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1.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1015(1):012021, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1830936

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 had a significant impact on Indonesians. The considerable effect caused by COVID-19 demands the pandemic be immediately terminated. The government has made various efforts but were not enough to stop the pandemic, so other efforts were made, namely vaccination. Vaccination is expected to increase immunity against COVID-19. COVID-19 vaccination faces many challenges, such as the type of vaccine sensitive to temperature, the number of vaccines is still limited, and the distribution must be carried out immediately. This study aims to analyze the reach of health facilities and distribution routes for COVID-19 vaccines at vulnerable areas in Bandung. This study uses data collection methods in primary data (interview of the Bandung City Health Office) and secondary data (data.bandung.go.id). The analytical methods used in this study are scoring analysis, multiple regression analysis, network analyst, statistical analysis, and average nearest neighbor analysis. Based on the regression analysis results, indicators that correlate to COVID-19 vulnerability are education level, unemployment rate, population density, slum areas, and access to health facilities. 13 villages in Bandung should be prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination. There are still areas with low access to health facilities, so additional facilities are needed to accelerate the vaccinations.

2.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 1015(1):012013, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1830932

ABSTRACT

The post-pandemic COVID-19 demands an increasingly massive planning transformation in adopting spatial principles. It is often found the configuration of urban space is often the driver of the distribution level of the number of cases. Several spatial variables, such as the irregularity of the building, building density, and the technical requirements of the building, are closely related to the assessment of the indicators of slum settlements. Manggarai Slum Area is one of the slum clusters that have the potential to become the epicentrum of COVID-19 in Jakarta. So, it is necessary to have a strategy for structuring slum areas without compromising the rules of adaptation to the pandemic. The phase is begins by classifying the typology of the level of slums. Followed by a SWOT analysis for identifying general strategic development and determining the strategy for each typology. Generally, residential areas are classified as priority 1 category A1 and A3 (heavy slums), only differing from the legality of the land. Buildings, facilities, utilities, and legal needs to be prioritized in this area. While in the priority 3 category C3 (low slum) classification in the form of a military housing area. The right strategy is the fulfillment of basic infrastructure

3.
International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment ; : 26, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799402

ABSTRACT

Purpose Climate variability, accompanied by rapid urbanization and rising population disproportionality, impacts urban poor settlements. This paper aims to analyse the climate resilience for the urban poor in Ahmedabad through the lens of WASH development strategies. To assess the adaptive capacities of urban poor communities, a framework in the form of a vulnerability matrix has been used consisting of four key parameters - tenure, basic services, mobilization and partnership and disaster management capacities. The matrix implicitly recommends area-specific interventions to boost adaptive capacities and improve resilience based on WASH services. Design/methodology/approach This paper was designed to assess the climate resilience of WASH services in the urban poor settlements of Ahmedabad city. In all, seven slums were selected using a stratified sampling approach considering topography, access to WASH services and urban heat island effect. These slums were then assessed using a theoretical framework having four key parameters - tenure, basic service, mobilization and partnership and disaster management capacities. The data for the analysis was collected from both secondary and primary sources. For the latter, semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, observational field visits and focused group discussions with the communities were done. Findings A ladder form of assessment matrix was derived from a thorough literature review and various pre-existing theories. This matrix consists of four key parameters - tenure, basic service, mobilization and partnership and disaster management capacities. The slums were evaluated by applying this framework, and direct and indirect relationships were established between the said parameters. Research limitations/implications This paper was adapted in the light of various obstacles put forward by the Covid-19 pandemic. Some of the interviews with the bureaucrats and external researchers were conducted online, while the engagement with the slum dwellers was in-person, considering appropriate social and/or physical distancing norms. Implications of the Covid-19 second wave restricted the involvement of researchers with the communities at an ethnographic level. Originality/value The ladder form of vulnerability assessment framework has been developed and contextualized using the insights from literature review, field visits and multi-stakeholder consultations. It was helpful in identifying aspects that require suitable interventions for improving and imparting resilience among the urban poor settlements. The learnings from this paper are significant for planners and decision-makers in identifying and prioritizing context-specific future projects for a city.

