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1.
Medical Journal of Bakirkoy ; 18(2):225-229, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939262

ABSTRACT

Objective: The clinical course of coronavirus infection in liver transplant patients is not known accurately. The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiological incidence and outcomes of liver transplant patients after coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection who have been registered in the data system of the Tissue, Organ Transplant and Dialysis Services Department. Methods: In this study, which was designed non-interventional, retrospective, and observational;the demographic information, clinical and radiological parameters, lifetime, hospital service and intensive care requirements and length of stay of the patients who were recorded in the information systems of the Ministry of Health, have were examined. A total of 3,426 liver transplant patients who were admitted to the hospital with suspected COVID-19 in Turkey between April 2020 and April 2021 were included in the study. Results: Between April 2020-April 2021, 3,426 cases of liver transplant who admitted to hospitals with symptoms of COVID-19 infection in Turkey were examined. The ratio of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection was 24.69% (846), with a mean age of 52.3%. The 13.48% (462 people) of 3,426 people who had liver transplants were hospitalized. The mean age of the hospitalized patients was 46.6, and the average length of hospital stay was 8.64 days. When the thorax computed tomography scans of 3,426 people with suspected COVID-19 and liver transplant were examined, pneumonia was detected in 344 (10%) people and they were treated as an inpatient. The mean age of the patients with pneumonia was 59 years. The number of liver transplant patients who died was 108 (3.1%), with a mean age of 65 years. The ratio of followup in the intensive care unit for organ transplant recipients was 0.32%, and 0.26% of them were intubated patients. Conclusion: Despite the use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with liver transplant, the requirement for intensive care and the length of stay in the intensive care unit was found to be low, and the importance of strict follow-up and treatment in such patients was recognized once again.

2.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 36: 3946320221115316, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938171

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a novel coronavirus disease, has provoked a variety of health and safety concerns, and socioeconomic challenges around the globe. The laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 was quickly established utilizing nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAAT) after the disease causing virus has been identified, and its genetic sequence has been determined. In addition to NAAT, serological tests based on antibodies testing against SARS-CoV-2 were introduced for diagnostic and epidemiologic studies. Other biochemical investigations include monitoring of peripheral blood cells count, platelets/lymphocyte ratio, coagulation profile, cardiac, and inflammatory markers such as cytokines storm are also crucial in combating COVID-19 pandemic. Further, accurate and reliable laboratory results for SARS-CoV-2 play very important role in the initiation of early treatment and timely management of COVID-19 patients, provide support in clinical decision-making process to control infection, and detection of asymptomatic cases. The Task Force on Coronavirus-19 constituted by International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) has recognized informational framework for epidemiology, pathogenesis, and recommended the PCR-based analysis, serological and biochemical assays for analysis, monitoring, and management of disease. This literature review provides an overview of the currently used diagnostic techniques in clinical laboratories for the diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and management of COVID-19 patients. We concluded that each assays differ in their performance characteristics and the utilization of multiple techniques is necessary for the accurate diagnosis and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Humans , Laboratories, Clinical , Pandemics
3.
Pract Lab Med ; 31: e00290, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926839

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Serological assays for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are crucially needed for research and monitoring of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Antibodies are reliability detected in capillary blood, a minimally invasive and cost-effective alternative to venous blood testing. However, there is a limited knowledge on feasibility of capillary blood self-sampling. This study compared the feasibility of capillary blood self-testing in people aged less than 65 vs. people aged 65 or more. A secondary aim was to investigate the performance of the Hem-Col® (no additive) device compared to venous blood testing. Design and methods: Data were collected in a prospective study in Switzerland (n = 106). Capillary blood was collected using the Hem-Col® (no additive) device. Feasibility was assessed using 1) collecting the recommended amount of capillary blood and 2) achieving all steps of capillary blood collection. A sample of 5 ml of venous blood was also collected. Results: For the primary objective, 86.2%/62.1% of patients aged less than 65 collected the recommended amount of capillary blood/achieved all steps vs. 62.5%/39.6% of patients aged 65 or more (p = .006/p = .022). For the secondary objective, the correlation between capillary and venous blood was r = 0.992 and kappa = 1. Conclusions: Capillary blood self-testing appeared as a feasible and reliable alternative to venous blood testing. Such alternative would improve access to serological testing and spare health care resources. However, the difference between age groups should be considered when using self-sampling devices. Help should be developed for older people, such as phone counseling or encouraging asking younger family members for help.

