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1.
Progress in Nutrition ; 24(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819021

ABSTRACT

Background: Eating behaviour and lifestyle are highly susceptible to changes in the individual’s external environment. COVID-19 pandemic resulted in policies that severely impacted individual habits and daily routines. Growing literature highlights the adverse psychological impact of COVID-19 on eating behaviour and lifestyle. Methods: This study aimed to assess eating behaviour and lifestyle in Saudi Arabia during the strict lockdown. A self-reported online questionnaire was used to assess eating behaviour and lifestyle changes, including physical activity, sleep, and digital device use compared to that pre-lockdown. Results: A total of 1,860 participants completed the questionnaire. Weight gain was reported by 31%, whereas 41% reported decreased physical activity. The use of digital devices increased by 70%, with 59% of participants reporting symptoms of digital eyestrain. Mostly, 72% reported decreased fast-food delivery, mainly due to fear of contracting the virus. This decrease paralleled a 66% increase in home cooking. On the contrary, 15% reported weight loss, and 21% increased their physical activity. Conclusion: These findings provide important insight into the effects of COVID-19-related lockdown on eating behaviour and lifestyle.

2.
Progress in Nutrition ; 24(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1819019

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected day-to-day life and is changing how people eat and even how they exercise, as many individuals have developed a passive sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on dietary quality and physical activity among Saudi adults. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 738 adults in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The modified Dietary Quality Score (DQS) and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were used in this study. Results: In total, 76% of the participants had average dietary habits, while 16% of the participants were identified as having unhealthy dietary habits. The total average amount of time performing physical activity (PA) was 2079.08 ±2454.14 minutes/week, and the highest average was for vigorous PA (1372.47 ±1665.62 minutes/week). Conclusion: The COVID-19 crisis has rapidly affected people’s daily lives, including their dietary quality and physical activity. This pandemic has had significant effects on the lifestyle, quality of life and wellbeing of individuals and societies, and it may continue to affect them in the future.

3.
International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security ; 22(4):159-168, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1818987

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic cases around the globe has affected Saudi Arabia with around 15, 00,000 confirmed cases within the initial 4 months of transmission. The present investigation analyzed the relationship between daily COVID-19 confirmed cases and meteorological parameters in seventeen cities of KSA. We used secondary published data from the Ministry of Health, KSA daily dataset of COVID-19 confirmed case counts. The meteorological parameters used in the present investigation are temperature, humidity, dew point, and wind speed. Pearson correlation and Spearman rank correlation tests were utilized for data analysis. The incubation period of COVID-19 varies from 1 day to 14 days as per available information. Therefore, an attempt has been made to analyze the effects of meteorological factors with bins of 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. The results suggested that the highest number of correlations (15 cities) was observed for temperature (maximum, minimum, and average) and humidity (12 cities) (minimum and average). The dew point showed relationships for 7 cities and wind showed moderate correlations only for 2 cities. The study results might be useful for authorities and stakeholders in taking specific measures to combat the Covid-19 pandemic.

4.
Microbiology Research ; 13(1):49, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1818178

ABSTRACT

Nosocomial resistance in staphylococci and enterococci is challenging. The aim of this work was to conduct a multipoint study using molecular detections, antimicrobial resistances profiles, patient demographics and disease patterns for objective assessments of Staphilococcus aureus and other Gram-positive pathogens recovered from clinical infections in the Ha’il region. We have surveyed 188 non-duplicate Gram-positives against 22 antimicrobials for molecular-differentiation, resistance, patient demographics, and disease patterns from January–April 2021. According to definitions for acquired resistance, Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent with multidrug resistant (65.4%), where MRSA was 60% (n = 72 out of 121). In age-identified patients, 43% were seniors ≥50 years, 38% 21–49 years, and 19% 0–20 years. In gender-identified patients, 63% were males, and 37% were females. While 25% of specimens were from the ICU, the majority (60%) of specimens were from surgical infection in other wards. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the second (15.4%) species of infection identified with 81% from bloodstream infections at the ICU and other wards. The majority of S. epidermidis patients (69%) were seniors ≥50 years, while other age groups 0–20 and 21–49 each had 14% isolates. Although S. epidermidis was multidrug-resistant, it was susceptible to many drugs. Enterococcus faecalis (13%) ranked third with two major infections;bloodstream (64%) and urinary-tract infections (36%) in mainly seniors (86%). Its isolates were fully resistant to oxacillin, penicillin, cefoxitin, and cefotaxime but nearly 100% susceptible to seven others. Other Gram-positive bacteria (6%) were susceptible to many antibiotics. The use of combinations of objective criteria is a well thought out approach in infection control. While the low-frequency of Gram-positives is an impressive achievement, future large-scale investigations should include all private hospitals, clinics and other cities over a longer sampling time to gain more insights. Although geriatric susceptibility can be justified by age and comorbidities, the staphylococcal infections in young adults and children is a global concern and warrants more vertical studies.

