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1.
Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1844470

ABSTRACT

Background: Various registries of patients with cancer and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged over the last few months and patients with cancer are reported to be at increased risk for severe outcome of COVID-19. Yet, many studies lack a direct control group and include patients with different baseline parameters. Here we report data for patients with active malignancy who were hospitalized for severe COVID-19 and a control group hospitalized with severe COVID-19, but not diagnosed with ongoing malignant disease. Moreover, we incorporate the prognostic 4C Mortality Score which estimates in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 patients. Methods: In all, 245 patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 between March 2020 and March 2021 were included in the analysis. Among those, 89 patients were diagnosed with active malignancy. Primary endpoint was COVID-19-associated mortality. Results: COVID-19-associated mortality was significantly higher in cancer patients than in the control group (46.1 vs. 27.6%, odds ratio [OR] 2.56, p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, diagnosis of active malignancy (OR 4.59) and poor ECOG status ≥ 3 (OR 6.56) were the strongest predictors of COVID-19-related death. The prognostic 4C Mortality Score correctly predicted mortality in the control group (occurred: 27.6%, vs. estimated: 27.3%, p > 0.999), but significantly underestimated COVID-19-related mortality in cancer patients (occurred: 46.1% vs. estimated: 32.2%, p = 0.003). Conclusion: Active malignancy was associated with high mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 during the first period of the COVID-19 pandemic. The mortality rate was underestimated by the 4C Mortality Score. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature.

2.
Translational Biophotonics ; 4(1-2), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1844252

ABSTRACT

In the last few decades outbreaks of viral infections have often challenged the world‐wide health infrastructure and caused a significant financial burden as well as human suffering despite progress in diagnostic technologies. The recent outbreaks of the Ebola virus in the African continent, the Zika virus in the American continent, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MN1 -https://media.proquest.com/media/hms/PFT/1/9NKwM?_a=ChgyMDIyMDUxNzE1MjYzMjYwMzoyNzA4NTkSBTg4MjU5GgpPTkVfU0VBUkNIIg4xNTguMTExLjIzNi45NSoHNTA2ODQ5NTIKMjY2NDcwMDU1ODoNRG9jdW1lbnRJbWFnZUIBMFIGT25saW5lWgJGVGIDUEZUagoyMDIyLzAzLzAxcgoyMDIyLzAzLzMxegCCASlQLTEwMDc4NTItMjY3MjQtQ1VTVE9NRVItMTAwMDAyNTUtNTc2NDMxMZIBBk9ubGluZcoBc01vemlsbGEvNS4wIChXaW5kb3dzIE5UIDEwLjA7IFdpbjY0OyB4NjQpIEFwcGxlV2ViS2l0LzUzNy4zNiAoS0hUTUwsIGxpa2UgR2Vja28pIENocm9tZS8xMDEuMC40OTUxLjY0IFNhZmFyaS81MzcuMzbSARJTY2hvbGFybHkgSm91cm5hbHOaAgdQcmVQYWlkqgIrT1M6RU1TLU1lZGlhTGlua3NTZXJ2aWNlLWdldE1lZGlhVXJsRm9ySXRlbcoCD0FydGljbGV8RmVhdHVyZdICAVnyAgD6AgFZggMDV2ViigMcQ0lEOjIwMjIwNTE3MTUyNjMyNjAzOjcyMDg1Ng%3D%3D&_s=kRWbjm7Gq64Rq8ZmQhDgAEQ7U9s%3D ERS), influenza A and lately severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) viral infections have repeatedly highlighted the importance of technological advancement enabling a better understanding of virions. In this review, we systematically discuss different aspects of virions and how their properties and functions can be studied using different light‐based technologies. We focus on virion classification, detection and interactions with the host's immune system. Further, the potential of advanced biophotonic methods, for example, Raman, infrared reflection, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, advanced microscopic techniques and biosensor‐based approaches for diagnosing viral infections, investigating therapeutics and vaccine development are described. Although significant advancements have already been made in photonic technologies, which even enable visualizing virion‐host interactions on single‐cell level, the continuous evolution of viruses demands further progress in biophotonic solutions for fast, affordable and robust health monitoring devices for screening viral infections.