4.
IJID Reg ; 3: 150-156, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899828

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine current and previous SARS-COV-2 infection, and describe risk factors associated with seropositivity, among HCWs and hospital staff between June and October of 2020. Methodology: Data from the day of enrollment for a prospective cohort study were analyzed to determine point prevalence and seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs and hospital staff of a university hospital in Colombia. Respiratory samples were collected to perform RT-PCR tests, along with blood samples to measure SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies. Data on nosocomial and community risk factors for infection were also collected and analyzed. Findings: 420 HCWs and hospital staff members were included. The seroprevalence at baseline was 23.2%, of which 10.7% had only IgM antibodies, 0.7% had IgG, and 11.7% had IgM and IgG. The prevalence of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection was 1.9%. Being a nurse assistant was significantly associated with seropositivity when compared with all other job duties (PR 2.39, 95% CI 1.27-3.65, p = 0.01). Conclusions: Overall SARS-CoV-2 prevalence was 1.9% and seroprevalence was 23.15%. Nurse assistants, medical doctors or students, and laboratory workers had a higher possibility of being SARS-CoV-2 seropositive.

5.
Clinica Chimica Acta ; 530:S243-S244, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885646

ABSTRACT

Background-Aim: In the UK and Ireland, diagnostics laboratories exchange work with other laboratories within the NHS, Public Health organisations, and private laboratories across Europe. This is because a laboratory might not have the capacity or means to test in-house, or that they need to access a specialist assay offered by an external laboratory. However, this presents an industry-wide informatics challenge as laboratories operate on a variety of information systems. Without interoperability, the exchange of work has historically relied on paper-based systems and manual processing. This, then, opens exchanged samples to the risks of human error, slow turnaround times, lack of visibility and tracking, and forfeited patient safety. The presence of this testing in every laboratory discipline, too, means that labs are, essentially, referring tests across a network of laboratories;therefore, site-to-site interfacing is not a sustainable solution, in terms of cost or maintenance, across an international network of laboratories. This presentation will discuss a globally unique solution to this challenge which exists in most healthcare systems and organisations across the world. Methods: Labgnostic, a diagnostic exchange powered by X-Lab, is a unique, global technology which enables any diagnostic laboratory to refer tests or return results to any diagnostic laboratory, anywhere in the world. It is a technological hub which is versatile, interoperable, and offers laboratories access to a network of laboratories through a single connection. By installing an interface into a laboratory’s information system, the laboratory can connect to any laboratory on the network to send or receive any test data almost instantly. Labgnostic digitises and automates the lab-to-lab referral and reporting process and removes the need for inefficient manual processes that are time-consuming, incur unnecessary costs, and result in errors. As a cost-effective, universal, and systems-agnostic solution, Labgnostic has successfully been delivering a fully interoperable laboratory medicine network at scale to the UK, Ireland and Europe since 2007. Labgnostic, which operates under the National Pathology Exchange (NPEx) in the UK, is currently used in 90% of UK NHS laboratories, which includes 100% of English and Scottish NHS laboratories, Public Health organisations, and private laboratory organisations. Results: When COVID-19 hit the UK, the UK NHS mandated that all NHS trusts were to transfer all externally referred SARS-COV-2 tests requests and results through X-Lab’s system for the faster turnaround times, safer data exchanges, and network access it offered. All UK NHS labs, through the solution, have the opportunity for capacity uplifts by transferring or receiving COVID-19 test requests to any other laboratory on the network to ensure all tests are performed in timescale required. In the UK, most laboratories work to a rapid turnaround time of under 24 hours for COVID-19 antigen tests. The project was commissioned by the NHS in mid-March and in a matter of weeks, the X-Lab team were able to deliver and implement their solution in all remaining unconnected NHS sites. Additionally, NPEx (or Labgnostic) has been the key data infrastructure for delivering COVID-19 data back to Public Health organisations, primary care facilities, and NHS bodies who deliver results to subjects and monitor data. The X-Lab team are currently working to deliver COVID-19 antibody tests at scale in the UK through their system. Conclusions: With a hub connecting diagnostic systems across the UK, Ireland and into Europe, X-Lab are now exploring use cases for this technology across other continents with laboratory business, proficiency testing providers and public sector service organisations in areas such as surveillance. This presentation will put forward the need for an integrated and interoperable laboratory medicine network throughout the world with a case study on its success in the UK and the similarities it shares with the other testing arenas.

