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1.
Zycie Weterynaryjne ; 96(1):15-23, 2021.
Article in Polish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2034286

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the betacoronavirus that causes COVID-19, has spread rapidly around the world since December 2019. It was suspected from the beginning that the primary outbreak in China, was of a zoonotic origin, but the SARS- CoV-2 animal reservoir(s) has not been definitively identified yet. So far, it has been confirmed that numerous animal species are susceptible to infection and that experimentally infected cats, shrews, hamsters and ferrets can also shed the virus. The SARS-CoV-2 was also detected in farmed mink (Neovison vison), in which it caused both, the clinical and subclinical disease, with respiratory symptoms and increased mortality. In April 2020, the first SARS-CoV-2 cases were detected in minks in the Netherlands, and to date (November 2020), further outbreaks have been confirmed in Denmark, Italy, Spain, Sweden, the United States, Greece, France and Poland. It has also been shown that the transmission of infection from humans to minks and from minks to humans may occur. The OIE is working on the inclusion of mink in the WAHIS database and encouraging the Members to provide appropriate data for this species to improve the monitoring of the epidemiological situation worldwide and prevent the establishment of a possible new reservoir for SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences ; 7(2):145-155, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026648

ABSTRACT

Many pandemic diseases have emerged in the history and millions of people affected from these diseases. Among the marked pandemics in history, the plague, known as the black death, was recorded to cause the death of 17-54% of the world population. Similar to previous pandemics, as the SARS CoV-2, which emerged in 2019 and belonged to the coronavirus family, caused an epidemic and turned into a pandemic infection, positive cases were detected in more than 483 million people, and more than 6.1 million people died. While this emerging epidemic is still continuing its effects, it has been determined that there are positive cases in pets such as dogs and cats, especially in mink (Neovison vison). Especially in Denmark, Netherlands and Finland, positive animals for COVID-19 were accepted. Unlike the pandemic until today, the COVID-19 has spread to broader geographies and affected many animal species. With the reports that the SARS-CoV-2 - was first transmitted from bats to humans, this viral agent has been accepted as zoonotic, but a complete transmission route has not been shown for its transmission from other animals to humans except bats. It is reported that there is no significant risk of transmission of the virus, which is transmitted primarily by the respiratory route, from both pets and edible foods to humans. Although there are many reports in terrestrial animals, studies on the presence of SARS-CoV-2 - in aquatic animals or aquatic environments and COVID-19 transmission in aquatic animals have doubts. Here we reviewed the viability of the SARS-CoV-2 - in the aquatic environment, transmission to the aquatic ecosystem and aquatic animals, and therefore the risks to humans through water or aquatic products.

3.
Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics ; 25(7):1291-1306, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2001132

ABSTRACT

From March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic influenced elite sport as uncertainty and restrictions came with the crisis. National teams had to implement crisis management. This qualitative case study examines how the leader group led and managed the Norwegian national women's handball team through three phases of the crisis, trying to uphold performance. We found that collective leadership efforts led to new ways to use digital communication tools and flexible management. From a framework of concepts from organisational culture, leadership, and management during a crisis, we argue that the leader group used the pandemic to take advantage of the opportunities. They implemented a focus on improving the players' physical and tactical conditions and their restitution. Furthermore, the leader group draw on robust institutional factors such as trust to handle the crisis. This study contributes to knowledge on leadership and management in a time of crisis and, in particular, on COVID-19.

4.
Advances in Civil Engineering ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1962504

ABSTRACT

To understand the school’s role in society and its works, it became essential to reevaluate its functions and importance for society after the aggressive attack of the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, a new educational space design represents a powerful and required tool for stimulating creativity and increasing concentration, motivation, and assimilation of knowledge for future generations. The article will use appreciative inquiry as a method that works with perspective ideas readings doted by high positive human sensitivity. It also represents a powerful tool for the students’ opinions about the teaching spaces and environments. To improve the performance of educational institutions and schools, considering the sustainability concepts and biophilic designs has become an urgent necessity within the Scandinavian countries and in the world in general. The scientific research and theoretical analysis within the biophilic theory have been conducted to see how the designer can integrate the nature components holistically in the educational environment based on spatial, visual, and ecological integration concepts. The study aims to develop knowledge about applying biophilia as a phenomenon in educational institutes of Scandinavia where the students among others are the main decision-maker. The article’s main finding is that students dream of free open teaching spaces integrated with nature, where the biophilic theory frameworks are suitable to form this sustainable model that enables educational institutions and schools to improve their performance within different stages of the study.

