactive antibodies was associated with commensal gut bacteria. Furthermore, six P144 reactive monoclonal antibodies were isolated from naive SPF mice and were proven to cross-react with commensal gut bacteria collected from both human and mouse. A variety of cross-reactive microbial proteins were identified using LC-MS, of which E. coli derived HSP60 and HSP70 proteins were confirmed to be able to bind to one of the isolated monoclonal antibodies. Mice with high levels of preexisting S2 cross-reactive antibodies mounted higher S protein specific binding antibodies, especially against S2, after being immunized with a SARS-CoV-2 S DNA vaccine. Similarly, we found that levels of preexisting S2 and P144-specific antibodies correlated positively with RBD binding antibody titers after two doses of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in human. Collectively, our study revealed an alternative origin of preexisting S2-targeted antibodies and disclosed a previously neglected aspect of the impact of gut microbiota on host anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity.

8.
Rna Biology ; 19(1):1019-1044, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028922

ABSTRACT

Similar to other RNA viruses, the emergence of Betacoronavirus relies on cross-species viral transmission, which requires careful health surveillance monitoring of protein-coding information as well as genome-wide analysis. Although the evolutionary jump from natural reservoirs to humans may be mainly traced-back by studying the effect that hotspot mutations have on viral proteins, it is largely unexplored if other impacts might emerge on the structured RNA genome of Betacoronavirus. In this survey, the protein-coding and viral genome architecture were simultaneously studied to uncover novel insights into cross-species horizontal transmission events. We analysed 1,252,952 viral genomes of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 distributed across the world in bats, intermediate animals, and humans to build a new landscape of changes in the RNA viral genome. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that bat viruses are the most closely related to the time of most recent common ancestor of Betacoronavirus, and missense mutations in viral proteins, mainly in the S protein S1 subunit: SARS-CoV (G > T;A577S);MERS-CoV (C > T;S746R and C > T;N762A);and SARS-CoV-2 (A > G;D614G) appear to have driven viral diversification. We also found that codon sites under positive selection on S protein overlap with non-compensatory mutations that disrupt secondary RNA structures in the RNA genome complement. These findings provide pivotal factors that might be underlying the eventual jumping the species barrier from bats to intermediate hosts. Lastly, we discovered that nearly half of the Betacoronavirus genomes carry highly conserved RNA structures, and more than 90% of these RNA structures show negative selection signals, suggesting essential functions in the biology of Betacoronavirus that have not been investigated to date. Further research is needed on negatively selected RNA structures to scan for emerging functions like the potential of coding virus-derived small RNAs and to develop new candidate antiviral therapeutic strategies.

9.
Journal of Medical Economics ; 25(1):1039-1050, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028893

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the public health impact of the UK COVID-19 booster vaccination program in autumn 2021, during a period of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant predominance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A compartmental Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered model was used to compare age-stratified health outcomes for adult booster vaccination versus no booster vaccination in the UK over a time horizon of September-December 2021, when boosters were introduced in the UK and the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant was predominant. Model input data were sourced from targeted literature reviews and publicly available data. Outcomes were predicted COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) cases, deaths, and productivity losses averted, and predicted healthcare resources saved. Scenario analyses varied booster coverage, virus infectivity and severity, and time horizon parameters. RESULTS: Booster vaccination was estimated to have averted approximately 547,000 COVID-19 cases, 36,000 hospitalizations, 147,000 PASC cases, and 4,200 deaths in the UK between September and December 2021. It saved over 316,000 hospital bed-days and prevented the loss of approximately 16.5 million paid and unpaid patient work days. In a scenario of accelerated uptake, the booster rollout would have averted approximately 3,400 additional deaths and 25,500 additional hospitalizations versus the base case. A scenario analysis assuming four-fold greater virus infectivity and lower severity estimated that booster vaccination would have averted over 105,000 deaths and over 41,000 hospitalizations versus the base case. A scenario analysis assuming pediatric primary series vaccination prior to adult booster vaccination estimated that expanding vaccination to children aged >=5 years would have averted approximately 51,000 additional hospitalizations and 5,400 additional deaths relative to adult booster vaccination only. LIMITATIONS: The model did not include the wider economic burden of COVID-19, hospital capacity constraints, booster implementation costs, or non-pharmaceutical interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Booster vaccination during Delta variant predominance reduced the health burden of SARS-CoV-2 in the UK, releasing substantial NHS capacity.

10.
Scientific Reports ; 12(1):14972, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028722

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 pandemic, mutations of SARS-CoV-2 produce new strains that can be more infectious or evade vaccines. Viral RNA mutations can arise from misincorporation by RNA-polymerases and modification by host factors. Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 sequence from patients showed a strong bias toward C-to-U mutation, suggesting a potential mutational role by host APOBEC cytosine deaminases that possess broad anti-viral activity. We report the first experimental evidence demonstrating that APOBEC3A, APOBEC1, and APOBEC3G can edit on specific sites of SARS-CoV-2 RNA to produce C-to-U mutations. However, SARS-CoV-2 replication and viral progeny production in Caco-2 cells are not inhibited by the expression of these APOBECs. Instead, expression of wild-type APOBEC3 greatly promotes viral replication/propagation, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 utilizes the APOBEC-mediated mutations for fitness and evolution. Unlike the random mutations, this study suggests the predictability of all possible viral genome mutations by these APOBECs based on the UC/AC motifs and the viral genomic RNA structure.

