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1.
International Journal of Engineering Education ; JOUR(5):1595-1605, 38.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2101726

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought many changes in learning methodologies at all educational levels, including higher education. Under these circumstances, one of the most difficult challenges to face is to approach practical and laboratory learning at university when students' attendance to the physical laboratory space is restricted. The future graduates of Bachelor's Degree in Biotechnology are appealed to master many instrumental techniques related to this field. The article describes the scaffolding actions carried out to successfully adapt onsite laboratory sessions to virtual ones and evaluate the students' perception about the contribution of the online methodologies to the practical skills of bioprocess engineering. Two voluntary groups of students were formed, one to attend the practical lessons on site and the other online. The suggested scaffolding was structured in four different types of materials and resources: screencasts, pedagogical articles, calculation sheet templates and online assessment tests. Students' perception was collected by means of an e-questionnaire. About 70% of students thought the online platform allowed them to follow the practical tasks in a way equivalent to face-to-face teaching and 62.1% found that online model presents more advantages than disadvantages than the onsite model. 85.7% of students considered that practical tasks highly contributed to their capacity of solving complex problems and master mathematical tools, while 65.7% of them associated the practical task with their availability to understand the principles of bioengineering. However, 40% of them thought that the online model satisfactorily contributes to the acquisition of these specific skills.

2.
Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences ; JOUR(2-A):No Pagination Specified, 84.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2101493

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic induced a global educational emergency that abruptly threatened the continuity of education. Teachers and students were thrust into distance instruction, leaving many feeling unprepared to facilitate engaging reform-minded science, undermining their science identity, attitude, and self-efficacy. Even with the unprecedented instructional challenges, some elementary teachers were able to maintain their positive science beliefs and effectively continue to engage students. To understand the effectiveness of science teaching, science beliefs may serve as proxy data when evaluating teaching practices. To help guide education leaders and policymakers in their efforts to continue the momentum of reform-minded science, regardless of the teaching modality, the purpose of this study was to determine the factors associated with elementary teachers who were able to maintain their positive science attitude and self-efficacy during the education emergency. Utilizing a sequential explanatory mixed-method design with a phenomenological approach, data were collected through both quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews. Semi-structured interviews emphasized the types of factors that led to teachers' positive science attitude and self-efficacy in distance learning. Findings from this study indicate the factors associated with elementary teachers' belief maintenance included a combination of actions (interest and enjoyment in science and science teaching, voluntary pursuit of knowledge, prioritization of engaging reform-minded science instruction, and creating innovative instruction through leveraging technology and flexibility in free choice of supplies, projects, and overall student engagement), and dispositions (risk-taking, flexibility, embracing failure, and self-determination). These findings are discussed to help ensure effective reformed-minded science continues despite any future threat to education. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

3.
Nauchnye I Tekhnicheskie Biblioteki-Scientific and Technical Libraries ; JOUR(9): 69-83,
Article in Russian | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100988

ABSTRACT

The authors speculate on the essence of electronic collection studies as the key component of library e-science. They offer and substantiate the definitions of electronic document and electronic document in library collection. The ways to acquire e-documents to the libraries are discussed. One of the goals of e-collection studies is to adapt traditional concepts for electronic documents acquired by modern libraries;to describe key processes of e-collection development and use, namely cataloguing, systematization, efficient arrangement in the library virtual space, e-document relegation from the collections, etc. The book market (including the market of audio books) transformations in the context of digitalization and corresponding provisions of e-collection studies are characterized, with the special attention given to the COVID-19 experiences. The role of e-documents within the mixed library and information infrastructure is reviewed: the need for theoretical insights into the problem is emphasized. The authors conclude that e-documents should be studied within the framework of electronic collection studies, the component of library e-science.