6.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):331-332, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880280

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV2 antibody testing is an important auxillary test especially for retrospective diagnosis or in patients with long COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome of childhood. Epidemiological serology studies may also assist public health planning. Access to formal laboratory testing is not universal in many low-and middle-income (LMIC) countries and rapid lateral flow antibody tests are an attractive alternative. Performance of these tests has been inconsistent. A large-scale study was undertaken in South Africa, during the beta and delta waves, to assess the field-based performance of rapid point of care (POC) COVID-19 antibody tests. Methods: Symptomatic, ambulatory persons under investigation (PUIs) aged 18 years and older, presenting for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis at public health facilities in three provinces, South Africa were enrolled at baseline. All patients completed a questionnaire regarding symptoms. Nasopharyngeal swabs were taken and processed for SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing using a GeneXpert (Cepheid, USA), or manual assay (ThermoFisher TaqPath assay or Seegene Allplex assay) on a real-time platform at routine accredited National Health Laboratory Service laboratories as per routine national protocols. Concomitantly, trained study staff performed three facility-based POC lateral flow antibody tests on a on a fingerstick sample and blood was collected for formal serology. POC tests were selected following a rapid in-laboratory evaluation. Asymptomatic contacts of people with confirmed COVID-19 were recruited into the asymptomatic study arm and rapid tests and PCR were performed. PCR and rapid positive patients and 500 negative controls were followed up at 5-14 days. Antibody tests were compared with formal serology performed on 2 platforms-Euroimmun (Euroimmun, Lubeck) IgA and IgG anti-S antibodies and Abbott Architect IgG test. Results: The sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp), positive (PPV) and negative predictive (NPV) values of tests for PUIs and contacts were calculated (Table 1)∗. Analyses using serology as a reference are forthcoming. Conclusion: Compared with PCR, performance of rapid POC COVID-19 antibody tests was poor with low sensitivity. This may reflect the patient cohort tested as humoral responses typically develop from day 7-14. The tests are unlikely to be useful for acute diagnosis but sensitivity may improve at later timepoints and further follow up data will be analysed by duration of symptom onset, severity of symptoms and wave (beta versus delta).

7.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335851

ABSTRACT

We have recently described a very simple and cheap serological test called HAT to detect antibodies directed against the RBD of the SARS-Cov-2 virus. HAT is based on hemagglutination, triggered by a single reagent (IH4-RBD) comprised of the viral RBD domain fused to a nanobody specific for glycophorin, which is expressed at very high levels at the surface of human red blood cells (RBCs). One of the main initial goals of this study was to devise a test protocol that would be sensitive and reliable, yet require no specialized laboratory equipment such as adjustable pipets, so that it could be performed in the most remote corners of the world by people with minimal levels of training. Because antibody levels against the viral RBD have been found to correlate closely with sero-neutralisation titers, and thus with protection against reinfection, it has become obvious during the course of this study that making this test reliably quantitative would be a further significant advantage. Using IH4-RBD based on the original Wuhan sequence, we have found that, in PBN, a buffer which contains BSA and sodium azide, the reagent is stable for over 6 months at room temperature, and that PBN also improves HAT performance compared to using straight PBS. We also show that performing HAT at either 4°C, room temperature or 37°C has minimal influence on the results, and that quantitative evaluation of the levels of antibodies directed against the SARS-CoV-2 RBD can be achieved in a single step using titration of the IH4-RBD reagent. The HAT-field protocol described here requires only very simple disposable equipment and a few microliters of whole blood, such as can be obtained by finger prick. Because it is based on a single soluble reagent, the test can be adapted very simply and rapidly to detect antibodies against variants of the SARS-CoV-2, or conceivably against different pathogens. HAT-field appears well suited to provide quantitative assessments of the serological protection of populations as well as individuals, and given its very low cost, the stability of the IH4-RBD reagent in the adapted buffer, and the simplicity of the procedure, could be deployed pretty much anywhere, including in the poorest countries and the most remote corners of the globe. Note: This manuscript has been refereed by Review Commons, and modified thanks to the comments and suggestions from three referees. Those comments, and our replies, are provided at the end of the manuscript's pdf, and can also be accessed by clicking on the blue tab found to the right of the MedRXiv window.