5.
British Journal of Biomedical Science ; 79, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1817927

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aims to investigate hemostatic changes in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and their relationship to disease severity and survival. Methods: This study included 284 patients with COVID-19 who attended the Security Forces Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia between October 2020 and March 2021, and retrospectively reviewed their demographic, radiological, and laboratory findings. The coagulation profile was assayed at the time of diagnosis for platelet counts using an automated hematology analyzer;Sysmex XN2000 while international normalized ratio (INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, D-dimer, factor VIII, ristocetin cofactor (RiCoF), and von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF-Ag) were measured by Stago kits on a Stago automated coagulation analyzer (STA Compact Max®). Results: In this study, 32.3% of the cases had severe disease, while 8.8% of the cases died. D-dimer, factor VIII, and RiCoF were the only independent predictors of disease severity, with factor VIII and RiCoF having significantly higher areas under the curve (AUCs) than D-dimer (all p < 0.001). Furthermore, age, aPTT, and factor VIII were associated with an increased risk of mortality in multivariate Cox regression analysis, with factor VIII having a higher AUC of 0.98 than aPTT with an optimal cut-off value of >314 IU/dl in predicting mortality. Cases with factor VIII levels >314 IU/dl, compared to those with factor VIII levels <314 IU/dl, were associated with a significantly shorter mean overall survival time (20.08 vs. 31.35 days, p < 0.001), a lower survival rate (30.3% vs. 99.2%, p < 0.001), and a 16.62-fold increased mortality risk. Conclusion: RiCoF is a novel predictor of disease severity in COVID-19, while factor VIII is confirmed as a predictor of severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients and is associated with lower overall survival and increased mortality risk.

6.
PLoS One ; 17(4), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1817501

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the levels of stress, burnout, and job satisfaction among mental healthcare professionals in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on mental healthcare professionals in Jeddah between January 2017 and October 2018. Sociodemographic characteristics and levels of stress, burnout, and job satisfaction were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale-14 (PSS-14), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS). Descriptive statistics were used. Independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were conducted to assess for effects of demographic variables on the perceived stress score, emotional exhaustion (EE) score, depersonalization (DP) score, professional accomplishment (PA) score, and the job satisfaction score (JSS). Results A total of 107 participants were included (50.5% men;49.5% women) with response rate of 79.2%. Prevalence of stress was 56.1%. High levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were present among 41 (38.3%) and 26 (24.3%) of the respondents, respectively, while high score of low personal accomplishment were present among 61 (57%) respondents. In terms of job satisfaction, 25 (23.4%) were satisfied and 74 (69.2%) were indecisive. Male participants’ emotional exhaustion score (27±12) was significantly higher than females (22 ±10), (t(105) = 1.99, p-value = 0.049). Also, participants with a monthly income above SR 20,000 had significantly higher total job satisfaction (p-value = 0.041). Conclusions Our findings suggest rates of stress and burnout among mental health professionals that warrant attention, with less than one-quarter of the participants being satisfied with their jobs. Further studies are needed to expand the findings and to explore the contributing factors. Additionally, interventions should be established by authorities to address the increasing rates of stress and burnout.

