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1.
Soc Sci Med ; 309: 115239, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036535

ABSTRACT

During the first two years of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Chinese public consistently demonstrated a high level of compliance with some of the most restrictive infection control measures in the world. As a result, as of early 2022 China achieved remarkable control of a virus that had devastating effects in other parts of the world. In this article we take seriously the complexities of a simple question: Why did most urban Chinese citizens so willingly comply with the state's COVID-19 control measures for so long? Based on two years of ethnographic research conducted primarily in Shanghai, China between June 2020 and May 2022, we argue that the strong support the Chinese government enjoyed among China's self-described laobaixing ("ordinary people") in implementing its COVID-19 control measures emerged from a combination of self-interest, nationalistic pride, and "conscious indifference to transparency," rooted in ongoing critical evaluations of governmental competence. With these evaluations changing in the wake of new outbreaks in 2022, the future of China's zero-COVID policy is in jeopardy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
2.
6th International Conference on Management Engineering, Software Engineering and Service Sciences, ICMSS 2022 ; : 93-99, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018855

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic at the end of 2019 has caused a profound impact on economic development. The catering, logistics and tourism industries have suffered a huge blow. This paper selects the catering industry as the research object, selects the 2019 and 2020 annual reports of five representative listed catering companies, classifies and summarizes the stated criteria for determination of the occurrence of self-interest attribution, calculates the degree of self-interest attribution, and compares and analyzes whether the self-interest attribution behavior of the five case companies before and after the COVID-19 pandemic stands out or amplifies the self-interest attribution behavior of the companies. The case studies showed that the degree of self-interest attribution was higher in the poor-performing companies, and that the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the self-interest behavior of restaurant companies was prominent, and that the poor external environment was more likely to lead to a higher degree of self-interest attribution behavior. © 2022 IEEE.

3.
The Journal of Medical Practice Management : MPM ; 37(5):210, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1989307
4.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly ; 38(4):1056, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1918918

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vulnerability of countries worldwide and their abilities to cope with the fast-paced demands of the research and medical community. A key to promoting ethical decision-making frameworks is by calibrating the sustainability at regional, national, and global levels to incorporate coordinated reforms. We performed a sustained ethical analysis and critically reviewed evidence addressing country-level responses to practices during the COVID-19 pandemic using PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus, and CINAHL. The World Health Organization's ethical framework proposed for the entire population during the pandemic was applied to thematically delineate findings under equality, best outcomes (utility), prioritizing the worst off, and prioritizing those tasked with helping others. The findings demarcate ethical concerns about the validity of drug and vaccine trials in developing and developed countries, hints of unjust healthcare organizational policies, lack of equal allocation of pertinent resources, miscalculated allocation of resources to essential workers and stratified populations.

5.
Educational Research for Social Change ; 11(1):91-94, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1904869

ABSTRACT

Addressing these issues requires concerted efforts and collaboration from stakeholders across countries, disciplines, and institutions. [...]the UN 2030 Agenda asked for transformation of global economies in line with social and environmental demands expressed in the Agenda's 17 goals and sub-goals (https://sdgs.un.org/goals). [...]the SANORD 2021 conference endeavoured to engage participants innovatively and positively in rethinking their roles and contributions towards sustainable development. According to Nietzsche (1966), people always act out of their self-interest in every field;he posited that each individual action is driven by people's vested interests in the game of life because they have a will to power.

6.
Mens en Maatschappij ; 96(2):271-297, 2021.
Article in Dutch | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1857526

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is posing a pathogen or even existential threat to people all across the globe. According to traditional literature, threat perceptions induce anti-immigrant sentiments, as ingroup identity and self-interest are strengthened at the expense of the outgroup. In this manuscript, we study whether the COVID-19 pandemic, as a universal and relatively novel threat, increases anti-immigrant sentiments akin to responses to realistic and symbolic threats frequently described in the literature. We also look at whether such responses are expressed more strongly among specific groups in Dutch society. To do so, we use unique longitudinal panel data based on the European Values Study 2017, representative of the Netherlands, with a repeated measure in May 2020, during the national lockdown. Based on structural equation modeling, we demonstrate that anti-immigrant sentiments have not increased due to (perceived threat of) the COVID-19 pandemic. In fact, negative opinions towards immigrants decreased between 2017 and 2020 in the Netherlands, for which we provide alternative explanations. Although some subgroups do experience more threat than others due to the coronavirus, such as women, first generation immigrants, and the elderly, this does not lead to more negative feelings towards outgroups. Whether this is due to the fact that individuals feel pathogenically threatened by everyone, regardless of group membership, should be explored in future research.