8.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816883

ABSTRACT

Background The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has assaulted all aspects of daily life. Medical professionals in oncology face additional challenges with balancing prompt cancer diagnosis and urgent treatment against potential COVID-19 exposure risk in these high-risk patients. We designed this prospective freewill study to offer testing for SAR2-CoV-2 viral RNA and/or anti-COVID-19, respectively in asymptomatic medical and research staff who work in direct contact with cancer patients. The overall goal was to evaluate the prevalence of infection in this group of asymptomatic healthcare providers to reduce exposure of cancer patients to asymptomatic staff. Methods Asymptomatic medical and research staff who work in direct contact with cancer patients were asked to voluntarily be tested for either SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA or antibodies or both. Either NP swabs and/or blood samples (EDTA tube) were collected. Tests are performed at Sinochips Kansas LLC, Sinochips Diagnostics (CLIA number:17D2176068, CAP number: 8709463). The PCR test is performed with FDA authorized 2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel EUA. The Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (Roche Diagnostics) immunoassay was used to qualitative detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in human plasma. Results From 06/18/2020 to 12/18/2020, 861 participated in the study. 1095 tests were completed for SAR2-CoV-2 virus infection, and 918 were completed for antibody. Amount participants, 530 had both virus and antibody tested. 235 were tested more than once for viral infection and 166 were tested more than once for the antibody. Median age of participants was 39 years (IQR 32-51 years). Among these 84.7% were females, 84.4% white, 6.7% African American, 4.8% Asian and 84.7% non-Hispanic. The cumulative incidence of a positive test for the virus was 2.2% (16/712), and for the antibody test was 3.8% (26/679). 5 had both viral and antibody tests positive, with an average time of 4.1 weeks from viral testing positivity to detectable antibody among 3 cases and 2 cases with both viral infection and antibody detected at same time. There were 3 cases virus was detected more than once after turning positive. 2 remained positive at 16 and 22 days after initial test and one turned negative at 36 days as of last follow up. There were 7 cases where the antibody was tested more than once after turning positive and all 7 remained positive as of last follow up (range 7-103 days). Conclusion Prospective voluntary testing in asymptomatic medical and research staff who work in direct contact with cancer patients was feasible and resulted in identification of asymptomatic carriers who then placed in quarantine, thereby limiting exposure to cancer patients. Medical and research staff who work with cancer patients are general very cautious and the frequency of infections were significantly lower than general society. In addition, it seems that 1) virus and antibody may co-exist in the same person after exposure, and 2) the antibody may last for a relatively long time.

9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 403, 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised people (ICP) and elderly individuals (older than 80 years) are at increased risk for severe coronavirus infections. To protect against serious infection with SARS-CoV-2, ICP are taking precautions that may include a reduction of social contacts and participation in activities which they normally enjoy. Furthermore, for these people, there is an uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of the vaccination. The COVID-19 Contact (CoCo) Immune study strives to characterize the immune response to COVID-19 vaccination in immunocompromised, elderly people, and patients with hematological or oncological diseases. The study uses blood-based screenings to monitor the humoral and cellular immune response in these groups after vaccination. Questionnaires and qualitative interviews are used to describe the level of social participation. METHODS: The CoCo Immune Study is a mixed methods prospective, longitudinal, observational study at two large university hospitals in Northern Germany. Starting in March 2021, it monitors anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune responses and collects information on social participation in more than 600 participants, at least 18 years old. Inclusion criteria and subcohorts: Participants with (1) regularly intake of immunosuppressive medication (ICP-cohort) or (2) age ≥ 80 years (80 + -cohort). Additionally, patients with current or former (3) myeloid, (4) lymphatic disease or (5) solid tumor under checkpoint inhibition (3-5: HO-cohort). EXCLUSION CRITERIA: (1) refusal to give informed consent, (2) contraindication to blood testing, (3) inability to declare consent. Participants complete a questionnaire at four different time points: prior to full vaccination, and 1, 6 and 12 months after completed vaccination. In addition, participants draw blood samples themselves or through a local health care provider and send them with their questionnaires per post at the respective time points after vaccination. Patients of the HO cohort dispense additional blood samples at week 3 to 12 and at month 6 to 9 after 2nd vaccination to gain additional knowledge in B and T cell responses. Selected participants are invited to qualitative interviews about social participation. DISCUSSION: This observational study is designed to gain insight into the immune response of people with weakened immune systems and to find out how social participation is affected after COVID-19 vaccination. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was registered with German Clinical Trial Registry (registration number: DRKS00023972) on 30th December 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Diseases , Neoplasms , Adolescent , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cocos , Humans , Immunity , Observational Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
Oral Dis ; 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807238