7.
Zoonoses & Public Health ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1816665

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to explore the risk factors for MERS‐CoV infection and systematic review of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) with regard to MERS‐CoV among the health care workers (HCWs) and the general population. The World Health Organization's MERS‐CoV line list (January 2013–January 2020) of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was analysed. A Poisson regression model was used to calculate the univariate relative risk of outcomes to each potential risk factor, p‐values and 95% confidence intervals. An electronic literature search was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of the HCWs and general population of the KSA, with regards to transmission of the infection, risk factors and preventative measures. The line list analysis shows that age, gender, comorbidity, exposure to camels and camel milk consumption were associated with an increased risk of fatality;however, year‐wise analysis did not show any decline. Over the years, the mean durations between the symptom onset and hospitalization;the hospitalization and laboratory confirmation have reduced. The review of literature shows that the health care workers and the general population had inadequate knowledge about MERS‐CoV, lacked motivation and were disconnected from the health authorities. The WHO line list provides information on risk factors for MERS‐CoV, KAP analysis helps to know the potential underlying factors. The literature review shows that continuous education for HCWs and increasing public awareness can help effectively manage future MERS‐CoV. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Zoonoses & Public Health is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

8.
Journal of International Women's Studies ; 23(3):122-135, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1812785

ABSTRACT

Unlike migration in many parts of the world, foreign workers in the Gulf region were subject to the 'Conditional Migrant Integration Model' to avoid granting of certain rights that would alter the prevalent socio-economic-political fabric. This ensured that expatriates remain in a state of "permanent impermanence". However, amid a combination of factors-transition from oil to post-oil economy, economic slowdown, and intra-regional economic competition-Covid19 has served as a disruptor of the rules of engagement between the regional governments and the expatriate population, including women. Recognizing the benefits of retaining talented and wealthy expatriates, some of the Gulf countries have rolled out multiple strategies, including reforming the Kafala system, offering longer durations of residence, and even potential citizenship, which is viewed as "conditional inclusion". Using a combination of empirical data from secondary sources, laced with anecdotal evidence, this research paper delves into these changes, analyzes their impact on the future of Gulf expatriates and their contracts with their governments, assesses the impact on the delicate citizen-expatriate alignment, as well as the contradictions in some of these measures, especially nationalization of the workforce.

9.
Journal of International Women's Studies ; 23(3):25-40, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1812589

ABSTRACT

Jordanian women have made significant contributions, and they continue to break down barriers, as the number of women in universities exceeds the number of men, and their numbers have increased in administrative positions, parliament, and the judiciary (World Economic forum 2018). However, despite their notable progress in various sectors, Jordanian media still fail to shed light on these contributions. This marginalization was particularly evident in Jordan's response to the COVID-19 pandemic, where media coverage focused mainly on male officials, branding them "True men in times of crisis" and failing to shed light on women's significant role in the frontlines of defense against the deadly virus. Drawing on data extracted from Twitter accounts of key Jordanian male and female figures and a close analysis of top television programs during the health crisis, this paper explores social media coverage on Jordanian male and female officials and official media interest in women as guests on popular television programs at the height of the Coronavirus outbreak in Jordan from March until July 2020. Findings reveal gendered bias in media coverage during this health crisis and that women resort to social media as alternative platforms for action.

10.
Medical Science ; 26(121):10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1812227

ABSTRACT

Background: During the period of COVID-19 and as number of cases increase. shortages in healthcare workers (HCWs) is a concern. Subsequently, the workload of HCWs may be substantial. Objective: to assess prevalence of Musculoskeletal disorders among health care workers during COVID-19 pandemic in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional design of the study was steered between July 2020 and July 2021 at Western region in Saudi Arabia. It was permitted by the research ethics committee unit of Taif University. An online questionnaire was used. Results: In our study, 19.3% of HCWs reported MSDs after COVID-19 duty. The prevalence of MSDs in HCWs who change their work shift due to COVID-19 duty (71.6%) and also not due to COVID-19 (60%) was comparatively more than who didn't change their work shift at all (27.7%) that showed a statistically significant association (p<0.001). It was reported that 34.1% of HCWs treated an excess number of patients as a result of COVID-19 duty had an incidence of MSDs compared to those who didn't treat an excess number of patients (7.1%) and who treated excess number not attributable to COVID-19 (17.5%). Insufficient breaks during workdays due to COVID-19 duty were reported by 39.1% of HCWs. Conclusion: COVID-19 duty had put some extra workload on many HCWs, which lead to the development of work-related MSDs. Significant predictors included change in work shift due to COVID-19, working in awkward and cramped positions as a matter of COVID-19 duty and lifting heavy materials/equipment during COVID-19.