11.
Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy ; 7(1):318, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028663

ABSTRACT

Excessive inflammatory responses contribute to the pathogenesis and lethality of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the N proteins of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), were found to bind MASP-2, a key serine protease in the lectin pathway of complement activation, resulting in excessive complement activation by potentiating MBL-dependent MASP-2 activation, and the deposition of MASP-2, C4b, activated C3 and C5b-9. Aggravated inflammatory lung injury was observed in mice infected with adenovirus expressing the N protein. Complement hyperactivation was also observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Either blocking the N protein:MASP-2 interaction, MASP-2 depletion or suppressing complement activation can significantly alleviate N protein-induced complement hyperactivation and lung injury in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, these data suggested that complement suppression may represent a novel therapeutic approach for pneumonia induced by these highly pathogenic coronaviruses.

12.
Nature ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2028660
13.
J Proteome Res ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2028639

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant presented significant challenges to the global effort to counter the pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is predicted to remain prevalent for the foreseeable future, making the ability to identify SARS-CoV-2 variants imperative in understanding and controlling the pandemic. The predominant variant discovery method, genome sequencing, is time-consuming, insensitive, and expensive. Ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) offers an exciting alternative detection modality provided that variant-containing peptide markers are sufficiently detectable from their tandem mass spectra (MS/MS). We have synthesized model tryptic peptides of SARS-CoV-2 variants alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and omicron and evaluated their signal intensity, HCD spectra, and reverse phase retention time. Detection limits of 781, 781, 65, and 65 amol are obtained for the molecular ions of the proteotypic peptides, beta (QIAPGQTGNIADYNYK), gamma (TQLPSAYTNSFTR), delta (VGGNYNYR), and omicron (TLVKQLSSK), from neat solutions. These detection limits are on par with the detection limits of a previously reported proteotypic peptide from the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, HTPINLVR. This study demonstrates the potential to differentiate SARS-CoV-2 variants through their proteotypic peptides with an approach that is broadly applicable across a wide range of pathogens.

15.
J Autoimmun ; 132:102899, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2028166

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been associated with autoimmune phenomena. However, the interplay between COVID-19 or vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 and Berger glomerulonephritis or Henoch-Schönlein vasculitis, two diseases mediated by immunoglobulin A, has never been comprehensively investigated. Therefore, we carried out a systematic review of the literature on this topic. Following databases were used: Google Scholar, Excerpta Medica and the United States National Library of Medicine. Eighty-seven patients with immunoglobulin A-mediated diseases associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination against coronavirus were sorted out (53% males, 47% females;34 17-51 years of age, median and interquartile range): 47 cases of Berger glomerulonephritis and 40 of Henoch-Schönlein vasculitis. Approximately 50% (N = 24) of Berger glomerulonephritis and 10% (N = 4) of Henoch-Schönlein vasculitis patients presented with a pre-existing history of immunoglobulin A-mediated disease. Almost all cases of Berger glomerulonephritis were vaccine-associated (N = 44;94%), while most cases of Henoch-Schönlein vasculitis were infection-associated (N = 23;57%). Among vaccine-associated immunoglobulin A diseases, about 90% were associated to mRNA-based vaccines. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that COVID-19 and vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 may trigger or exacerbate an immunoglobulin A-mediated diseases.

16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2028163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although immediate potentially allergic reactions have been reported after dose one of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, comprehensively defined subtypes have not been clearly distinguished. OBJECTIVE: To define distinct clinical phenotypes of immediate reactions after dose one of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination, and to assess the relation of clinical phenotype to mRNA COVID-19 vaccine second dose tolerance. METHODS: This retrospective study included patients with ≥1 potentially allergic symptom or sign within 4 hours of receiving dose one of a mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and assessed by Allergy/Immunology specialists from 5 US academic medical centers (January-June 2021). We used latent class analysis - an unbiased, machine-learning modeling method - to define novel clinical phenotypes. We assessed demographic, clinical, and reaction characteristics associated with phenotype membership. Using log-binomial regression, we assessed the relation between phenotype membership and second dose tolerance, defined as either no symptoms or mild, self-limited symptoms resolving with antihistamines alone. A sensitivity analysis considered second dose tolerance as 'objective signs only.' RESULTS: We identified 265 patients with dose one immediate reactions with 3 phenotype clusters: 1) Limited/Predominantly Cutaneous, 2) Sensory and 3) Systemic. A total of 223 patients (84%) received a second dose and 200 (90%) tolerated their second dose. Sensory cluster (all patients had the symptom of numbness or tingling) was associated with a higher likelihood of second dose intolerance, but this finding did not persist when accounting for objective signs. CONCLUSIONS: Three novel clinical phenotypes of immediate-onset reactions after dose one of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines were identified using latent class analysis: 1) Limited/Predominantly Cutaneous, 2) Sensory and 3) Systemic. While these clinical phenotypes may indicate differential mechanistic etiologies or associations with subsequent dose tolerance, most individuals proceeding to their second dose tolerated it.