3.
Jie Fang Jun Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 47(4):359-366, 2022.
Article in Chinese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843215

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the epidemiological and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infected with the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. Methods Retrospectively analyze the epidemiological and clinical features of 138 confirmed cases of COVID-19 infected with the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 from October 25, 2021 to November 19, 2021 in Yantan Branch of the Second People's Hospital of Lanzhou City. The epidemiological and demographic information, clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, chest CT, treatment and prognosis data were collected, with a final follow-up date of November 27, 2021. Results As of November 19, 2021, a total of 144 confirmed cases of COVID-19 were reported in Gansu Province, of which 138 cases [65 males (47.1%) and 73 females (52.9%), aged 2-87 (42.7±21.0) years old, with the clinical classification of mainly common type (48.6%, 67/138)] were concentrically treated in the Yantan Branch of the Second People's Hospital of Lanzhou City. The transmission mode of the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 is mainly in confined spaces, with obvious tour group and family aggregation;screening the close contacts and community investigation are the main approaches of finding the infected persons;86.2% (119/138) of confirmed patients have been vaccinated with the domestic inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. The most common clinical symptoms are cough (57.2%, 79/138), followed by sore throat (28.3%, 39/138), dry throat (24.6%, 34/138), and expectoration (21.0%, 29/138). Only 20.3% (28/138) of patients have fever, and 4 patients (2.9%) have decreased or lost sense of smell and taste. Laboratory tests showed that serum amyloid A and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly. The Ct value of SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab gene is 26.31±7.63, and N gene is 26.35±7.17. Chest CT fined that 71.3% (72/101) of confirmed patients showed bilateral lung lobes involvement, and the lesions are mostly located in the lower lobes of both lungs;the lesions are mainly flaky and patchy ground-glass opacities. All confirmed cases are treated with integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine, mainly prone position ventilation and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment. The TCM treatment rate is 100% for severe cases. On the basis of respiratory support, nutritional support and anticoagulation, immunotherapy such as neutralizing antibodies are combined. Conclusions The main clinical features of COVID-19 infected by the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 in Gansu Province are low rate of fever, long time for viral nucleic acid turned to negative, low risk of severe illness after vaccination, the good therapeutic effect, no intubation, no extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and no deaths. "One person, one plan" personalized treatment with integrated Chinese and Western medicine can effectively control the progression of the disease and cure the disease.

4.
Journal of Clinical and Translational Science ; 6(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843205

ABSTRACT

Background:Studies examining the role of geographic factors in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) epidemiology among rural populations are lacking.Methods:Our study is a population-based longitudinal study based on rural residents in four southeast Minnesota counties from March through October 2020. We used a kernel density estimation approach to identify hotspots for COVID-19 cases. Temporal trends of cases and testing were examined by generating a series of hotspot maps during the study period. Household/individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) was measured using the HOUSES index and examined for association between identified hotspots and SES.Results:During the study period, 24,243 of 90,975 residents (26.6%) were tested for COVID-19 at least once;1498 (6.2%) of these tested positive. Compared to other rural residents, hotspot residents were overall younger (median age: 40.5 vs 43.2), more likely to be minorities (10.7% vs 9.7%), and of higher SES (lowest HOUSES [SES] quadrant: 14.6% vs 18.7%). Hotspots accounted for 30.1% of cases (14.5% of population) for rural cities and 60.8% of cases (27.1% of population) for townships. Lower SES and minority households were primarily affected early in the pandemic and higher SES and non-minority households affected later.Conclusion:In rural areas of these four counties in Minnesota, geographic factors (hotspots) play a significant role in the overall burden of COVID-19 with associated racial/ethnic and SES disparities, of which pattern differed by the timing of the pandemic (earlier in pandemic vs later). The study results could more precisely guide community outreach efforts (e.g., public health education, testing/tracing, and vaccine roll out) to those residing in hotspots.

