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1.
Open Respiratory Medicine Journal ; 16 (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2114862

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe COVID-19 pneumonitis in elderly frail patients is associated with poor outcomes, and therefore invasive mechanical ventilation is often deemed an inappropriate course of action. Some evidence suggests high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) may prevent the need for invasive ventilation in other groups of patients, but whether it is an appropriate ceiling of care for older frail patients is unknown. Method(s): We retrospectively identified patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonitis requiring FiO2 >60% who were deemed inappropriate for invasive ventilation or non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure ventilation (CPAP). Our local protocol based on national guidance suggested these patients should be considered for HFNO. We observed whether the patients received HFNO or standard oxygen therapy (SOT) and compared mortality and survival time in these groups. Result(s): We identified 81 patients meeting the inclusion criteria. From this group, 24 received HFNO and 57 received SOT. The HFNO group was similar in age, BMI and co-morbidities to the SOT group but less frail, as determined by the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). All 24 patients that received HFNO died in comparison to 46 patients (80.7%) in the SOT group. Mortality in the HFNO group was significantly higher than in the SOT group. Conclusion(s): Elderly frail patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonitis deemed inappropriate for invasive ventilation and did not benefit from HFNO. Further, HFNO may have been associated with harm in this group. Copyright © 2022 Merchant et al.

2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac221, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018027

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmissible through lung transplantation, and outcomes among infected organ recipients may be severe. Transmission risk to extrapulmonary organ recipients and recent (within 30 days of transplantation) SARS-CoV-2-infected recipient outcomes are unclear. Methods: During March 2020-March 2021, potential SARS-CoV-2 transmissions through solid organ transplantation were investigated. Assessments included SARS-CoV-2 testing, medical record review, determination of likely transmission route, and recent recipient outcomes. Results: During March 2020-March 2021, approximately 42 740 organs were transplanted in the United States. Forty donors, who donated 140 organs to 125 recipients, were investigated. Nine (23%) donors and 25 (20%) recipients were SARS-CoV-2 positive by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Most (22/25 [88%]) SARS-CoV-2-infected recipients had healthcare or community exposures. Nine SARS-CoV-2-infected donors donated 21 organs to 19 recipients. Of these, 3 lung recipients acquired SARS-CoV-2 infections from donors with negative SARS-CoV-2 testing of pretransplant upper respiratory tract specimens but from whom posttransplant lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens were SARS-CoV-2 positive. Sixteen recipients of extrapulmonary organs from SARS-CoV-2-infected donors had no evidence of posttransplant COVID-19. All-cause mortality within 45 days after transplantation was 6-fold higher among SARS-CoV-2-infected recipients (9/25 [36%]) than those without (6/100 [6%]). Conclusions: Transplant-transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is uncommon. Pretransplant NAAT of lung donor LRT specimens may prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through transplantation. Extrapulmonary organs from SARS-CoV-2-infected donors may be safely usable, although further study is needed. Reducing recent recipient exposures to SARS-CoV-2 should remain a focus of prevention.

3.
International Conference on Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems, INFUS 2022 ; 505 LNNS:250-262, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1971528

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has significantly impacted all aspects of humankind's life. One of the major negative observations, based on the preliminary data, is the seriously decreased number of organ transplants. Due to chronic immunosuppressive treatment and other medical comorbidities organ transplantation recipients are at very high risk because of the COVID-19 virus. kidney transplantation naturally lies in a risky environment with high rates of complication and mortality. During the coronavirus pandemic, the risk attributable to COVID-19 infectious is incredibly increased and brings out a more uncertain environment. In such high uncertainty, some very critical questions regarding decision making to allocate a patient for transplant, or put into the wait-listed patient. In this chapter, it is considered a spherical fuzzy structure to evaluate the uncertainty around the kidney transplantation recipient and an allocation method in SFSs is proposed. To show the feasibility and applicability of the proposed algorithm is applied and solved a case study of renal transplantation allocation and the results are discussed in detail. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