5.
Finnish Yearbook of Population Research ; 56:137-159, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1918790

ABSTRACT

This study projects different dependency ratios under various scenarios of future fertility and tertiary education in Finland to assess how the economic consequences of population aging depend on these trends. Applying a multidimensional demographic approach through a discrete-time microsimulation model, we project the newly introduced productivity-weighted labour force dependency ratio for Finnish scenarios until 2060 and compared it with the labour force dependency ratio and the traditional age dependency ratio. Results show that population aging looks less daunting when considering labour force dependency ratios as compared to purely age-based ratios, yet all measures and scenarios show a deterioration of the dependency ratio. While the old age dependency ratio is projected to increase by 73 per cent, the labour force dependency ratio would increase by 32 per cent, and the productivity weighted labour force dependency ratio by 28 per cent. Provided a more rapid increase in educational attainment, the last indicator is expected to increase less, with 21 per cent until 2060. Should the stalled trend in educational achievement of the 2010s continue, there would be very modest future gains in the productivity-weighted ratio. In other words, the consequences of population ageing look less dramatic for economic productivity, if the current gender gap in educational achievement would disappear and were Finnish men to become as educated as Finnish women. Of the three fertility scenarios considered, a total fertility rate of 2.0 is most advantageous and a low fertility of 1.2 least optimal for adult dependency ratios, but only after 2050. Interestingly, a combination of recovered fertility to 1.6 with a more rapid educational expansion would be better for productivity than only raising fertility to 2.0. Boosting educational levels would hence mitigate the negative effects of a shrinking labour force more than increasing fertility within reasonable bounds. Our results suggest that implementation of the current government goals for educational expansion, combined with a not unrealistic recovery of total fertility rates to around 1.6, would both clearly alleviate the worsening dependency ratio. We conclude that although there is no quick fix to the economic effects of population ageing, these can be proactively mitigated with different and complementing policies, and taking into account multidimensional population trends.

6.
Health Economics, Policy and Law ; 17(1):1-119, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1918470

ABSTRACT

This special issue includes 9 articles focusing on France's response to the COVID-19 pandemic;response to COVID-19 in Italy;the Dutch policy response to the COVID-19 crisis;Belgium's response to the COVID-19 pandemic;a review of the Swedish policy response to COVID-19;United States response to the COVID-19 pandemic, January-November 2020;the federal government and Canada's COVID-19 responses;Australia's Response to COVID-19.

7.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917423

ABSTRACT

There is a knowledge gap about nurses' use of social media in relation to and during the COVID-19 pandemic, which demands the upholding of a physical distance to other people, including patients and their relatives. The study aims to explore how nurses in the Scandinavian countries used social media for professional purposes in relation to the first 15 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 30 nurses in three Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) were conducted. Thematic analyses were made, methodically inspired by Braun and Clarke, and theoretically inspired by Berger and Luckmann's theory about the construction of social reality. The Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research (SRQR) checklist was used. The results showed that social media was a socialisation tool for establishing new routines in clinical practice. Virtual meeting places supported collective understandings of a specific COVID-19 'reality' and 'knowledge' amongst nurses, with the pandemic bringing to the fore the issue of e-professionalism among nurses relating to their clinical practice. However, social media and virtual education were not commonly used in patient contacts. Further, nurses attempted a re-socialisation of the public to proper COVID-19 behaviour through social media. Moreover, blurred boundaries between acting as a private individual and a professional nurse were identified, where ethics of the nursing profession extended to nurses' private lives.