5.
Hong Kong Journal of Paediatrics ; 27(2):118-125, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1843202

ABSTRACT

Since the first report of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, the disease has rapidly spread to many countries worldwide. The initial reports showed that the incidence rate in adults was higher, while children and adolescents had fewer cases of infection. However, the number of COVID-19 cases has gradually increased in children and adolescents. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the percentage of children and/or adolescents of the total patients diagnosed with COVID-19. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched to find relevant studies. All statistical analyses were conducted using StataMP 14 software. A total of 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. The final results showed that the percentage of children and/or adolescents of all COVID-19 cases was 0.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.04-0.07], which meant an average of 6 cases in children per 10,000 COVID-19 cases. The percentage of children and/or adolescents with COVID-19 was 0.03 (95% CI, 0.01-0.05), 0.09 (95% CI, 0.08-0.09), 0.09 (95% CI, 0.03-0.16) and 0.04 (95% CI, 0.00-0.10) in Asia, South America, North America and Europe, respectively. The present study showed a low percentage of COVID-19 cases of children and/or adolescents, but not without infection risk. Therefore, we should pay attention to the cases of children and/or adolescents during the COVID-19 period and raise our vigilance. © 2022, Medcom Limited. All rights reserved.

6.
Acta Microbiologica Hellenica ; 66(2):121-132, 2021.
Article in Greek | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1843167

ABSTRACT

Since 2020, humanity is facing the pandemic of COVID-19 disease, with the scientific community looking for reliable ways to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 infection. The quiver of diagnostic methods includes three types of tests. In order to document acute SARS-CoV-2 virus infection, techniques for detecting the genetic material of the virus are used either by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) method or by isothermal reaction techniques as well as antigens detection tests. Diagnostic tests aimed at detecting either specific binding or specific neutralizing antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus are primarily used to detect previous COVID-19 infection, helping to assess the cumulative impact of infection or vaccination in a community. Each test has advantages and disadvantages and should be used according to specific clinical situations. © 2021 Greek Society of Microbiology Ascent Ltd. All rights reserved.

7.
PLoS Computational Biology ; 18(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843149

ABSTRACT

Comparing SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced gene expression signatures to drug treatment-induced gene expression signatures is a promising bioinformatic tool to repurpose existing drugs against SARS-CoV-2. The general hypothesis of signature-based drug repurposing is that drugs with inverse similarity to a disease signature can reverse disease phenotype and thus be effective against it. However, in the case of viral infection diseases, like SARS-CoV-2, infected cells also activate adaptive, antiviral pathways, so that the relationship between effective drug and disease signature can be more ambiguous. To address this question, we analysed gene expression data from in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infected cell lines, and gene expression signatures of drugs showing anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. Our extensive functional genomic analysis showed that both infection and treatment with in vitro effective drugs leads to activation of antiviral pathways like NFkB and JAK-STAT. Based on the similarity—and not inverse similarity—between drug and infection-induced gene expression signatures, we were able to predict the in vitro antiviral activity of drugs. We also identified SREBF1/2, key regulators of lipid metabolising enzymes, as the most activated transcription factors by several in vitro effective antiviral drugs. Using a fluorescently labeled cholesterol sensor, we showed that these drugs decrease the cholesterol levels of plasma-membrane. Supplementing drug-treated cells with cholesterol reversed the in vitro antiviral effect, suggesting the depleting plasma-membrane cholesterol plays a key role in virus inhibitory mechanism. Our results can help to more effectively repurpose approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2, and also highlights key mechanisms behind their antiviral effect.

8.
International Journal of Medical Sciences ; 19(5):834-841, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1843146

ABSTRACT

Background: Mutations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may reduce the efficacy of neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapy against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We here evaluated the efficacy of casirivimab-imdevimab in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 during the Delta variant surge in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Methods: We enrolled 949 patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 who were admitted to hospital between July 24, 2021 and September 30, 2021. Clinical deterioration after admission was compared between casirivimab-imdevimab users (n = 314) and non-users (n = 635). Results: The casirivimab-imdevimab users were older (P < 0.0001), had higher body temperature (≥ 38°C) (P < 0.0001) and greater rates of history of cigarette smoking (P = 0.0068), hypertension (P = 0.0004), obesity (P < 0.0001), and dyslipidemia (P < 0.0001) than the non-users. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that receiving casirivimab-imdevimab was an independent factor for preventing deterioration (odds ratio 0.448;95% confidence interval 0.263-0.763;P = 0.0023). Furthermore, in 222 patients who were selected from each group after matching on the propensity score, deterioration was significantly lower among those receiving casirivimab-imdevimab compared to those not receiving casirivimab-imdevimab (7.66% vs 14.0%;p = 0.021). Conclusion: This real-world study demonstrates that casirivimab-imdevimab contributes to the prevention of deterioration in COVID-19 patients after hospitalization during a Delta variant surge.