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This scoping review aims to summarize the diagnostic value of saliva assessed from current studies that (1) compare its performance in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing to nasopharyngeal swabs, (2) evaluate its performance in rapid and point-of-care COVID-19 diagnostic tests, and (3) explore its use as a specimen for detecting anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search was performed on the following databases: Medline and Embase (Ovid), World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Global Health (Ovid) from January 2019 to September 2021. Of the 657 publications identified from the searches, n = 146 articles were included in the final scoping review. RESULTS: Our findings showcase that salivary samples exceed nasopharyngeal swabs in detecting SARS-CoV-2 using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction testing in several studies. A select number of rapid antigen and point-of-care tests from the literature were also identified capable of high detection rates using saliva. Moreover, anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies have been shown to be detectable in saliva through biochemical assays. CONCLUSION: We highlight the potential of saliva as an all-rounded specimen in detecting SARS-CoV-2. However, future large-scale clinical studies will be needed to support its widespread use as a non-invasive clinical specimen for COVID-19 testing.

11.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofac055, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Confidence in natural immunity after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is one reason for vaccine hesitancy. METHODS: We measured antibody-mediated neutralization of spike protein-ACE2 receptor binding in a large community-based sample of seropositive individuals who differed in severity of infection (N = 790). RESULTS: A total of 39.8% of infections were asymptomatic, 46.5% were symptomatic with no clinical care, 13.8% were symptomatic with clinical care, and 3.7% required hospitalization. Moderate/high neutralizing activity was present after 41.3% of clinically managed infections, in comparison with 7.9% of symptomatic and 1.9% of asymptomatic infections. CONCLUSIONS: Prior coronavirus disease 2019 infection does not guarantee a high level of antibody-mediated protection against reinfection in the general population.

12.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3714-3721, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787688

ABSTRACT

Vaccination certainly is the best way to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, the seroconversion effectiveness of two vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was assessed in healthcare workers: virus-inactivated CoronaVac (CV, n = 303), and adenovirus-vectored Oxford-AstraZeneca (AZ, n = 447). The immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies anti-spike glycoprotein and anti-nucleocapsid protein were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the time before vaccination (T1), before the second dose (T2), and 30 days after the second dose (T3). Of all individuals vaccinated with AZ, 100% (n = 447) exhibited seroconversion, compared to 91% (n = 276) that were given CV vaccine. Among individuals who did not respond to the CV, only three individuals showed a significant increase in the antibody level 4 months later the booster dose. A lower seroconversion rate was observed in elders immunized with the CV vaccine probably due to the natural immune senescence, or peculiarity of this vaccine. The AZ vaccine induced a higher humoral response; however, more common side effects were also observed. Nonvaccinated convalescent individuals revealed a similar rate of anti-spike IgG to individuals that were given two doses of CV vaccine, which suggests that only a one-shot COVID-19 vaccine could produce an effective immune response in convalescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adenoviridae/genetics , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Brazil , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Pandemics/prevention & control
13.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 52(2): 332-335, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787119

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) is the gold standard for diagnosing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), simpler and faster antibody detection tests can be complementary for diagnosis of COVID-19. To manage the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for serologic testing has increased. In this report, the newly developed antibody detection assays ACCEL ELISA COVID-19 (ACCEL) and Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 (Elecsys) were evaluated. METHODS: Serum samples submitted for routine laboratory testing were analyzed (66 and 161 PCR-positive and PCR-negative samples). After the samples were aliquoted, antibody detection tests were performed using ACCEL and Elecsys assays. RESULTS: When detection of viral RNA using RT-PCR was set as the reference method for diagnosis of COVID-19, the sensitivity was 83.3% and 75.8, and the specificity was 96.9 and 99.4% in ACCEL and Elecsys, respectively. The true positivity rates of ACCEL and Elecsys assays were 57.1%/42.9%, 57.1%/28.6%, 77.8%/66.7%, and 97.1%/97.1% among the specimens collected ≤3, 4-7, 8-14, and >14 days after symptom onset, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The ACCEL assay showed high sensitivity in samples collected within 7 days after symptom onset. Because many patients are asymptomatic in the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the ACCEL assay could be a good screening tool due to high sensitivity in the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765049

ABSTRACT

Following findings in Northern America of SARS-CoV-2 infections in white-tailed deer, there is concern of similar infections in European deer and their potential as reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2 including opportunities for the emergence of new variants. UK deer sera were collected in 2020-2021 from 6 species and a hybrid with 1748 tested using anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid serology assays. No samples were positive on both assays nor by surrogate neutralization testing. There is no evidence that spill-over infections of SARS-CoV-2 occurred from the human population to UK deer or that SARS-CoV-2 has been circulating in UK deer (over the study period). Although it cannot be ruled out, study results indicate that spill-over infections followed by circulation of SARS-CoV-2 to the most common European deer species is small.