4.
Journal of Development Economics ; : 102882, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796526

ABSTRACT

How do slums shape the economic and health dynamics of pandemics? A difference-in-differences analysis using millions of mobile phones in Brazil shows that residents of overcrowded slums engaged in less social distancing after the outbreak of Covid-19. We develop and calibrate a choice-theoretic equilibrium model in which individuals are heterogeneous in income and some people live in high-density slums. Slum residents account for a disproportionately high number of infections and deaths and, without slums, deaths increase in non-slum neighborhoods. Policy analysis of reallocation of medical resources, lockdowns and cash transfers produce heterogeneous effects across groups. Policy simulations indicate that: reallocating medical resources cuts deaths and raises output and the welfare of both groups;mild lockdowns favor slum individuals by mitigating the demand for hospital beds, whereas strict confinements mostly delay the evolution of the pandemic;and cash transfers benefit slum residents to the detriment of others, highlighting important distributional effects.

5.
Sustainability ; 14(6):3472, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1765886

ABSTRACT

Coastal hazards, particularly cyclones, floods, erosion and storm surges, are emerging as a cause for major concern in the coastal regions of Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India. Serious coastal disaster events have become more common in recent decades, triggering substantial destruction to the low-lying coastal areas and a high death toll. Further, women living in informal and slum housing along the Vijayawada coastline of Andhra Pradesh (CAP), India, suffer from multiple social, cultural and economic inequalities as well. These conditions accelerate and worsen women’s vulnerability among this coastal population. The existing literature demonstrates these communities’ susceptibility to diverse coastal disasters but fails to offer gender-specific vulnerability in urban informal housing in the Vijayawada area. Accordingly, the current study developed a novel gender-specific Women’s Coastal Vulnerability Index (WCVI) to assess the impact of coastal disasters on women and their preparedness in Vijayawada. Field data was collected from over 300 women through surveys (2) and workshops (2) between November 2018 and June 2019, and Arc-GIS tools were used to generate vulnerability maps. Results show that women are more vulnerable than men, with a higher death rate during coastal disaster strikes. The current study also found that gender-specific traditional wear is one of the main factors for this specific vulnerability in this area. Furthermore, the majority of the women tend to be located at home to care for the elders and children, and this is associated with more fatalities during disaster events. Homes, particularly for the urban poor, are typically very small and located in narrow and restricted sites, which are a barrier for women to escape from unsafe residential areas during disasters. Overall, the research reveals that most of the coastal disaster events had a disproportionately negative impact on women. The results from this present study offer valuable information to aid evidence-based policy- and decision-makers to improve existing or generate innovative policies to save women’s lives and improve their livelihood in coastal areas.

6.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 986(1):012005, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1730610

ABSTRACT

Kampung kota is a type of Indonesian residential that is occupied by a large portion of urban dwellers. According to Pauline (1993) Kampung kota is still considered to have a social interaction habit as mutual assistance among the residences called gotong royong [1]. Despite the effort to plan the formal residential area, most kampung kota is categorized as slum and squatter areas. There are a lot of improvement programs initiated by the government to create a better kampung kota. One of the programs in Surakarta is located in neighborhood one (RW 1), Pasar Kliwon District. The residents were given temporary living space in kampung sub-communal RISHA Mojo before they were moved into the new area of Kampung Metal in Semanggi sub-district. Kampung Sub-Communal RHISA Mojo in Surakarta is a temporary housing area provided by the government to support the kampung improvement program in the residents’ old area. Living in communal housing is not directly being guaranteed with decent hygiene environment. When the COVID-19 pandemic occurred in 2020, the residents were dealing with hygiene issues. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to show how social design at Bangkit Berbarengan Project that initiated by academicians of URDC Laboratory and NGO of ARKOM Solo in Surakarta becomes a strategy to improve the environmental quality in the sub-communal area, especially in the pandemic era. Social design thinking is to keep the human need approach and in formalistic approach of design that concern more about inclusivity (Sommer, 1983)[2]. This paper will discuss the approach of the social design process that applies actor-network as a method of knowledge. The case study of the social design project creates social dynamic assemblies and engages multi-stakeholders. The social design outputs are the local campaign to advocate the resident of the COVID-19 and the public facilities designed by the residents. We used qualitative research method. We investigated the residents’ behaviors regarding their environment by conducting observation and in-depth interviews. Through this investigation, we found that the advocacy program for COVID-19 prevention can be easily accepted by the residents through the usage of a local icon. A creative activity of making public facilities that involved the residents also creates a bigger sense of belonging between them.