9.
Journal of Clinical & Aesthetic Dermatology ; 15(5):E77-E81, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1842990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is primarily responsible for respiratory symptoms, an increasing number of cutaneous manifestations have been reported. Cutaneous manifestations are reported by patients following disease recovery. OBJECTIVE: We sought to document various skin lesions relating to COVID-19 symptoms either before, during, or after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. METHODS: This was a descriptive study with 273 patients who had cutaneous manifestations after recovering from COVID-19. Each patient provided a thorough medical history and underwent a general physical examination. Following polymerase chain reaction analysis, all participants were confirmed to be COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Acral lesions were the most common, accounting for 39% of all cases. An erythematous maculopapular rash was found in 21% of cases and was the second most common after urticaria, with fewer cases of erythema multiform, vesicular rash (9%), vascular livedo reticularis, figurate erythema, and flexural rash documented. CONCLUSION: The most common cutaneous changes seen in patients with COVID-19 were pseudo-chilblain acral lesions, which had a good prognosis. Vascular rashes within the spectrum of livedo/purpura/necrosis were seen with severe forms of COVID-19. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Clinical & Aesthetic Dermatology is the property of Matrix Medical Communications, LLC and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

10.
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis ; 36(5), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842968

ABSTRACT

IntroductionThe intensification of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) complications, severe symptoms, and high mortality rate has led researchers to focus on this significant issue. While respiratory and cardiac complications have been described as high‐risk manifestations in patients with COVID‐19, neurological complications can also enhance mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of neurological complications arises from SARS‐CoV‐2 and assess the mortality rate from neurological complications.Material and MethodsLiterature review was conducted by searching in PubMed/Medline, Web of Sciences, and Embase. After performing search strategies with relevant terms, a number of articles were excluded, including review articles, systematic review or meta‐analysis, duplicate publication of same researchers, congress s, animal studies, case reports, case series, and articles reporting a history of neurological features prior to COVID‐19 infection. After retrieving the data, statistical analysis was performed using the STATA Version 14 software.ResultsFrom 4455 retrieved publications, 20 articles were selected for further analysis. Among 18,258 included patients, 2791 showed neurological symptoms, which were classified into different groups. Headache, confusion, and fatigue were reported as the most non‐specific neurological features in confirmed COVID‐19 patients. Psychiatric symptoms, CNS disorders, cerebrovascular disorders, CNS inflammatory disorders, PNS disorders, neuromuscular disorders, etc., were defined as specific neurological manifestations. The pooled prevalence of neurological manifestations and mortality rate of COVID‐19 patients with neurological features were estimated to be 23.0% (95% CI: 17.8–29.2) and 29.1% (95% CI: 20.3–39.8), respectively.ConclusionNeurological manifestations may commonly happen in patients with COVID‐19. This study reported a high prevalence of neurological complications and mortality rates in COVID‐19 patients. Therefore, patients with COVID‐19 who indicated neurological symptoms should be taken seriously and should receive early treatment to prevent undesirable events.

11.
Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences ; 127, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842942