17.
Infect Dis Now ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2028080

ABSTRACT

SARS CoV 2 S-glycoproteins play a crucial role in the entry steps of viral particles. Due to their surface location, they are the main target for host immune responses and the focus of most vaccine strategies. The D614G mutation identified in late January became dominant during March 2020, rendering SARS-CoV-2 more infectious. In April 2020, the Alpha, Beta and Gamma variants emerged simultaneously in Asia, South Africa, and South America, respectively. They were 1.6 to 2 times more transmissible than the ancestral strain. The currently dominant Omicron variant (BA.2) is not a direct descendant from the D614G lineage, but rather emerged from the BA.1 variant (as did BA.4 and BA.5). It is substantially different from all the other variants. It presents significantly reduced susceptibility to antibody neutralization: after 2 doses of mRNA-vaccine, neutralizing titers to Omicron are 41 to 84 times lower than neutralization titers to D614G. That said, a booster dose of mRNA-vaccine increases Omicron neutralization titers and reduces the risk of severe infection.

18.
Infect Dis Now ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2028077

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence rate in healthcare workers (HCWs) from Western France after the first 2020 wave, its determinants and the kinetics of total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 9,453 HCWs responded to a self-questionnaire and underwent a lateral flow immunoassay to assess SARS-CoV-2 IgG presence. For 72 HCWs who tested positive, total anti-nucleocapsid antibodies were assessed at day 0, 30, and 90. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence rate was 1.06% [0.86%-1.27%]. Factors associated with IgG presence were gender, performing upper respiratory tract samples, contact with HCWs or household members diagnosed with COVID-19. Total antibodies decreased between day 0 and day 90, with anosmia or ageusia, and were higher in HCWs older than 50 years. CONCLUSION: We reported a low prevalence rate of IgG and identified several risk factors associated with its presence and persistence of total antibodies. Additional studies are needed to confirm these observations.

19.
Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) ; 2022.
Article in French | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2027855

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of our work, developed within the Tunisian Football Federation (TFF), was to study the clinical manifestations and the possible cardiac complications in professional footballers of the first league having contracted an infection by SARS-CoV2. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective, descriptive, and analytical study. Professional Premier League football players who contracted COVID-19 from the onset of the pandemic through June 2021 were included. RESULTS: Among the 1388 players of the Tunisian first professional league, 102 players (7.35%) had COVID-19. Three were excluded for lack of clinical data. The average age of the subjects included was 26 ± 4 years with extremes ranging from 19 to 37 years. The most frequent clinical manifestations were anosmia, agueusia and muscle fatigue. The clinical examination was normal in all the subjects included except for the presence of fever among 37 (37.9%) subjects. All subjects' electrocardiogram did not show any unusual abnormality. As for the imaging data, two players presented a pericardial effusion without signs of severity. In the other players, echocardiography was normal. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any abnormality. CONCLUSION: The results of our study showed that there was no severe form of COVID-19 among professional soccer players. Larger scale studies integrating other leagues and different sport categories may provide more information on the clinical impact of this disease in high level athletes.

20.
Lessons from COVID-19: Impact on Healthcare Systems and Technology ; : 1-17, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2027810

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (or Coronavirus Disease) originated in China (Hubei provenance, Wuhan city). The first recorded illness occurred in December 2019. It has affected all parts of the world, and the WHO designated the COVID-19 disease, caused by the new Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Some debatable speculations indicate that it is a man-made virus, intentionally synthesized in the laboratory but was unintentionally emancipated from a laboratory of Wuhan, China. The primitive theory suggested the spread from the Hunan seafood market of China probably from an animal source. However, this theory is not fully supported. COVID-19 infection has a varying range of signs and symptoms from low fever, dry cough to lower respiratory tract infection, breathing difficulties, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), metabolic acidosis, sepsis, coagulation, lymphopenia, hypoxemia, multiorgan failure, and eventually, mortality. In patients with comorbidity such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, stroke, and kidney disease, fatality rate is higher. Young and elderly people are more likely to experience unfavorable outcomes due to poor immunity. There have been several treatment methods explored to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic, including medications, interferon, vaccines, oligonucleotides, peptides, and monoclonal and immunomodulatory antibodies, among other things. The World Health Organization has recommended preventive measures like washing hands, using face masks, sanitizers, and maintaining a safe distance to prevent the spread of the pandemic. One of the promising alternatives is the vaccine. One must take all preventive measures in the pandemic until it becomes feeble. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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