15.
Biochimica Clinica ; 45(SUPPL 2):S17, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1733328

ABSTRACT

Background: Serological tests identifying SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM in serum play an important role in understanding the disease epidemiology. However, their immunological significance are currently undefined. There are many methods available for the detection of specific Abs whit suboptimal diagnostic accuracy and relatively high throughput capacity and less stringent specimen requirements compared to RNA-based assays. We aimed to assess the clinical utility of IgM detection in SARSCoV- 2 using the big data analysis. Methods: We conduct a retrospective study analyzing with a big data analysis all samples collected between 11 March and 30 September 2020. All serum samples received at the laboratory were processed using qualitative and commercially available rapid lateral flow immunoassay tests for 2019-nCoV IgG and IgM. Positive results were confirmed using a chemiluminescent method. Subjects with a positive result were contacted from the Department of Public Health for further tests (viral RNA research or subsequent serological tests) for definitive diagnosis.Results: A total of 69,343 serological tests (in 42,911 subjects) and 140,065 oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swabs (in 88,771 subjects) were performed. 94.5% of subjects screened (n=40,559) had negative results for both IgG and IgM. Of the 640 subjects with both IgG and IgM positive results, viral RNA research confirmed positivity in 16%. Of the subjects with IgG negative and IgM positive results, a positivity was confirmed in 1.4% (n=7/478) subjects. Subsequent serological testing confirmed IgG positivity in 8 subjects (1.6%). Conversely, in subjects with IgG positive and IgM negative results, a positivity was confirmed in 7.9%. Therefore, analysis suggests that up to 94% of serological test results of IgM positivity and IgG negativity are false positive whereas, serological test results of IgG positive and IgM negative are confirmed true positives in around 7.9% of subjects. Discussion: Our study, based on big data analysis application, confirms the scarce clinical utility of IgM anti SARS-CoV-2 detection in COVID-19 management, and underlines the responsibility of laboratory medicine professionals to highlight limitations of the SARS-CoV-2 serological tests due to uncertainty in their interpretation.

16.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 71(5):1607, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1728414

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of PANBIO COVID-19 rapid antigen method in nasopharyngeal swab, for screening of COVID-19 infection in emergency cases. Study Design: Cross-sectional validation study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Combined Military Hospital, Multan, from Jan to Mar 2021. Methodology: After taking approval from institutional ethical review committee, total 1539 patients were included in this study according to sample size. With informed consent, nasopharyngeal swab specimens were taken for PANBIO COVID-19 rapid antigen method from each patient presenting as emergency medical/surgical case to Combined Military Hospital Multan as well as for Polymerase Chain Reaction for SARS CoV-2 RNA. PANBIO COVID-19 rapid antigen method and polymerase chain reaction for SARS CoV-2 RNA were performed simultaneously on swabs. Polymerase chain reaction for SARS CoV-2 RNA was considered to be the gold standard for comparison with the PANBIO COVID-19 rapid antigen method. Results: A total of 21 patients had SARS CoV-2 RNA detected by polymerase chain reaction indicating COVID-19 infection. Out of polymerase chain reaction positive patients, PANBIO™ COVID-19 Ag test was able to detect 19 cases. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy was calculated and found to be 90.47%, 100%, 100%, 99.8% and 99.8% respectively. Conclusion: PANBIO™ COVID-19 rapid antigen method was found to have excellent diagnostic accuracy in detection of COVID-19 infection. It can provide as a good alternate test for screening of masses with a short turn around time of only 15 minutes.