7.
Frontiers in Sustainable Cities ; 3:7, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1708421

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic brought a halt to life as we knew it in our cities. It has also put a magnifying glass on existing inequalities and poverty. While everyone has been facing the pandemic's risks, the lived challenges of the lockdowns have been felt most acutely by the poor, the vulnerable, those in the informal sector, and without savings and safety nets. Here, we identify three ways that the COVID-19 pandemic and related containment measures have exacerbated urban inequalities and how subsequent recovery measures and policy responses have tried to redress these. First, lockdowns amplified urban energy poverty, while recovery measures and policies offer an opportunity to address entrenched inequalities in shelter and energy access. Second, preexisting digital divides even within well-connected cities have translated into inequalities in preparedness for living through the lockdown, but digitalization strategies can enhance equity in access to e-services, online work and education for all in the future. Third, slum dwellers in the world's cities have been particularly hard hit by the pandemic and lockdown measures, but the spotlight on them provides further impetus for slum upgradation efforts that through improved access to infrastructure can improve living conditions and provide more secure livelihoods.

8.
Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal ; 41(1):64-79, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1672488

ABSTRACT

PurposeThe lives of the poor in the urban spaces of India are filled with hardships. They live amidst poverty and struggle to survive within other problems such as insecure jobs, lack of proper housing, unsanitary conditions and low levels of health immunity. This vulnerable section of the population has been rendered furthermore vulnerable by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in ways that were never imagined before. Taking this into consideration, the purpose of this article is to examine the vulnerability of the poor in the urban settings of India with special reference to Mumbai in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.Design/methodology/approachThe methodology adopted in the study is based on the analysis of secondary data and content analysis of the existing literature. In addition to this, the study also makes use of certain narratives of the urban poor in Mumbai that have been captured by various articles, reports and blogs.FindingsThe findings of the study reveal how the urban poor of India, with special reference to Mumbai, the financial capital of India, has emerged as the worst sufferers of the socioeconomic crisis caused by the social distancing and lockdown measures imposed for combating the pandemic.Originality/valueThe study tries to explore the reality of the urban poor's right to the city in the wake of the pandemic.

9.
Non-conventional in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-1661075

ABSTRACT

"The 87-page report ... documents how a five-week lockdown, rising food prices, and a prolonged economic downturn have had a devastating impact on informal workers, slum dwellers, and other urban poor families in Lagos. The absence of a functioning social security system meant that government assistance, including cash transfers and food handouts, reached only a fraction of people going hungry."--Publisher website

10.
Journal of the American Planning Association ; 88(1):137-138, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1617056

ABSTRACT

For example, employment opportunities in construction and transport have expanded for low-income working-class urban residents, but high-paying employment opportunities are often linked to someone's education and social and professional networks, which are often available to upper-class urban residents. With a population of approximately 18 million, Dhaka is now experiencing "hyperurbanization" or "overurbanization", the phenomena mentioned by urban theorist Mike Davis in his book I Planet of Slums i ([1]). Dhaka's Changing Landscape: Prospects for Economic Development, Social Change, and Shared Prosperity: Rita Afsar and Mahabub Hossain (2020). [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Journal of the American Planning Association is the property of Routledge and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

11.
Regional Science Policy & Practice ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1571078

ABSTRACT

The research questions we answer in this paper pertain to the socio-economic determinants of Covid-19, the relationship between urbanization, urban primacy, the proportion of households in slums, urban poverty health infrastructure, open spaces in cities and Covid prevalence, in India. We find that urbanization, higher workforce participation, higher population density and higher income lead to increased Covid prevalence. We find a positive relationship between urban primacy, slum households and Covid-19, and a negative association between health infrastructure, parks and Covid-19. Cities should develop and maintain not only hospital infrastructure such as beds but also parks in the post-pandemic world.