11.
Medical Science ; 26(121):11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1812222

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 still poses a threat to healthcare workers (HCW). Aim: Study knowledge and attitude of the HCWs of King Abdulaziz Specialist Hospital (KASH), Taif, Saudi Arabia, about COVID-19 and the vaccine rollout. Methods: A questionnaire was self-administered to achieve study aim. Results: The participants aged 39.3 +/- 3.9;41.5% were physicians, 58.5% non-physicians. A questionnaire's mean overall score [93.5 (62.3%)]<cutoff [105 (70.0%);p<0.001] was recorded;"physician" was predictor for score variability (p<0.001). A mean "COVID-19 epidemiological/clinical knowledge" score [22.2/32 (69.4%)] comparable to the cutoff [22.4/32 (70%), p=0.64];and that [21.7/38 (57.1%)] for "COVID-19 infection prevention/ control (IPC) guidelines" <cutoff [26.6/38 (70%), p<0.001] were recorded. Perception [21.3/28 (76.0%)] of the latter exceeded the cutoff [19.5/28 (70%), p<0.001]. Despite a modest vaccine response, 86.5% HCWs were vaccinated candidates. Being a physician, male, had COVID-19 infection were vaccination predictors. Conclusion: A satisfactory COVID-19 knowledge and a favorable IPC attitude;with a modest vaccine response yet a notable vaccination acceptance were reported. Supplementing our HCWs' adequate COVID-19 control practice, e.g., through holistic COVID-19 training until enough evidence for vaccine safety has been established is warranted.

12.
International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications ; 13(3), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1811531

ABSTRACT

With the widespread of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, the educational authorities issued firm directions to convert to virtual classes exploiting the available Learning Management System (LMS). However, during the academic year 2020-2021, the researchers observed that writing EFL instructors at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University (PSAU), Saudi Arabia, faced diverse challenges due to having online mixed-ability classes, i.e. those classes where students have varying levels of readiness, motivation, and academic caliper. Though many previous studies explored the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on teaching and learning practices, very few studies addressed the way technological affordances pose challenges for instructors teaching mixed-ability classes. Therefore, the present study, using mixed quantitative and qualitative research methods, sought to explore challenges that evolved due to the technological affordances of LMS to spot the persistent problems and to offer relevant solutions for upgrading, writing teaching and learning practices. The basic research design relied on an online questionnaire followed by semi-structured interviews. Findings showed that differentiated instruction proved to be the most successful strategy for teaching writing in mixed-ability online classes as it allowed the adaptation of materials, teaching and learning practices, and assessment tools to motivate low-achievers. In addition, the collaborative tools offered by the Blackboard such as the White Board, Discussion Board, Blogs, and Breakout Groups helped to meet the preferences of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners. Finally, further studies are recommended to explore the affordances of educational technologies regularly to identify potential benefits and limitations for offering the best teaching and learning practices.

13.
International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications ; 12(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1811479

ABSTRACT

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Saudi Ministry of Education launched the Madrasati Platform for distant teaching and learning for schools. Therefore, recognizing the design and the usability challenges that are linked to this new platform is significant. This paper reports the results of a study that examines the usability level of the Madrasati Platform from the perspectives of the schoolteachers in Saudi Arabia. It also investigates the usability issues that teachers faced when using the platform. A total of 759 teachers responded to the Computer System Usability Questionnaire (CSUQ). Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with ten teachers. The findings of the study indicated that the usability of the Madrasati Platform for the schoolteachers is inadequate and needs to be improved further. Navigation issues were the most reported issues by the participants. Finally, the paper presents some recommendations for improving the usability and experience with the Madrasati Platform.