8.
Malaysian Journal of Veterinary Research ; 12(2):11-16, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1904870

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 is contagious and fatal to humans. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant concerns on food safety and security are rising due to potential interspecies transmission. As such, surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 on imported meat and animal parts is carried out and reported in this study to safeguard food safety and security. Overall, none of the 225 samples from various livestock (buffaloes, cattle, goat and pig) imported from seven countries were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) from July 2020 to November 2021. This study finding serves as a baseline data for SARS-CoV-2 in imported meat and animal parts. Notably, this study accentuated the importance of active surveillance to prevent zoonosis and to safeguard food safety and security.

9.
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health ; 50(1):4-151, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1904316

ABSTRACT

This special issue contains 21 papers on the social, economic and health impacts of COVID-19 pandemic, mostly in Norway and Sweden.

10.
Qual Health Res ; 32(8-9): 1370-1385, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861962

ABSTRACT

In this article, we explore the perspectives of 13-15-year-olds living in Sweden about the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic, through inductive analysis of 187 of their drawings. Through reconstructive serial picture analysis, three types of meaning were derived: (1) A new normal in dystopian scenery points to the disruption of daily life and development of new praxis and meaning in a context of threat and restriction; (2) Disrupted relationships refers to these adolescents' self-portrayal as solitary, without adult guidance or friends prominent; and (3) Negative emotions and compliant behaviors addresses a range of negative emotions and expressions of loss with few proactive strategies illustrated. General existential distress appears in these drawings, seemingly compounded by both developmental stage and other factors in addition to the pandemic context. Drawings suggest a restricted repertoire of ways of dealing with challenges confronting these adolescents, who seemed to feel left to their own resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Existentialism , Humans , Qualitative Research , Sweden/epidemiology
11.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(4), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1854961

ABSTRACT

This paper assesses the quantitative impact of government interventions on deaths related to the first COVID-19 outbreak. Using daily data for 32 countries and relying on the stringency of the conducted policies, we find that the greater the strength of government interventions at an early stage, the more effective these are in slowing down or reversing the growth rate of deaths. School closures have a significant impact on reducing the growth rate of deaths, which is less powerful compared to the case where a number of policy interventions are combined together. These results can be informative for governments in responding to future pandemics.

12.
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health ; 49(7):675-820, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1823478

ABSTRACT

This special issue includes 19 articles focusing on the moral responsibility of governments and individuals in the context of the coronavirus pandemic;the challenges facing evidence-based decision making in the initial response to COVID-19;perceived consequences and worries among youth in Norway during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown;depression, anxiety and stress among Swedish university students during the second and third waves of COVID-19;anxiety and depressive symptoms of women in the perinatal period during the COVID-19 pandemic;risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure among hospital healthcare workers in relation to patient contact and type of care;impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the treatment of injuries during lockdown in Norway.

13.
Buildings ; 12(3):260, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1760388

ABSTRACT

To date, studies that provide a comprehensive understanding of the current state of the cottage in Finland are lacking in the literature. This paper explored this phenomenon, which has great cultural and economic importance for Finland, through interviews from the perspective of experts. Key findings based on main themes including cottage buyers, characteristics of the dream cottage, diversified cottages, the regulation of cottages in municipalities, and challenges in the regulation of cottages, highlighted that: (1) cottage buyers were reported to be mostly in their 50s and wealthy;(2) buyers were in high demand for easy solutions and cottages with a similar level of equipment to a primary home;(3) environmental issues were considered interesting, but buyers primarily paid attention to the cleanliness of the nature and especially the body of water surrounding their cottage;(4) distance to the cottage and closest services were deciding factors, and there was greater demand for waterfront cottages;(5) popular cottage sizes varied widely, and the diversification was among the highlights;(6) while changes in use were possible under certain circumstances, sewage and wastewater regulation, and sizing of beach construction were considered challenging. It is believed that this paper will contribute to the balanced territorial development of cottages in Finland and the vitality of cottage-rich municipalities.