7.
International Affairs ; 98(3):18, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1853076

ABSTRACT

This article uses global health diplomacy to examine the challenges and opportunities of international health aid to North Korea in the COVID-19 era. It finds that vaccine provision is both within the enlightened self-interest of donor states and meets the global responsibility to address unequal access to vaccines. The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed increasing global inequality in responding to the issues of health. How do we resolve the tension between normative concerns for global responsibility and strategic concerns for national interest in facilitating health aid to vulnerable populations in low-income countries in the COVID-19 era? This article presents global health diplomacy as a conceptual framework that could overcome thedichotomy of humanitarianism and international politics, using health aid to North Korea during COVID-19 as a case-study. Health is a critical component of human dignity and can be a normative motivation for cooperation beyond sovereign borders. However, health is also an important element of national interest and can be a strategic motivation for transnational cooperation. The overlap between the moral and rational spaces in global health diplomacy demonstrates how COVID-19 assistance to North Korea's vulnerable population is in the enlightened self-interest of donors to prevent resurgences of new COVID-19 variants. Moreover, this framework imbues all parties, including aid recipients such as North Korea, with the global cooperative responsibility to address health. In this sense, global health diplomacy can reframe the tensions between humanitarianism and politics, morality and rationality, and cosmopolitanism and nationalism, from antithetical to complementary.

8.
Journal of Management History ; 28(3):341-362, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1831704

ABSTRACT

Purpose>Management history has long acknowledged the existence of unproductive labour. Despite becoming unfashionable in modern times, the growth of unproductive labour within the economic composition of Australia’s labour force, witnessed since the late 1980s, brings to the fore old debates with a modern resonance, debates as to how and when labour contributes to economic growth. Using Australia as a case study, this paper aims to explore the economic cost increasing rates of unproductive labour, typically associated with government-imposed regulation, may have upon an organisation, and more broadly society.Design/methodology/approach>This paper explores the theoretical frameworks developed by classical and neoclassical economists on the subject of productive and unproductive labour and uses key elements to explain the economic consequences of the current labour economy and regulatory environment that exists within modern Australia.Findings>It is the growth of unproductive roles within the Australian economy since the late 1980s that contributes not only to the rising cost of employing domestically and the rising cost of living, but furthermore, to the fragility of Australia’s long-term economic security.Originality/value>Australia’s economy is bound by chains of regulation. No longer does productivity fuel a growing economy, but rather, economies are powered by the rein of unproductive labour – labour that does not produce value but rather, consumes it. Unproductive labour is not a “dusty museum piece”. Rather, it is a defining characteristic of modern Australia, one that impacts immensely the cost of domestic business, and ultimately, society and the cost of living.

9.
Policy Sci ; 54(3): 493-506, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1681412

ABSTRACT

The design principles of institutions that visibly and significantly affect citizens' lives are likely to be politically salient. Popular support for these principles is in turn crucial for institutional viability and effectiveness. Transboundary pandemics are a case in point. Understanding citizens' preferences regarding the design of international alliances set up to mass-produce and distribute vaccines is likely to determine citizens' subsequent cooperation with vaccination campaigns. This study explores Germans' preferences for international COVID-19 vaccine alliance design principles. We conducted a conjoint experiment at a recurring cognitive moment in many pandemics' cycles, between the initial outbreak and a more devastating but still-unknown second wave, when infection rates were very low, yet no policy solutions had been developed. We analyzed preferences regarding four building blocks: (1) alliance composition (size; EU-centrism), (2) alliance distribution rules (joining cost; vaccine allocation), (3) vaccine nationalism (cost per German household; coverage in Germany) and (4) vaccine producer confidence (origin; type). Distribution rules, political ideology and personal perceptions of pandemic threat matter little. But a larger alliance size and dominant EU-country composition increase alliance support. And vaccine nationalism is key: support increases with both lower costs and larger coverage for own-nation citizens. Moreover, support goes down for Chinese and American producers and increases for Swiss and especially own-nation producers. In sum, a realist and technocratic outlook is warranted at the cognitive stage in pandemic cycles when no solutions have been found, yet the worst already seems to be over, as national self-interest reigns supreme in popular attitudes. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11077-021-09435-1.

10.
International Journal of Operations & Production Management ; 42(2):125-150, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1672513

ABSTRACT

PurposeSupply chain fraud is a significant global concern for firms, consumers and governments. Evidence of major fraud events suggests the role of supply chain structures in enabling and facilitating fraud, as they often involve several parties in complicated networks designed to obfuscate the fraud. This paper identifies how the structural characteristics of supply chains can play an important role in enabling, facilitating and preventing fraud.Design/methodology/approachThe research follows a theory elaboration approach. The authors build on structural holes theory in conjunction with a multiple case study research design to identify new concepts and develop propositions regarding the role of network structure on supply chain fraud.FindingsThis research shows how structural holes in a supply chain can create advantages for unscrupulous firms, a role we call tertius fraudans, or the cheating third. This situation is exacerbated by structural ignorance, which refers to the lack of knowledge about structural connections in the network. Both structural holes and structural ignorance can create information gaps that facilitate fraud, and the authors propose solutions to detect and prevent this kind of fraud.Originality/valueThis paper extends structural holes theory into the domain of fraud. Novel concepts including tertius fraudans, structural ignorance and bridge collapse are offered, alongside a series of propositions that can help understand and manage structural supply chain fraud.