4.
Eur J Radiol Open ; 9: 100431, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906978

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To compare temporal evolution of imaging features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza in computed tomography and evaluate their predictive value for distinction. Methods: In this retrospective, multicenter study 179 CT examinations of 52 COVID-19 and 44 influenza critically ill patients were included. Lung involvement, main pattern (ground glass opacity, crazy paving, consolidation) and additional lung and chest findings were evaluated by two independent observers. Additional findings and clinical data were compared patient-wise. A decision tree analysis was performed to identify imaging features with predictive value in distinguishing both entities. Results: In contrast to influenza patients, lung involvement remains high in COVID-19 patients > 14 days after the diagnosis. The predominant pattern in COVID-19 evolves from ground glass at the beginning to consolidation in later disease. In influenza there is more consolidation at the beginning and overall less ground glass opacity (p = 0.002). Decision tree analysis yielded the following: Earlier in disease course, pleural effusion is a typical feature of influenza (p = 0.007) whereas ground glass opacities indicate COVID-19 (p = 0.04). In later disease, particularly more lung involvement (p < 0.001), but also less pleural (p = 0.005) and pericardial (p = 0.003) effusion favor COVID-19 over influenza. Regardless of time point, less lung involvement (p < 0.001), tree-in-bud (p = 0.002) and pericardial effusion (p = 0.01) make influenza more likely than COVID-19. Conclusions: This study identified differences in temporal evolution of imaging features between COVID-19 and influenza. These findings may help to distinguish both diseases in critically ill patients when laboratory findings are delayed or inconclusive.

5.
Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med ; 9(3): 153-159, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867255

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the initial emergence of the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus responsible for the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, many studies have been exploring the nature and characteristics of this virus and its associated clinical manifestations. The present study aimed to describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of COVID-19 infections in pediatric patients. Methods: A retrospective review of findings associated with 143 pediatric patients (age <14 years) with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis who had undergone inpatient or outpatient treatment at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between March 2020 and October 2020, was conducted. The analyzed data included patient demographic information, pre-existing medical conditions, symptoms, interventions, and outcomes. Results: The median age of this patient population was 7 years. Of these 143 patients, 67 (46.8%) had known pre-existing medical conditions including bronchial asthma (12.8%), chronic lung disease (CLD) (3%), congenital heart disease (CHD) (17%), primary immunodeficiencies (1.5%), malignancies (9.8%), and 7.5% were post-transplant patients. Thirty-seven patients (26%) were overweight or obese. Sixty-three of these patients (51%) were symptomatic, with the most common symptom being fever (55%). Ultimately, 45 patients (31%) required admission to the hospital, with a median duration of hospitalization of 9.6 days for admitted patients. There were no documented cases of infection-related mortality among this pediatric cohort, although 11 patients experienced post-infectious complications that primarily manifested as a loss of taste and smell. Conclusion: These findings suggest that pediatric COVID-19 patients tend to experience mild forms of the disease, without any significant differences in disease severity as a function of patient gender or immune status.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We studied factors related to humoral response in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients following a three-dose regimen of an mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. METHOD: This was a prospective study of SOT recipients who received a third homologous dose of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine. The anti-spike S1 IgG response was measured using the SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay (Abbott Laboratories) with a cut-off of 7.1 BAU/mL. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with humoral response. RESULTS: In total, 395 SOT recipients were included. Anti-spike IgG was detected in 195/395 (49.4%) patients after the second dose and 261/335 (77.9%) patients after the third dose. The overall mean increase in antibody concentration after the third dose was 831.0 BAU/mL (95% confidence interval (CI) 687.4-974.5) and 159 (47.5%) participants had at least a 10-fold increase in antibody concentration after the third dose. The increase in antibody concentration was significantly higher among patients with detectable antibodies after the second dose than those without. Cumulative time from transplantation and liver recipients was positively associated with an antibody response, whereas older age, administration of prednisolone, and proliferation inhibitors were associated with diminished antibody response. CONCLUSION: Although the third dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine improved humoral responses among SOT non-responders following the second dose, the overall response remained low, and 22.1% did not develop any response. Patients at risk of a diminished vaccine response require repeated booster doses and alternative treatment approaches.

7.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(3): 365-372, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although many studies have reported cases of COVID-19 infection in transplant recipients, most of them only involve a small number of patients and narrow geographic areas. This study aims to investigate the clinical characteristics, morbidity, severity, and mortality of COVID-19 infection among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients by meta-analysis. METHOD: We performed a literature search using the databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of November 26, 2020. We included randomized controlled trials and cohort studies, excluding case reports and small case series (n < 10). The pooled incidence proportion and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to estimate the combined results of forty-seven studies were included for the meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2. Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation was used to stabilize the specific rate variance. Publication bias was using Egger's test. RESULTS: The morbidity rate of COVID-19 in SOT recipients was 2.10% [95% CI 1.35-3.01], and the proportion of severe infection was 22.46% [95% CI 15.74-29.90]. The mortality rate was 17.38% [95% CI 13.72-21.34]. In the analysis by transplanted organ, the proportion of patients with severe infection was highest in recipients of two or more transplants 48.85% [95% CI 11.88-86.38]. The mortality rate was highest in lung transplant recipients 25.12% [95% CI 16.94-34.00]. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 in SOT recipients were fever (73.39%), cough (58.90%), and respiratory symptoms (45.77%). CONCLUSION: SOT was a risk factor for worse COVID-19 outcomes, although the morbidity of COVID-19 in SOT recipients was not markedly higher than the general population. These results may change when our understanding of the disease progress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Transplant Recipients , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Morbidity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(6): 1093-1096, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692245