14.
Working Paper Series National Bureau of Economic Research ; 60, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1760227

ABSTRACT

While the COVID-19 pandemic has laid bare the large costs of infectious diseases, less attention has been paid to the impacts of more common, endemic respiratory viruses that frequently circulate in the population, especially when it comes to their potential long-term consequences for population health, human capital, and economic outcomes. This paper uses Danish population-level administrative data on 35 birth cohorts of children to provide a comprehensive analysis of both the mechanisms through which infants become infected by respiratory illnesses, as well as the consequences of early-life respiratory disease exposure for their later outcomes. First, we document a striking difference in the likelihood of severe respiratory illness by birth order: younger siblings have two to three times higher rates of hospitalization for respiratory conditions before age one than older siblings at the same age. We argue that the family unit is central in virus transmission, with older children "bringing home" the virus to their younger siblings. We then combine the birth order variation with within-municipality variation in respiratory disease prevalence among preschool-aged children to identify differential long-term impacts of early-life respiratory illness between younger and older siblings. We find that moving from the 25th to the 75th percentile in the local disease prevalence distribution ("disease index") is associated with a 30.9 percent differential increase in the number of respiratory illness hospitalizations in the first year of life for younger compared to older siblings. In the long term, for younger relative to older siblings, we find a 0.5 percent differential reduction in the likelihood of high school graduation, and a 1.3 percent additional reduction in age-30 earnings.

15.
Argumentation Library ; 43:85-103, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1750497

ABSTRACT

Arguably, one of the defining traits of an expert is certainty of knowledge. So, what happens when experts in a critical situation in public simultaneously must recognize uncertainty about knowledge and the situation and argue for specific policies and actions? This has been the challenge for many national health experts during the COVID-19 crisis. We examine such argumentative strategies by asking: what are the argumentative strategies used when attempting to secure and bolster the ethos of expertise when an expert must also acknowledge uncertainty and insufficient knowledge? The chapter examines such argumentative strategies by health authorities participating in debate and interview programs. Contrary to previous research our findings indicate that the health experts do acknowledge uncertainty, often explicitly, and also do it as a way of bolstering their ethos. Firstly, our analyses point to two ways of introducing and expressing uncertainty and lack of knowledge. Secondly, our analyses point to six ways of delimiting and qualifying the expressed uncertainty in a way that rebolsters the expert’s authority and ethos of expertise. © 2022, The Author(s).

16.
Journal of Risk Research ; 24(3/4):369-379, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1747027

ABSTRACT

Risk communication is a vital part of any risk management strategy but has become even more important in the time of the COVID-19 global health crisis. In recent months, nations across Europe have begun to consider strategies for rolling out vaccines, which is widely seen as the way to overcome high death rates and widespread lockdowns over the course of 2020. In most European nations, vaccinations are not mandatory and thus public willingness to be vaccinated against COVID-19 must be high to achieve lofty goals of reaching herd immunity from the virus. This paper evaluates current communication strategies on vaccine rollouts in several European nations: the UK, France, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland. Following an outline of the history of vaccination issues and unique public vaccine hesitancy profiles in each nation, an overview on current risk communication strategies around the vaccine rollout are offered, focusing on two key areas: (1) communication of the vaccine rollout timeline and 'expectations management', and (2) communication of which groups are to be prioritised for any vaccine. From the findings of the paper, it is recommended that nations aiming to promote high vaccine uptake and avoid trust-destroying events: promote informed consent amongst their citizens;are cautious in optimism and manage expectations appropriately;follow scientific advice to vaccine rollout strategies;disseminate and administer the vaccine using local trusted doctors, GPs and nurses;are open and honest about when people will get a vaccine and uncertainties associated with them.