12.
IOP Conference Series. Earth and Environmental Science ; 916(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1556747

ABSTRACT

This study aims to reflect on urban slums planning and management through the lens of complexity theory by utilizing Indonesia as a case. This study employs a literature review to explore several problems and provide solutions as implemented in the Indonesian urban slums. The two key reflections were underlined. First, the given spatial solutions generate more complexity by its various type of programs and managements. Second, the root cause of the slums is poverty, despite unachieved by the given non-spatial solutions. This study suggests to refashion the planning approach in dealing with the slums problem to achieve SDGs particularly point 1 and 11, while adjusted to adapt with the COVID-19 situation.

13.
Digit Health ; 7: 20552076211033425, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371942

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Remote or mobile consulting is being promoted to strengthen health systems, deliver universal health coverage and facilitate safe clinical communication during coronavirus disease 2019 and beyond. We explored whether mobile consulting is a viable option for communities with minimal resources in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: We reviewed evidence published since 2018 about mobile consulting in low- and middle-income countries and undertook a scoping study (pre-coronavirus disease) in two rural settings (Pakistan and Tanzania) and five urban slums (Kenya, Nigeria and Bangladesh), using policy/document review, secondary analysis of survey data (from the urban sites) and thematic analysis of interviews/workshops with community members, healthcare workers, digital/telecommunications experts, mobile consulting providers, and local and national decision-makers. Project advisory groups guided the study in each country. RESULTS: We reviewed four empirical studies and seven reviews, analysed data from 5322 urban slum households and engaged with 424 stakeholders in rural and urban sites. Regulatory frameworks are available in each country. Mobile consulting services are operating through provider platforms (n = 5-17) and, at the community level, some direct experience of mobile consulting with healthcare workers using their own phones was reported - for emergencies, advice and care follow-up. Stakeholder willingness was high, provided challenges are addressed in technology, infrastructure, data security, confidentiality, acceptability and health system integration. Mobile consulting can reduce affordability barriers and facilitate care-seeking practices. CONCLUSIONS: There are indications of readiness for mobile consulting in communities with minimal resources. However, wider system strengthening is needed to bolster referrals, specialist services, laboratories and supply chains to fully realise the continuity of care and responsiveness that mobile consulting services offer, particularly during/beyond coronavirus disease 2019.

14.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 1: 100052, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281547
15.
J Urban Econ ; 127: 103357, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230639

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has had a greater burden, as measured by rate of infection, in poorer communities within cities. For example, 55% of Mumbai slums residents had antibodies to COVID-19, 3.2 times the seroprevalence in non-slum areas of the city according to a sero-survey done in July 2020. One explanation is that government suppression was less severe in poorer communities, either because the poor were more likely to be exempt or unable to comply. Another explanation is that effective suppression itself accelerated the epidemic in poor neighborhoods because households are more crowded and residents share toilet and water facilities. We show there is little evidence for the first hypothesis in the context of Mumbai. Using location data from smart phones, we find that slum residents had nominally but not significantly (economically or statistically) higher mobility than non-slums prior to the sero-survey. We also find little evidence that mobility in non-slums was lower than in slums during lockdown, a subset of the period before the survey.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 502, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of research investigating the confluence of risk factors in urban slums that may make them accelerators for respiratory, droplet infections like COVID-19. Our working hypothesis was that, even within slums, an inverse relationship existed between living density and access to shared or private WASH facilities. METHODS: In an exploratory, secondary analysis of World Bank, cross-sectional microdata from slums in Bangladesh we investigated the relationship between intra-household population density (crowding) and access to private or shared water sources and toilet facilities. RESULTS: The analysis showed that most households were single-room dwellings (80.4%). Median crowding ranged from 0.55 m2 per person up to 67.7 m2 per person. The majority of the dwellings (83.3%), shared both toilet facilities and the source of water, and there was a significant positive relationship between crowding and the use of shared facilities. CONCLUSION: The findings highlight the practical constraints on implementing, in slums, the conventional COVID19 management approaches of social distancing, regular hand washing, and not sharing spaces. It has implications for the management of future respiratory epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Crowding , Family Characteristics/ethnology , Poverty Areas , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hygiene/standards , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sanitation/standards , Toilet Facilities/standards , Urban Population
18.
Public Health ; 194: 14-16, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118631