14.
International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications ; 12(6), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1811468

ABSTRACT

In recent months, many governments have announced COVID-19 vaccination programs and plans to help end the crises the world has been facing since the emergence of the coronavirus pandemic. In Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Health called for citizens and residents to take up the vaccine as an essential step to return life to normal. However, the take-up calls were made in the face of profound disagreements on social media platforms and online networks about the value and efficacy of the vaccines. Thus, this study seeks to explore the responses of Saudi citizens to the COVID-19 vaccines and their sentiments about being vaccinated using opinion mining methods to analyze data extracted from Twitter, the most widely used social media network in Saudi Arabia. A corpus of 37,467 tweets was built. Vector space classification (VSC) methods were used to group and categorize the selected tweets based on their linguistic content, classifying the attitudes and responses of the users into three defined categories: positive, negative, and neutral. The lexical semantic properties of the posts show a prevalence of negative responses. This indicates that health departments need to ensure citizens are equipped with accurate, evidence-based information and key facts about the COVID-19 vaccines to help them make appropriate decisions when it comes to being vaccinated. Although the study is limited to the analysis of attitudes of people to the COVID-19 vaccines in Saudi Arabia, it has clear implications for the application of opinion mining using computational linguistic methods in Arabic.

15.
Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri ; 22(1):46-61, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1811354

ABSTRACT

Keywords e-learning, educational quality, digital technology, public university, virtual model, higher education, teaching performance. [...]universities in more than 200 countries with more than 1.6 billion students were physically shut down (Pokhrel & Chhetri, 2021) but continued learning activities remotely (World Bank Group Education, 2020) so that professional training and learning is not interrupted (Chin et al., 2020). The tutorial function is a relevant element for the success of e-learning solutions, as it is the student's first contact and designs the different curricular elements (content, activities, feedback, and evaluation), and can be a vulnerable link in the educational chain and of great importance for the perception of the quality and attractiveness of e-learning (De Metz & Bezuidenhout, 2018). [...]the research objective of the current study was to examine how students perceive the emergency remote learning developed in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. Similar findings were reported in Saudi Arabia, which identified a few success factors for the implementation of e-learning systems such as the quality of the website or the LMS, the technological options, the support of senior management, and technical awareness of e-learning by teachers (Almaiah & Man, 2016;SETYANI et al., 2021).

16.
Middle East Journal of Family Medicine ; 20(4):65-74, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1811159

ABSTRACT

Background: Sleep disturbances are extremely common among doctors with profound effect on quality of life. Coronaphobia is the dread of COVID-19 that can affect physicians and their sleep quality. Aim of Study: Our study aimed to assess sleep disturbance and its association with coronaphobia among primary health care (PHC) physicians in Primary Health care Centers (PHCCs) of the Ministry of Health, Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia. Method: The study is a cross-sectional questionnaire- based observational investigation using a simple random sampling scheme. The sampling frame was all PHC physicians practicing in Jazan Province. We used the Fear-of-COVID and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires. Poisson Regression modelling techniques were used to analyse the adjusted effect of sociodemographic factors on Fear-of-COVID and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality scores. Results: A total of 385 physicians participated in the study. The prevalence of poor quality of sleep among our physicians was 47.3%, while prevalence of coronaphobia was 56.2%. Coronaphobia had significant negative impact on sleep quality, even with adjustment for the effect of all other clinical and demographic variables. A rise by one point in the fear of COVID questionnaire is associated with a rise by 2.3% points in the PSQI score (indicative of poorer sleep quality, p = 0.00081). Conclusions: Coronaphobia is common and has detrimental effect of sleep quality among PHC physicians. Coronaphobia has negative impact on sleep quality. Higher burden of depressive symptoms worsens physicians' sleep quality. Recommendations: Support for PHC physicians' psychological and physical well-being is paramount during the current COVID-19 crisis. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Middle East Journal of Family Medicine is the property of Medi+WORLD International Pty. Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