4.
Journal of African Foreign Affairs ; JOUR(2):159-159–177, 9.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2100951

ABSTRACT

The study examined how African countries are using PPP projects to promote international relations with one another before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is limited information from scholars on the role of PPPs in promoting international relations among African countries before and during COVID-19. Therefore, this study analyses in detail the role of PPPs in promoting international relations among African countries before and during COVID-19. The study was guided by the partnerships theory. The study aimed to establish whether using PPP projects can promote international relations among different African countries before and during COVID-19. Data collected through literature and document review was analysed using discriptions and narratives. The study findings revealed that using PPP projects provides a basis for promoting international relations among African countries before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was concluded that adopting PPP projects provides a basis for promoting international relations among African countries before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was recommended that African countries need to always use PPP projects to promote better international relations with one another if they are to effectively deal with the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Herald of an Archivist ; JOUR(3): 916-928,
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100886

ABSTRACT

The article analyzes unpublished sources stored in the Russian State Archive of Economics (RGAE), the State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF), and the Russian State Archive in Samara (RGA v Samare) to determine the representativeness of these documents in reconstruction of the scientific biography of the Soviet microbiologist Zinaida Vissarionovna Ermolieva (1898-1974). The coronavirus pandemic, which has engulfed all the humanity, has changed the vector of biomedical research subjects. In this regard, one of the important tasks of humanitarian researchers is to update historical knowledge about extreme periods. The task of studying the life and work of Soviet scientists who made a significant contribution to studying epidemic diseases and fighting them seems significant. Scar.ity of publications devoted to the activities of Z. V. Ermolyeva means that an extensive layer of unpublished documents remains out of view of researchers. Source analysis, archival heuristics, and historical-comparative method permit to conduct research and to assess the informative value of different types of documents for comprehensive reconstruction of Z. V. Ermolyeva's scientific fate. In the RGAE, a great number of documents is concentrated in the scientist's personal fond, its analysis shows that official, scientific, and personal documents are stored there. In addition to text documents, there are photos of Zinaida Vissarionovna with her colleagues in various scientific institutions which are of great interest. Some official documents also provide personal information. In the GARF, documents on this topic are dispersed in different fonds. The fond of the All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine, where Z. V. Ermolyeva worked, contains information on preparation of first Soviet penicillin and launch of its production. The fond of the People's Commissariat of Health of the USSR permits to follow the discussion of her scientific works at its Scientific Medical Council meetings. The documents of the Committee for the Assistance of Scientists under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR help to reconstruct elements of material support provided to Ermolyeva in the 1930s. Among the sources stored in the RGA in Samara, of interest are application documents for inventions, in which Zinaida Vissarionovna participated. They show the scientist as the author of inventions and scientific discoveries. The analysis demonstrates that conjunctive use of documents from federal archives showcase multifaceted activities of the well-known microbiologist.

6.
Desafios ; JOUR(1), 34.
Article in Spanish | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2100422

ABSTRACT

El severo impacto ambiental de los actuales patrones de producción y consumo de alimentos y la pandemia de covid-19 otorgaron una inusitada relevancia a la transformación del sistema agroalimentario a nivel local y global. Este trabajo explora las implicancias de las acciones de China para la protección de su industria porcina tras la epidemia de peste porcina africana, en la trayectoria del sistema agroalimentario global. Para ello se estudió el proyecto de instalación de granjas porcinas en Argentina negociado en 2020. Mediante un diálogo del enfoque neogramsciano de la economía política internacional con los estudios agrarios críticos, se argumenta que esa iniciativa demuestra que, pese a los efectos ambientales y sanitarios, el interés de China no es transformar su modelo de producción porcina, sino trasladarlo hacia nuevos territorios. De ese modo, China reconstruye su liderazgo porcino y afirma su poder dentro del modelo agroalimentario hegemónico.Alternate :The severe environmental impacts of the current food production and consumption patterns and the covid-19 pandemic have given an unprecedented relevance to the transformation of the agrifood system at the local and global levels. This article explores the implications of China’s actions seeking to protect its pork industry following the African Swine Fever epidemic on the trajectory of the global agrifood system. To this end, it studies the project to install pig farms in Argentina negotiated in 2020. Drawing on a dialogue betwenn the neo-Gramscian approach to International Political Economy with critical agrarian studies, I argue that this initiative shows that, despite environmental and health consequences, China’s interest is not in transforming its pig production model, but in transferring it to new territories. As a result, China rebuilds its pork leadership and thus reaffirms its power within the hegemonic agrifood model.Pork industry;China;agrifood system;Argentina;African Swine Fever;environment.Alternate :O severo impacto ambiental dos atuais padrões de produção e consumo de alimentos e a pandemia covid-19 deram uma relevância incomum à transformação do sistema agroalimentar em nível local e global. Este artigo explora as implicações das ações da China para a proteção de sua indústria suína após a epidemia de peste suína africana na trajetória do sistema agroalimentar global. Para isso, estuda-se o projeto de instalação de granjas de suínos na Argentina negociado em 2020. Por meio de um diálogo de abordagem neogramsciana da economia política internacional com os estudos agrários críticos, argumenta-se que esta iniciativa mostra que, apesar do aspecto ambiental e implicações sanitárias, o interesse da China não consiste em transformar seu modelo de produção de suínos, mas em transferi-lo para novos territórios. Desta forma, a China reconstrói sua liderança no mercado suíno e afirma seu poder dentro do modelo agroalimentar hegemônico.