ABSTRACT

Background: The burden of disease from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is large;however, suicide affects the population year after year. From a public health perspective, it is important to not neglect contributors to the total burden of disease. The aim of this paper is to compare years of life lost (YLL) to suicide with those lost to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A nationwide cohort study in 2020, in Sweden. YLL was measured as the sex- and age-specific remaining life expectancy at the time of the person’s death based on the death risks that pertained to the Swedish population in 2019. YLL to suicide was compared to YLL to COVID-19 and presented by sex and age groups. Suicide deaths in 2020 were estimated as the annual average of suicides in 2015–2019. Results: Annual average of suicide was 1,565, whereof 1,076 (68.8%) men and 489 (31.2%) women. In 2020, 10,650 persons died of COVID-19, whereof 5,681 (53.3%) men and 4,969 (46.7%) women. Estimated total YLL to suicide and COVID-19 in 2020 was 53,237 and 90,116, respectively. The COVID-19 YLL to suicide YLL ratio in 2020 was 1.69 (90,116/53,237). Men accounted for 67.1% of suicide YLL and of 56.4% of COVID-19 YLL. Those 44 years or younger accounted for 60.3% of suicide YLL and 3.9% of COVID-19 YLL. Those 75 years and older accounted for 2.9% of suicide YLL and 60.9% of COVID-19 YLL. On average, each suicide generates 34 YLL (53,237/1,565), and each COVID-19 death generates 8.5 YLL (90,116/10,650). Conclusions: YLL to suicide affects Sweden year after year, foremost attributable to the younger age groups, whereas YLL to COVID-19 is foremost attributable to the elderly. On average, each suicide generates four times more YLL than a COVID-19 death. Enormous efforts and resources have been put on tackling the pandemic, and without these, the burden would probably have been much larger. However, from a public health perspective, it is important to not neglect other contributors to the total burden of disease where national efforts also may have an impact.

12.
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis ; 36(5), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842938

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe COVID‐19 pandemic caused by SARS‐CoV‐2 remains public health burdens and many unresolved issues worldwide. Molecular assays based on real‐time RT‐PCR are critical for the detection of SARS‐CoV‐2 in clinical specimens from patients suspected of COVID‐19.ObjectiveWe aimed to establish and validate an in‐house real‐time RT‐PCR for the detection of SARS‐CoV‐2.MethodologyPrimers and probes sets in our in‐house real‐time RT‐PCR assay were designed in conserved regions of the N and E target genes. Optimized multiplex real‐time RT‐PCR assay was validated using the first WHO International Standard (NIBSC code: 20/146) and evaluated clinical performance.ResultsThe limit of detection validated using the first WHO International Standard was 159 IU/ml for both E and N target genes. The evaluation of clinical performance on 170 clinical samples showed a positive percent agreement of 100% and the negative percent agreement of 99.08% for both target genes. The Kappa value of 0.99 was an excellent agreement, the strong correlation of Ct values observed between two tests with r2 = 0.84 for the E gene and 0.87 for the N gene. Notably, we assessed on 60 paired saliva and nasopharyngeal samples. The overall agreement was 91.66%, and Kappa value of 0.74 showed a high agreement between two types of samples. When using nasopharyngeal swabs as the reference standard, positive percent agreement, and negative percent agreement were 91.83% and 90.90%, respectively.ConclusionIn the present study, we established and validated an in‐house real‐time RT‐PCR for molecular detection of SARS‐CoV‐2 in a resource‐limited country.

13.
Current Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 34(3):132-136, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1842853

ABSTRACT

Towards the end of 2019, a new coronavirus (CoV) was described emerging from Wuhan, China. Given its phylogenetic similarity to SARS-CoV, the new coronavirus was named severe-acute respiratory syndrome virus-2 and the disease it caused was named coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). There are few reports of paediatric renal transplant recipients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and, although guidelines for the management of solid-organ transplant recipients exposed to SAR-CoV-2 have been published, there are few paediatric-specific guidelines. We present a case of an unusual presentation of COVID-19 in an adolescent transplant recipient who presented with transient facial angioedema and a non-specific skin rash. She developed acute kidney injury, which resolved without any intervention. We suggest that, in future, an international registry of paediatric transplant recipients infected with COVID-19 be established to delineate more clearly the presenting features, clinical course and challenges encountered in treating these patients. © 2021, Allergy Society of South Africa. All rights reserved.