17.
Journal of Risk Research ; 24(3/4):267-293, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1747023

ABSTRACT

European lockdown strategies over the winter of 2020 have brought into sharp relief the need for effective strategies to reduce the rate of COVID-19 transmission and lower the rate of hospitalisations and deaths. Understanding exactly how European nations have arrived at this point, and the process by which they have done this, is key to learning constructive lessons for future pandemic risk management. Bringing together experience from across five European nations (the UK, France, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland), this paper outlines what has occurred between September 2020 and mid-January 2021. Our analysis draws out several themes important to understanding the different national risk management approaches adopted, namely: the extent to which lessons were learned or overlooked from the first wave of the pandemic;the relationship between science and policy;the speed and responsiveness of policy decisions;and differing levels of reliance on individual responsibility for safeguarding public health. Subsequently, we recommended that: there is more involvement of decision scientists and risk analysts in COVID-19 decision making, who have largely been absent thus far;the epidemiological science should be followed where possible, but when value judgments are made this should be clearly and transparently communicated;proactive measures avoiding policy delay should be followed to reduce the rate of infection and excess deaths;governments must avoid confusing or inconsistent regional implementation and communication of interventions;rebuilding public trust is key to promoting public compliance and support for COVID-19 health measures;overreliance on individual responsibility as the focus of non-pharmaceutical interventions should be avoided;public compliance with COVID-19 restrictions requires pre-tested simple messages;open and consistent engagement with local leaders and officials should become a mainstay of government efforts to help ensure consistent adoption of nationwide COVID-19 policy measures.

18.
Working Paper Series National Bureau of Economic Research ; 51, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1745148

ABSTRACT

Although there is a large gap between Black and White American life expectancies, the gap fell 48.9% between 1990-2018, mainly due to mortality declines among Black Americans. We examine age-specific mortality trends and racial gaps in life expectancy in rich and poor U.S. areas and with reference to six European countries. Inequalities in life expectancy are starker in the U.S. than in Europe. In 1990 White Americans and Europeans in rich areas had similar overall life expectancy, while life expectancy for White Americans in poor areas was lower. But since then even rich White Americans have lost ground relative to Europeans. Meanwhile, the gap in life expectancy between Black Americans and Europeans decreased by 8.3%. Black life expectancy increased more than White life expectancy in all U.S. areas, but improvements in poorer areas had the greatest impact on the racial life expectancy gap. The causes that contributed the most to Black mortality reductions included: Cancer, homicide, HIV, and causes originating in the fetal or infant period. Life expectancy for both Black and White Americans plateaued or slightly declined after 2012, but this stalling was most evident among Black Americans even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. If improvements had continued at the 1990-2012 rate, the racial gap in life expectancy would have closed by 2036. European life expectancy also stalled after 2014. Still, the comparison with Europe suggests that mortality rates of both Black and White Americans could fall much further across all ages and in both rich and poor areas.

19.
Danish Medical Journal ; 69(2), 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1743610

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION. Based on survey data from September 2021, we recently reported that an estimated 90% (weighted total) of vaccinated (completed or scheduled) adult Danes were also willing to receive a COVID-19 booster vaccine, once offered. This survey was, however, fielded before booster vaccination was recommended to the general adult population in Denmark, which may have resulted in an underestimation of booster vaccine willingness. Therefore, we conducted a follow-up survey targeting the same individuals. METHODS. The follow-up survey wave was fielded in December 2021 using the same methods as in the September 2021 wave. Using data from participants responding to both survey waves, we compared COVID-19 booster vaccine willingness between the waves by means of paired t-test. RESULTS. A total of 1,429 invitees (58%) responded to the follow-up survey. Among those, 1,324 (93%) had also responded to the initial survey on COVID-19 booster vaccine willingness. At follow-up, among the 95% reporting to be vaccinated or that COVID-19 vaccination was scheduled, a weighted proportion of 95% indicated that they were willing to receive the booster vaccine once offered. Booster vaccine willingness at follow-up (December 2021) had statistically significantly increased (p < 0.001) compared with the initial survey (September 2021). CONCLUSIONS. Almost all of the COVID-19-vaccinated Danes seem willing to receive a booster dose of the vaccine, which bodes very well for the COVID-19 immunisation state in Denmark.

20.
Apmis ; 129(7):317-318, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1735873

ABSTRACT

With a focus on the Danish and Swedish context, this special issue contains 11 articles that highlight the impact of past and current epidemics on human health, the presentation of virological and clinical aspects, and emerging diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that could stop the current COVID-19 pandemic and improve prevention of future pandemics.

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