7.
HIV Treatment Bulletin ; JOUR:16-16, 23.
Article in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-2091823
8.
Sistemi Intelligenti ; JOUR(2):403-422, 34.
Article in English, Italian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2098791

ABSTRACT

The so-called Covid-science – the research, especially the biomedical research on the biological, clinical, epidemiological, pharmacological, and psycho-sociological aspects of Covid-19 - can be considered an important case study for the philosophy of science and the philosophy of medicine. In this contribution, we briefly illustrate three cases of Covid-science in which we have identified and discussed the role of values, particularly non-epistemic values: the definition of death caused by Covid-19, the choice of parameters in epidemiological models, with particular attention to the “magic” reproduction number R, and the issue of the communicative failure of the AstraZeneca vaccine. The purpose of this analysis is to show that admitting that biomedical science includes non-epistemic elements is not to deny or diminish its objectivity. Rather, detecting the role of values in specific contexts allows them to be subjected to public discussion and thus, prospectively, allows for providing shared reasons for them. © 2022, Sistemi Intelligenti. All Rights Reserved.

9.
Sistemi Intelligenti ; JOUR(2):371-401, 34.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2098790

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has documented an unprecedented series of biased, distorted, or sub-optimal decisions and behaviours by ‘expert’ decision-makers such as: health policy-makers;leaders of national and regional health systems and public health organisations;managers of territorial health agencies and hospitals;managers of hospital units and public health departments;and other experienced professionals with decision-making responsibilities in terms of public health. Some of these biased decisions and behaviours have had dramatic cascade effects on population health and behaviours. We list, name, and describe some of the biases and behavioural distortions by ‘expert’ decision-makers that emerged during the Covid-19 pandemic. Many of these behavioural biases have not been previously categorized as such, or may have been discussed under different names. © 2022, Sistemi Intelligenti. All Rights Reserved.

10.
The International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2098239

ABSTRACT

This paper describes an integrated, data-driven operational pipeline based on national agent-based models to support federal and state-level pandemic planning and response. The pipeline consists of (i) an automatic semantic-aware scheduling method that coordinates jobs across two separate high performance computing systems;(ii) a data pipeline to collect, integrate and organize national and county-level disaggregated data for initialization and post-simulation analysis;(iii) a digital twin of national social contact networks made up of 288 Million individuals and 12.6 Billion time-varying interactions covering the US states and DC;(iv) an extension of a parallel agent-based simulation model to study epidemic dynamics and associated interventions. This pipeline can run 400 replicates of national runs in less than 33 h, and reduces the need for human intervention, resulting in faster turnaround times and higher reliability and accuracy of the results. Scientifically, the work has led to significant advances in real-time epidemic sciences.