14.
Govaresh ; 26(3):184-194, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1842845

ABSTRACT

Background: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly recognized illness that is spreading rapidly around the world and causes many disabilities and deaths. Some diseases, for instance, viral hepatitis, are continuously suggested as a risk factor that contributes to the severity and mortality of COVID-19. However, to date, there is no comprehensive study aiming to explain the exact relationship between viral hepatitis and COVID-19. Thus, in this study, we aimed to summarize the evidence about viral hepatitis and COVID-19 outbreak through a systematic review approach. Materials and Methods: A literature review was implemented in databases of Scopus, PubMed, Elsevier, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. Observational reviews, case-report, and case-series studies that assessed hepatitis in COVID-19 patients were included. Assessment, study selection, and data extraction was made following PRISMA checklist and, the extracted information was reported by Garrard’s table. Results: Some studies showed that there were liver symptoms such as increasing in liver enzymes and functions. The prevalence of hepatitis B was between 0.7% to 6.4%, and the prevalence of hepatitis C was 1.9%. These patients have prolonged hospitalization, poor prognosis, severe symptoms, in addition to the mortality rate among patients with hepatitis and COVID-19 at the same time is higher than others. In addition, it is suggested that patients with hepatitis will be treated with antivirals, especially lopinavir/ritonavir that was useful for the treatment of patients with (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1) SARS-CoV1. Conclusion: The results showed that hepatitis should be considered as a risk factor for the severity of symptoms of COVID-19. And the adverse effect of COVID-19 in patients with hepatitis is more than others. So, the use of antiviral drugs in patients with hepatitis and COVID-19 can prevent the reactivation of hepatitis and reduce the severity of COVID-19. © 2021 Iranian Association of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. All rights reserved.

15.
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis ; 36(5), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842786

ABSTRACT

ObjectivesThe spike protein has been reported as one of the most critical targets for vaccine design strategies against the SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. Hence, we have designed, produced, and evaluated the potential use of three truncated recombinant proteins derived from spike protein as vaccine candidates capable of neutralizing SARS‐CoV‐2 virus.MethodsIn silico tools were used to design spike‐based subunit recombinant proteins (RBD (P1), fusion peptide (P2), and S1/S2 cleavage site (P3)). These proteins were checked for their ability to be identified by the anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 antibodies by exposing them to COVID‐19 serum samples. The proteins were also injected into mice and rabbit, and the antibody titers were measured for 390 days to assess their neutralization efficiency.ResultsThe antibodies that existed in the serum of COVID‐19 patients were identified by designed proteins. The anti‐spike antibody titer was increased in the animals injected with recombinant proteins. The VNT results revealed that the produced antibodies could neutralize the cultured live virus.ConclusionTruncated subunit vaccines could also be considered as robust tools for effective vaccination against COVID‐19. Using a combination of in silico, in vitro, and in vivo experiments, it was shown that the injection of spike‐based truncated recombinant proteins could stimulate long‐lasting and neutralizing antibody responses.

16.
Vakcinologie ; 15(2):71-72, 2021.
Article in Czech | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1842670

ABSTRACT

Advances in unmanned aerial vehicle technology in terms of industrial processes and communication and network technologies have led to a gradual increase in their use in civil, commercial and social applications since 2000. Global rules in most countries in the past have limited the use of drones to military applications. However, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is helping to expand the use of drones in many ways – including human medicine. Recent experience suggests the importance and legitimacy of using unmanned aerial vehicles to reduce or eliminate human contact to a minimum, and to transport medical supplies to hard-to-reach areas at virtually any time of day or night throughout the year. © 2021, Medakta s.r.o.. All rights reserved.

17.
Vakcinologie ; 15(2):62-67, 2021.
Article in Czech | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1842669

ABSTRACT

The earliest cases of COVID-19 disease in Africa were, in most cases, the result of imports from abroad. The Democratic republic of the Congo (DRC) identified the first case at the beginning of 2020. Two days after his return from France, the first patient was tested positively in the capital, Kinshasa. The travel restrictions and status of the state of emergency were announced on 24 March 2020. A lockdown followed. In June of the same year, 11 provinces were already affected by COVID-19 disease. The negative socio-economic impact has occurred and is similar to that in any other country. The DRC does not differ from other African countries or on the issue of infectious diseases such as HIV, malaria, cholera, measles or Ebola virus disease. Recurring Ebola epidemics are addressed by vaccination with Ervebo vaccine. Unlike Ebola, part of the population does not believe in the existence of SARS-CoV-2 and does not respect basic anti-epidemic measures. Medical capacities were very limited at the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, both in terms of diagnosis and testing and availability of treatment (60 ventilators to 83 million inhabitants). The situation is complicated as a result of 20 years continuing wars. Another African country, Guinea, is currently facing not only COVID-19, but also the zoonotic disease of Lassa fever, which has been detected in several patients. © 2021, Medakta s.r.o.. All rights reserved.