17.
Annals of Thoracic Medicine ; 17(2):81-86, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1810636

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are limited direct data on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) long-term immune responses and reinfection. This study aimed to evaluate the rate, risk factors, and severity of COVID-19 reinfection. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included five hospitals across Saudi Arabia. All subjects who were presented or admitted with positive SARS-CoV-2 real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests were evaluated between March 2020 and August 2021. Reinfection was defined as a patient who was infected followed by clinical recovery, and later became infected again 90 days post first infection. The infection was confirmed with a positive SARS-CoV-2 (RT-PCR). Four hundred and seventeen recovered cases but with no reinfection were included as a control. RESULTS: A total of 35,288 RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients were observed between March 2020 and August 2021. Based on the case definition, (0.37%) 132 patients had COVID-19 reinfection. The mean age in the reinfected cases was 40.95 ± 19.48 (range 1–87 years);Females were 50.76%. Body mass index was 27.65 ± 6.65 kg/m2;diabetes and hypertension were the most common comorbidities. The first infection showed mild symptoms in 91 (68.94%) patients;and when compared to the control group, comorbidities, severity of infection, and laboratory investigations were not statistically different. Hospitalization at the first infection was higher, but not statistically different when compared to the control group (P = 0.093). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 reinfection is rare and does not carry a higher risk of severe disease. Further studies are required, especially with the continuously newly emerging variants, with the unpredictable risk of reinfection.

18.
Crystals ; 12(4):460, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809753

ABSTRACT

Taif rose (Rosa damascena Mill) is one of the most important economic products of the Taif Governorate, Saudi Arabia. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) is a common environmental pollutant that is widely used in industries and essentially induces many toxicities, including hepatotoxicity. In this study, the major compounds in the waste of Taif rose extract (WTR) were identified and chemically and biologically evaluated. GC–MS analysis of WTR indicated the presence of many saturated fatty acids, vitamin E, triterpene, dicarboxylic acid, terpene, linoleic acid, diterpenoid, monoterpenoid, flavonoids, phenylpyrazoles, and calcifediol (vitamin D derivative). The assessment of potential anticancer activity against HepG2 cells proved that WTR had a high cell killing effect with IC50 of 100–150 µg/mL. In addition, WTR successfully induced high cell cycle arrest at G0/G1, S, and G2 phases, significant apoptosis, necrosis, and increased autophagic cell death response in the HepG2 line. For the evaluation of its anti-CdCl2 toxicity, 32 male rats were allocated to four groups: control, CdCl2, WTR, and CdCl2 plus WTR. Hepatic functions and antioxidant biomarkers (SOD, CAT, GRx, GPx, and MDA) were examined. Histological changes and TEM variations in the liver were also investigated to indicate liver status. The results proved that WTR alleviated CdCl2 hepatotoxicity by improving all hepatic vitality markers. In conclusion, WTR could be used as a preventive and therapeutic natural agent for the inhibition of hepatic diseases and the improvement of redox status. Additional in vitro and in vivo studies are warranted.

19.
Applied Sciences ; 12(8):4058, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1809672

ABSTRACT

The present paper is concerned with the study of the quality of life index. Such an index has become an important index for measuring the well-being of individuals. However, the quality of life index is always subjective, intangible, and often hard to quantify with precision due to the lack of quantitative models. The main goal of the present paper is thus to propose a mathematical, quantitative model for the measurement of a quality of life index. The main novelty is firstly the construction of a wavelet dynamic multiscale model to quantify and investigate the effect of time scale on the quality of life index measuring. The proposed procedure is acted empirically on a sample corresponding to Saudi Arabia as a case study during the period from 2003 to 2020 as part of the 2030 vision plan. Saudi Arabia has implemented the so-called 2030 vision plan where quality of life improvement is one of the main goals. The findings show that wavelets are capable of localizing the time-wise behavior of the index contrarily to classical studies, which estimate a global view of the index. Moreover, the study shows the link between the quality of life behavior and many other indices.

20.
International Journal of Environment and Health ; 10(3-4):195-212, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1808590

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the possible association between the climate variables of daily average temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), wind speed (mph), air pressure (mmHg), and the number of COVID-19 incidents in five main cities in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, other non-climate factors that might influence the number of COVID-19 incidents, such as region, day type, and conducted number of COVID-19 tests (massive testing levels), are included in the model. A negative binomial regression model is applied to study the association between the climate and non-climate factors affecting COVID-19 cases for 75 days with an average temperature range of (18-36)°C. Results show significant findings that the only climate factor affecting the COVID-19 numbers is the average daily temperature. The regression model shows a significant positive association between average daily temperature and the COVID-19 incidents by increasing 6.1% in the number of COVID-19 cases for each extra 1°C average temperature increase.

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