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Front Public Health ; 9: 705055, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775818


Background and Aims: Hypertension may lead to disability and death by increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney failure, and dementia. This study aimed to determine the association between obesity, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity, and hypertension in adults resident in Ravansar, a city in the west of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 4,021 subjects from the baseline data of the Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD) cohort study, in the west region of Iran, from October 2014 up to February 2017. Body composition was categorized into obese, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obese, and normal based on measurements of muscle strength, skeletal muscle mass, and waist circumference. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the relationships, using the STATA 15 software. Results: The mean age of the participant was 47.9 years (SD: 8.4), the body mass index (BMI) was 26.84 kg/m2 (SD: 4.44), and the prevalence of hypertension was 15.12%. The prevalence of obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity were 24.37, 22.01, and 6.91%, respectively. Body composition groups had significant differences in age, total calorie intake, BMI, skeletal muscle mass, and muscle strength (P-value ≤ 0.001). In crude model, the obese (OR = 2.64; 95% CI: 2.11-3.30), sarcopenic (OR = 2.45; 95% CI: 1.94-3.08), and sarcopenic obese (OR = 3.83; 95% CI: 2.81-5.22) groups had a higher odds of hypertension. However, in adjusted models, only the obese group had a higher likelihood of hypertension (OR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.70-2.80). Conclusion: This study showed that obesity was associated with hypertension, whereas sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity had no significant relationship with hypertension.

Hypertension , Sarcopenia , Adult , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sarcopenia/complications , Sarcopenia/epidemiology
JCSM Rapid Commun ; 2021 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293324


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The role of skeletal muscle mass in modulating immune response is well documented. Whilst obesity is well established as a key factor in COVID-19 and outcome, no study has examined the influence of both sarcopenia (low muscle mass) and obesity, termed 'sarcopenic obesity' on the risk of severe COVID-19. METHODS: This study uses data from UK Biobank. Probable sarcopenia was defined as low handgrip strength. Sarcopenic obesity was mutually exclusively defined as the presence of obesity and low muscle mass [based on two established criteria: appendicular lean mass (ALM) adjusted for either (i) height or (ii) body mass index]. Severe COVID-19 was defined by a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 test result in a hospital setting and/or death with a primary cause reported as COVID-19. Fully adjusted logistic regression models were used to analyse the associations between sarcopenic status and severe COVID-19. This work was conducted under UK Biobank Application Number 52553. RESULTS: We analysed data from 490 301 UK Biobank participants (median age 70.0 years, 46% male); 2203 (0.4%) had severe COVID-19. Individuals with probable sarcopenia were 64% more likely to have had severe COVID-19 (odds ratio 1.638; P < 0.001). Obesity increased the likelihood of severe COVID-19 by 76% (P < 0.001). Using either ALM index or ALM/body mass index to define low muscle mass, those with sarcopenic obesity were 2.6 times more likely to have severe COVID-19 (odds ratio 2.619; P < 0.001). Sarcopenia alone did not increase the risk of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenic obesity may increase the risk of severe COVID-19, over that of obesity alone. The mechanisms for this are complex but could be a result of a reduction in respiratory functioning, immune response, and ability to respond to metabolic stress.

Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231490


Obesity is globally a serious public health concern and is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and various types of cancers. It is important to evaluate various types of obesity, such as visceral and sarcopenic obesity. The evidence on the associated risk of CVD, cancer and sarcopenic obesity, including pathophysiological aspects, occurrence, clinical implications and survival, needs further investigation. Sarcopenic obesity is a relatively new term. It is a clinical condition that primarily affects older adults. There are several endocrine-hormonal, metabolic and lifestyle aspects involved in the occurrence of sarcopenic obesity that affect pathophysiological aspects that, in turn, contribute to CVD and neoplasms. However, there is no available evidence on the role of sarcopenic obesity in the occurrence of CVD and cancer and its pathophysiological interplay. Therefore, this review aims to describe the pathophysiological aspects and the clinical and epidemiological evidence on the role of sarcopenic obesity related to the occurrence and mortality risk of various types of cancer and cardiovascular disease. This literature review highlights the need for further research on sarcopenic obesity to demonstrate the interrelation of these various associations.

Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Neoplasms/physiopathology , Obesity/complications , Sarcopenia/complications , Animals , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Humans , Neoplasms/etiology