11.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 221, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic many clinical studies have been initiated leading to the need for efficient ways to track and analyze study results. We expanded our previous project that tracked registered COVID-19 clinical studies to also track result articles generated from these studies. Our objective was to develop a data science approach to identify and analyze all publications linked to COVID-19 clinical studies and generate a prioritized list of publications for efficient understanding of the state of COVID-19 clinical research. METHODS: We conducted searches of ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed to identify articles linked to COVID-19 studies, and developed criteria based on the trial phase, intervention, location, and record recency to develop a prioritized list of result publications. RESULTS: The performed searchers resulted in 1 022 articles linked to 565 interventional trials (17.8% of all 3 167 COVID-19 interventional trials as of 31 January 2022). 609 publications were identified via abstract-link in PubMed and 413 via registry-link in ClinicalTrials.gov, with 27 articles linked from both sources. Of the 565 trials publishing at least one article, 197 (34.9%) had multiple linked publications. An attention score was assigned to each publication to develop a prioritized list of all publications linked to COVID-19 trials and 83 publications were identified that are result articles from late phase (Phase 3) trials with at least one US site and multiple study record updates. For COVID-19 vaccine trials, 108 linked result articles for 64 trials (14.7% of 436 total COVID-19 vaccine trials) were found. CONCLUSIONS: Our method allows for the efficient identification of important COVID-19 articles that report results of registered clinical trials and are connected via a structured article-trial link. Our data science methodology also allows for consistent and as needed data updates and is generalizable to other conditions of interest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Publications , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , Periodicals as Topic , PubMed , Registries
12.
Palliat Med ; : 2692163221123966, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to rapid adaptations among palliative care services, but it is unclear how these adaptations vary in relation to their unique organizational contexts. AIM: Understand how the pandemic impacted the implementation of new and existing palliative care programs in diverse hospital systems using the Dynamic Sustainability Framework. DESIGN: Twelve in-depth interviews with 15 key informants representing palliative care programs from seven hospital systems between April and June 2020. SETTING: Public, not-for-profit private, community, and academic teaching hospitals in the San Francisco Bay Area with existing palliative care programs that were expanding services to new clinical areas (e.g. new outpatient clinic or community-based care). RESULTS: Six themes characterized how palliative care programs were impacted and adapted during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic: palliative care involvement in preparing for surge, increased emphasis on advance care planning, advocating for visitors for dying patients, providing emotional support to clinicians, adopting virtual approaches to care, and gaps in chaplaincy support. There was variation in how new and existing programs were able to adapt to early pandemic stresses; systems with new outpatient programs struggled to utilize their programs effectively during the crisis onset. CONCLUSIONS: The fit between palliative care programs and practice setting was critical to program resiliency during the early stages of the pandemic. Reconceptualizing the Dynamic Sustainability Framework to reflect a bidirectional relationship between ecological system, practice setting, and intervention levels might better guide implementers and researchers in understanding how ecological/macro changes can influence interventions on the ground.

13.
Med Vet Entomol ; 2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097847

ABSTRACT

Tick-borne disease risk is intrinsically linked to the distribution of tick vector species. To assess risk and anticipate disease emergence, an understanding of tick distribution, host associations, and seasonality is needed. This can be achieved, to some extent, using passive surveillance supported by engagement with the public, animal health, and public health experts. The Tick Surveillance Scheme (TSS) collects data and maps tick distribution across the United Kingdom (UK). Between 2017 and 2020, 3720 tick records were received and 39 tick species were detected. Most records were acquired in the UK, with a subset associated with recent overseas travel. The dominant UK acquired species was Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae, Linnaeus), the main vector of Lyme borreliosis. Records peaked during May and June, highlighting a key risk period for tick bites. Other key UK species were detected, including Dermacentor reticulatus (Ixodida: Ixodidae, Fabricius) and Haemaphysalis punctata (Ixodida: Ixodidae, Canestrini & Fanzago) as well as several rarer species that may present novel tick-borne disease risk to humans and other animals. Updated tick distribution maps highlight areas in the UK where tick exposure has occurred. There is evidence of increasing human tick exposure over time, including during the COVID-19 pandemic, but seasonal patterns remain unchanged.

14.
Cogent Education ; JOUR(1), 9.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2097006

ABSTRACT

School leadership is a fast-paced job where stakeholder feedback is frequent, and decision-making requires quick thinking and strong organization. When school leaders transition from practitioner to scholar, they face a dramatic change in pace and responsibility. Unlike their peers who come from academia, practitioner-scholars experience a unique context and career shift that requires navigating unfamiliar organizational structures and translating existing skills into new contexts. This collaborative autoethnography explores the lived experiences of two junior faculty who recently transitioned from the campus principalship to the tenure track professoriate during the COVID-19 pandemic. Through a process of individual writing, group reflection, and shared analysis, common themes emerged from the data, including expectations, relationships, and identity. The research discusses processing unfamiliar experiences in academia, negotiating the reidentification of self, and developing new attachments during the shift from doing the work to supporting and advancing the field.