ABSTRACT

A low anti-spike antibody response of 28.6% was observed 28 days after BNT162b2 vaccine second dose among 133 solid organ transplant recipients without previous coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). No serious adverse events were recorded. Four severe COVID-19 cases were reported between or after the 2 doses. Our data suggest to change the vaccine strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Transplant Recipients
9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635889

ABSTRACT

The BNT162b2 vaccine is reportedly effective in preventing severe disease in more than 90% of the general population, but its efficacy in transplant recipients remains controversial. We aimed to determine the immune response to the BNT162b2 vaccine in kidney (KTRs) and liver transplant recipients (LTRs). In this retrospective cohort study, we included randomly 65 KTRs and 65 LTRs, who received two 30 µg doses of BNT162b2 vaccine in 3-to6-week intervals. We analyzed the anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG antibody (anti-S1 Ab) titer, biochemical liver and renal tests, immunosuppressive drug trough level, and clinical follow up 4-6 weeks after the first dose and 4-8 weeks after the second dose. The level of protective antibodies was 57.1% in KTRs and 88.9% in LTRs after the second dose. The anti-S1 Ab response was significantly associated with sex, age, and history of COVID-19. A tacrolimus dose at vaccination but not its trough level was significantly correlated with the increase in anti-S1 Ab titer after the second vaccine dose in LTRs. Rejection episodes did not occur after vaccination. Our results showed a higher than previously reported humoral response to the BNT162b2 vaccine in KTRs and LTRs, which was dependent upon age, type of transplanted organ, and immunosuppression.

10.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(3): e587, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab was studied to reduce cytokine syndrome in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with conflicting results. We aim to study the early use of tocilizumab in SOT with COVID-19 pneumonia on low flow oxygen. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study that was conducted in two transplant centers in Saudi Arabia among 46 SOT with COVID-19 comparing 21 patients who received tocilizumab to 25 patients who received standard of care. Their clinical characteristics and outcomes were described. RESULTS: Compared to patients who received standard of care, patients in the tocilizumab group were older (60.2 ± 12.8 vs. 48.6 ± 12.3, p = .003), had higher ferritin (862.1 ± 919.1 vs. 414 ± 447.3, p = .025) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (85 ± 83.1 vs. 42.9 ± 57.3, p = .012). More patients in the tocilizumab group required high flow oxygen (38.1% vs. 8.0%, p = .028) compared to patients on standard of care. There were no differences in mortality or mechanical ventilation requirement. Hospital stay was significantly shorter in the tocilizumab group than the standard of care group (9.6 ± 7.4 vs. 20.7 ± 11.7, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Early use of tocilizumab in SOT was associated with a shorter hospital stay. There was no difference in mortality rate and the requirement for mechanical ventilation in both groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
11.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 789774, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595513

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted genetic vaccination as a powerful and cost-effective tool to counteract infectious diseases. Invasive fungal infections (IFI) remain a major challenge among immune compromised patients, particularly those undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic bone marrow transplantation (HSCT) or solid organ transplant (SOT) both presenting high morbidity and mortality rates. Candidiasis and Aspergillosis are the major fungal infections among these patients and the failure of current antifungal therapies call for new therapeutic aids. Vaccination represents a valid alternative, and proof of concept of the efficacy of this approach has been provided at clinical level. This review will analyze current understanding of antifungal immunology, with a particular focus on genetic vaccination as a suitable strategy to counteract these diseases.

12.
Pediatr Transplant ; 25(5): e13986, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124666

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has proven to be a challenge in regard to the clinical presentation, prevention, diagnosis, and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection among children who are candidates for and recipients of SOT. By providing scenarios and frequently asked questions encountered in routine clinical practice, this document provides expert opinion and summarizes the available data regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pediatric SOT candidates and recipients and highlights ongoing knowledge gaps requiring further study. Currently available data are still lacking in the pediatric SOT population, but data have emerged in both the adult SOT and general pediatric population regarding the approach to COVID-19. The document provides expert opinion regarding prevention, diagnosis, and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection among pediatric SOT candidates and recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , End Stage Liver Disease/surgery , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , False Positive Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Organ Transplantation , Pandemics , Patient Safety , Postoperative Period , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk , Risk Factors
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