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In large cities, where a large proportion of the population live in poverty and overcrowding, orders to stay home to comply with isolation requirements are difficult to fulfil. In this article, the use of alternative care sites (ACSs) for the isolation of patients with confirmed COVID-19 or persons under investigation (PUI) in the City of Buenos Aires during the first wave of COVID-19 are described. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study. METHODS: All patients with COVID-19 and PUI with insufficient housing resources who could not comply with orders to stay home and who were considered at low clinical risk in the initial triage were referred to refurbished hotels in the City of Buenos Aires (Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires [CABA]). ACSs were divided into those for confirmed COVID-19 patients and those for PUI. RESULTS: From March to August 2020, there were 58,143 reported cases of COVID-19 (13,829 of whom lived in slums) in the CABA. For COVID-19 positive cases, 62.1% (n = 8587) of those living in slums and 21.4% (n = 9498) of those living outside the slums were housed in an ACS. In total, 31.1% (n = 18,085) of confirmed COVID-19 cases were housed in ACSs. In addition, 7728 PUI were housed (3178 from the slums) in an ACS. The average length of stay was 9.0 ± 2.5 days for patients with COVID-19 and 1.6 ± 0.7 days for PUI. For the individuals who were housed in an ACS, 1314 (5.1%) had to be hospitalised, 56 were in critical care units (0.22%) and there were 27 deaths (0.1%), none during their stay in an ACS. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, about one-third of all people with COVID-19 were referred to an ACS in the CABA. For slum dwellers, the proportion was >60%. The need for hospitalisation was low and severe clinical events were rare. This strategy reduced the pressure on hospitals so their efforts could be directed to patients with moderate-to-severe disease.


Subject(s)
Assisted Living Facilities/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , Patient Isolation/methods , Adult , Argentina/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cities/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Poverty Areas
19.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(174): 20200599, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1038334

ABSTRACT

We study the spread of COVID-19 across neighbourhoods of cities in the developing world and find that small numbers of neighbourhoods account for a majority of cases (k-index approx. 0.7). We also find that the countrywide distribution of cases across states/provinces in these nations also displays similar inequality, indicating self-similarity across scales. Neighbourhoods with slums are found to contain the highest density of cases across all cities under consideration, revealing that slums constitute the most at-risk urban locations in this epidemic. We present a stochastic network model to study the spread of a respiratory epidemic through physically proximate and accidental daily human contacts in a city, and simulate outcomes for a city with two kinds of neighbourhoods-slum and non-slum. The model reproduces observed empirical outcomes for a broad set of parameter values-reflecting the potential validity of these findings for epidemic spread in general, especially across cities of the developing world. We also find that distribution of cases becomes less unequal as the epidemic runs its course, and that both peak and cumulative caseloads are worse for slum neighbourhoods than non-slums at the end of an epidemic. Large slums in the developing world, therefore, contain the most vulnerable populations in an outbreak, and the continuing growth of metropolises in Asia and Africa presents significant challenges for future respiratory outbreaks from perspectives of public health and socioeconomic equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Developing Countries , Poverty Areas , SARS-CoV-2 , Urban Population , COVID-19/economics , Cities/epidemiology , Humans
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 106, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962488

ABSTRACT

Urban slums are often characterized by overcrowding, inaccessibility of basic services such as running water and abject poverty. These may affect adherence to COVID-19 containment measures and worsen the effect of the virus on slum residents. We explore the overall practices and impact of the COVID-19 mitigation measures on the lives of Nairobi's urban poor. This was done through a three-week cycle of telephone interviews with residents, local healthcare providers, religious leaders and key decision makers in two of Nairobi's slums. As the number of COVID-19 cases increase in Kenya, greater efforts are needed to protect those in environments that make it challenging to implement the containment measures. Collaborative effort is needed to firmly and quickly implement social protections and food security measures, protection against domestic violence, and strengthening response at Level One (community level).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Community Health Services , Poverty Areas , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Medically Underserved Area , Poverty , Risk Factors , Urban Population
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