18.
Bulletin of the National Research Centre ; 46(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842610

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe changing epidemiological profile of the COVID-19 pandemic and the uncertain clinical picture of patients characterise this ongoing and most challenging health event.ObjectivesTo report clinical features, laboratory characteristics, and mortality risk factors among COVID-19 patients admitted to a secondary hospital in Oman.MethodsA retrospective study for the first 455 patients admitted with COVID-19 to Rustaq hospital from 12th April, 2020 to 27th September, 2020. A predesigned questionnaire collected data from the hospital medical electronic system.ResultsThe mean age was 42.84 (SD = 19.86) years, and the majority of patients were aged 30 to 59 and 60 or above;207 (45.5%) and 189 (41.5%), respectively. Male patients constituted approximately two-thirds of the subjects. Fever, dyspnea and cough were the most common presenting symptoms (69%, 66%, and 62%, respectively), while comorbidities with diabetes mellitus and hypertension were 47% and 44%, respectively. Bacterial growth was identified at approximately 10%. Bivariate analysis turned out to be significant with a number of factors. However, multivariate analysis showed significance with patients aged over 60 (OR = 7.15, 95% CI 1.99–25.63), dyspnea (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.5–5.33), dyslipidemia (OR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.02–3.66) and being bed-ridden (OR = 5.01, 95% CI 1.73–14.44). Durations from onset of symptoms to admission and respiratory distress were lower among patients who died;p = 0.024 and p = 0.001, respectively. Urea, Troponin and LDH may act as potential diagnostic biomarkers for severity or mortality.ConclusionsThis study identified groups of patients with a higher risk of mortality, with severe disturbance in the laboratory markers while some could act as potential diagnostic biomarkers.

19.
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis ; 36(5), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842603

ABSTRACT

Uncovering risk factors playing roles in the severity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid‐19) are important for understanding pathoimmunology of the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV‐2). Genetic variations in innate immune genes have been found to be associated with Covid‐19 infections. A single‐nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a promoter region of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF‐α) gene, TNF‐α −308G>A, increases expression of TNF‐α protein against infectious diseases leading to immune dysregulations and organ damage. This study aims to discover associations between TNF‐α −308G>A SNP and Covid‐19 infection. Polymerase chain reaction‐restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR‐RFLP) was used for genotyping a general Kurdish population and Covid‐19 patients. The homozygous mutant (AA) genotype was found to be rare in the current studied population. Interestingly, the heterozygous (GA) genotype was significantly (p value = 0.0342) higher in the Covid‐19 patients than the general population. This suggests that TNF‐α −308G>A SNP might be associated with Covid‐19 infections. Further studies with larger sample sizes focusing on different ethnic populations are recommended.

20.
PLoS Pathogens ; 18(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842599

ABSTRACT

Macaques are a commonly used model for studying immunity to human viruses, including for studies of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination. However, it is unknown whether macaque antibody responses resemble the response in humans. To answer this question, we employed a phage-based deep mutational scanning approach (Phage-DMS) to compare which linear epitopes are targeted on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein in convalescent humans, convalescent (re-infected) rhesus macaques, mRNA-vaccinated humans, and repRNA-vaccinated pigtail macaques. We also used Phage-DMS to determine antibody escape pathways within each epitope, enabling a granular comparison of antibody binding specificities at the locus level. Overall, we identified some common epitope targets in both macaques and humans, including in the fusion peptide (FP) and stem helix-heptad repeat 2 (SH-H) regions. Differences between groups included a response to epitopes in the N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal domain (CTD) in vaccinated humans but not vaccinated macaques, as well as recognition of a CTD epitope and epitopes flanking the FP in convalescent macaques but not convalescent humans. There was also considerable variability in the escape pathways among individuals within each group. Sera from convalescent macaques showed the least variability in escape overall and converged on a common response with vaccinated humans in the SH-H epitope region, suggesting highly similar antibodies were elicited. Collectively, these findings suggest that the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in macaques shares many features with humans, but with substantial differences in the recognition of certain epitopes and considerable individual variability in antibody escape profiles, suggesting a diverse repertoire of antibodies that can respond to major epitopes in both humans and macaques. Differences in macaque species and exposure type may also contribute to these findings.

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