11.
Boston University Law Review ; 101(5):1607-1665, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1652320

ABSTRACT

Restrictive land use regulation has thwarted the upward mobility of many Americans, particularly Americans of color. Local restrictions imposed by affluent municipalities have limited access to safe neighborhoods, better housing, and good schools. Racism and economic self-interest have both played a role in exclusionary practices which have contributed to high housing costs that place a strain on the entire economy. Fair Housing Act litigation has been one weapon in the fight against these practices. Despite the Supreme Court's decision in Texas Department of Housing & Community Affairs v. Inclusive Communities Project, Inc., disparate impact litigation faces significant obstacles that limit its value as a tool to fight exclusionary zoning. First, because restrictive zoning ordinances have such widespread economic effect, it will generally be difficult to prove that their impact on members of protected classes is disparate. Second, municipalities are likely to have successful defenses against disparate impact claims arising from restrictive zoning-including the "business necessity" defense that zoning restrictions are necessary to minimize the tax burden on local residents. Third, litigation sets up an adversarial dynamic that leads municipalities to resist housing initiatives rather than embracing them. By contrast, incentives are better calculated to induce local cooperation in the development of fair housing. The Department of Housing and Urban Development made some use of incentives during the Obama Administration, but those efforts were not ideally designed to promote buy-in by recalcitrant municipalities and were abandoned during the Trump Administration. States, however, are well positioned to use the real property tax system to create substantial incentives for municipalities to abandon exclusionary practices. Using tax incentives rather than mandates would enlist municipal self-interest as a weapon against exclusion.

12.
Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal ; 35(1):216-228, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1596421

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis article aims to examine how non-governmental organisations (NGOs)' narratives portray the vulnerability of workers in global clothing supply chains during the COVID-19 crisis.Design/methodology/approachThe research analyses the rhetoric in global clothing retailers' and NGOs' counter-rhetoric during the first seven months of 2020.FindingsDuring this period, retailers employed rhetorical strategies to legitimise irresponsible actions (corporate hegemony prevailed), while NGOs embraced forms of counter-rhetoric trying to delegitimise the retailers' logic, stressing the role of neoliberalism in worsening the situation.Originality/valueThe authors contribute to the literature by providing new insight into the consequences of COVID-19 for retailers' neoliberal practices and the livelihood of workers in global supply chains. Findings of this study extend authors’ knowledge about retailers' COVID-19 measures: These have contributed to the plights of workers working for their supply factories in the global South.

13.
Front Psychol ; 12: 605059, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247904

ABSTRACT

How can we effectively promote the public's prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection? Jordan et al. (2020) found with United States samples that emphasizing either self-interest or collective-interest of prevention behaviors could promote the public's prevention intention. Moreover, prosocially framed messaging was more effective in motivating prevention intention than self-interested messaging. A dual consideration of both cultural psychology and the literature on personalized matching suggests the findings of Jordan et al. (2020) are counterintuitive, because persuasion is most effective when the frame of the message delivered and the recipient of the message are culturally congruent. In order to better understand the potential influence of culture, the current research aimed to replicate and extend Jordan et al. (2020) findings in the Japanese context. Specifically, we examined the question (1) whether the relative effectiveness of the prosocial appeal is culturally universal and robust, (2) which types of 'others' especially promote prevention intention, and (3) which psychological mechanisms can explain the impact of messaging on prevention intention. In Study 1 (N = 1,583), we confirmed that self-interested framed, prosocially framed, and the combination of both types of messaging were equally effective in motivating prevention intention. In Study 2 (N = 1,686), we found that family-framed messaging also had a promoting effect similar to that from self-interested and prosocial appeals. However, the relative advantage of prosocial appeals was not observed. Further, a psychological propensity relevant to sensitivity to social rejection did not moderate the impact of messaging on prevention intention in both studies. These results suggest that since engaging in the infection control itself was regarded as critical by citizens after public awareness of COVID-19 prevention has been sufficiently heightened, for whom we should act might not have mattered. Further, concerns for social rejection might have had less impact on the prevention intentions under these circumstances. These results suggest that the relative advantage of a prosocial appeal might not be either culturally universal or prominent in a collectivistic culture. Instead, they suggest that the advantages of such an appeal depends on the more dynamic influence of COVID-19 infection.

14.
Microbes Infect ; 22(4-5): 159-161, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47263

ABSTRACT

This letter aims to describe how Korea can improve its emergency response to the outbreak of COVID-19. The key finding is that the nation has to shift from a self-interest-oriented response to a shared-interest-oriented response. Similarly, neighboring nations could form a national framework of networks among stakeholders.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Stakeholder Participation , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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