15.
Nature Sustainability ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2096816

ABSTRACT

Conservation efforts were impacted in varied ways by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study assessed how South African wildlife ranches, agricultural farms and protected areas weathered the pandemic, finding greater adaptive capacity among more diversified and mixed business models. The COVID-19 pandemic provided an opportunity to assess the impacts of a global disturbance on conservation land uses and learn from responses to the crisis to enable more resilient conservation systems. To understand socio-economic responses of diverse wildlife working lands to COVID-19, we surveyed owners and managers of 78 private wildlife ranches (wildlife working lands), 23 agricultural farms (conventional working lands) and six public protected areas (conventional conservation lands) in South Africa. Most protected areas lost more than 75% of their revenues during 2020, while most agricultural farms lost less than 10%. The impact on wildlife ranches was more varied. Ranches with more diverse activities, particularly mixed wildlife-agriculture systems, lost less revenue, shifting their activities from those heavily impacted (international ecotourism, trophy hunting) to those less affected (for example, wildlife meat, livestock). This adaptive capacity suggests that wildlife-based enterprises could represent key ecosystem-based adaptations, providing lessons for integrated global policies that seek to incorporate private land models in the 2030 Biodiversity Framework.

16.
OMICS ; 26(11): 586-588, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097272

ABSTRACT

In this perspective analysis, we strive to answer the following question: how can we advance integrative biology research in the 21st century with lessons from animal science? At the University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Animal Science, we share here our three lessons learned in the two decades from 2002 to 2022 that we believe could inform integrative biology, systems science, and animal science scholarship in other countries and geographies. Cultivating multiomics knowledge through a conceptual lens of integrative biology is crucial for life sciences research that can stand the test of diverse biological, clinical, and ecological contexts. Moreover, in an era of the current COVID-19 pandemic, animal nutrition and animal science, and the study of their interactions with human health (and vice versa) through integrative biology approaches hold enormous prospects and significance for systems medicine and ecosystem health.


Subject(s)
Biological Science Disciplines , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , History, 21st Century , Ecosystem , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Biology
17.
iScience ; : 105365, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095530

ABSTRACT

Potent and biostable inhibitors of the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 were designed and synthesized based on an active hit compound 5h (2). Our strategy was based not only on the introduction of fluorine atoms into the inhibitor molecule for an increase of binding affinity for the pocket of Mpro and cell membrane permeability but also on the replacement of the digestible amide bond by a surrogate structure to increase the biostability of the compounds. Compound 3 is highly potent and blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro without a viral breakthrough. The derivatives, which contain a thioamide surrogate in the P2-P1 amide bond of these compounds (2 and 3), showed remarkably preferable pharmacokinetics in mice compared with the corresponding parent compounds. These data show that compounds 3 and its biostable derivative 4 are potential drugs for treating COVID-19 and that replacement of the digestible amide bond by its thioamide surrogate structure is an effective method.

18.
Social Research ; JOUR(2):339-350, 89.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2092630

ABSTRACT

This paper discusses Weber's Vocation Lectures, especially the issues of morality, politics, and science, in light of the spreading of disinformation in the COVID pandemic. As Weber is arguably our strongest advocate for the capacity of science and politics to supersede categories of moral meaning, it is useful to consider how categories of moral meaning—especially the category of evil—might be needed, in light of the fragility of science and politics. The essay suggests the limits and helpfulness of Weber's lectures for our present predicament.

19.
Social Research ; JOUR(3):627-644, 88.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2092404

ABSTRACT

I juxtapose two narratives concerning the politics of grief to reflect on loneliness in the US. I describe how Americans attempted to grieve the loss of the first 400,000 Americans to die from COVID-19. I then discuss how Donald Trump, often described as a sociopath, may better be understood as a person unaffected by modernity: one who reflects and amplifies a growing inability in American political culture to properly grieve without turning to grievance. I argue that the key to understanding Trump is to see him and the movement he leads as a product of the American public who no longer have the capacity to experience loneliness.

20.
HIV Treatment Bulletin ; JOUR:28-28, 23.
Article in English | Africa Wide Information | ID: covidwho-2092334

ABSTRACT

WATERLIT : Results from a randomised study reported no benefit of daily oral melatonin (2 mg QD) for 12 weeks compared to placebo as prophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2 in 314 Spanish health workers

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