17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical course of COVID-19 depends on several patient-specific risk factors, including immune function, that is largely compromised in cancer patients. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 120 adult consecutive patients (including 34 cases of COVID-19 breakthrough after two full doses of BNT162b2 vaccine) with underlying hematological malignancies and a SARS-CoV-2 infection, in terms of patient's clinical outcome. RESULTS: Among fully vaccinated patients the achievement of viral clearance by day 14 was more frequent than in unvaccinated patients. Increased 30-day mortality was associated with presence of active/progressing disease and absolute monocyte count lower than 400 cells/uL. Results of multivariable analysis in unvaccinated patients showed that the pre-infection absolute count of monocytes less or equal to 400 cells/mmc, active or progressive disease of the underlying hematological malignancy, the COVID-19 severity identified by hospitalization requirement and lack of viral clearance at 14 days were independent predictors of 1-year overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results indicate that absolute monocyte count determined one month before any documented SARS-CoV-2 infection could identify patients affected by hematological neoplasms with increased risk of inferior overall survival.

18.
International Journal of Prisoner Health ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1713872

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to estimate the overall SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and evaluate the accuracy of an antibody rapid test compared to a reference serological assay during a COVID-19 outbreak in a prison complex housing over 13,000 prisoners in Brasília. Design/methodology/approach: The authors obtained a randomized, stratified representative sample of each prison unit and conducted a repeated serosurvey among prisoners between June and July 2020, using a lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA). Samples were also retested using a chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLIA) to compare SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and 21-days incidence, as well as to estimate the overall infection fatality rate (IFR) and determine the diagnostic accuracy of the LFIA test. Findings: This study identified 485 eligible individuals and enrolled 460 participants. Baseline and 21-days follow-up seroprevalence were estimated at 52.0% (95% CI 44.9–59.0) and 56.7% (95% CI 48.2–65.3) with LFIA;and 80.7% (95% CI 74.1–87.3) and 81.1% (95% CI 74.4–87.8) with CLIA, with an overall IFR of 0.02%. There were 78.2% (95% CI 66.7–89.7) symptomatic individuals among the positive cases. Sensitivity and specificity of LFIA were estimated at 43.4% and 83.3% for IgM;46.5% and 91.5% for IgG;and 59.1% and 77.3% for combined tests. Originality/value: The authors found high seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies within the prison complex. The occurrence of asymptomatic infection highlights the importance of periodic mass testing in addition to case-finding of symptomatic individuals;however, the field performance of LFIA tests should be validated. This study recommends that vaccination strategies consider the inclusion of prisoners and prison staff in priority groups. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 783975, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699418

ABSTRACT

Background: There is limited information on the functional neutralizing capabilities of breastmilk SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies and the potential adulteration of breastmilk with vaccine mRNA after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of lactating healthcare workers who received the BNT162b2 vaccine and their infants. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, antibody isotypes (IgG, IgA, IgM) and intact mRNA in serum and breastmilk was evaluated at multiple time points using a surrogate neutralizing assay, ELISA, and PCR, over a 6 week period of the two-dose vaccination given 21 days apart. Results: Thirty-five lactating mothers, median age 34 years (IQR 32-36), were included. All had detectable neutralizing antibodies in the serum immediately before dose 2, with significant increase in neutralizing antibody levels 7 days after this dose [median 168.4 IU/ml (IQR 100.7-288.5) compared to 2753.0 IU/ml (IQR 1627.0-4712.0), p <0.001]. Through the two vaccine doses, all mothers had detectable IgG1, IgA and IgM isotypes in their serum, with a notable increase in all three antibody isotypes after dose 2, especially IgG1 levels. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in majority of breastmilk samples a week after dose 2 [median 13.4 IU/ml (IQR 7.0-28.7)], with persistence of these antibodies up to 3 weeks after. Post the second vaccine dose, all (35/35, 100%) mothers had detectable breastmilk SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD-specific IgG1 and IgA antibody and 32/35 (88.6%) mothers with IgM. Transient, low intact vaccine mRNA levels was detected in 20/74 (27%) serum samples from 21 mothers, and 5/309 (2%) breastmilk samples from 4 mothers within 1 weeks of vaccine dose. Five infants, median age 8 months (IQR 7-16), were also recruited - none had detectable neutralizing antibodies or vaccine mRNA in their serum. Conclusion: Majority of lactating mothers had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibody isotypes and neutralizing antibodies in serum and breastmilk, especially after dose 2 of BNT162b2 vaccination. Transient, low levels of vaccine mRNA were detected in the serum of vaccinated mothers with occasional transfer to their breastmilk, but we did not detect evidence of infant sensitization. Importantly, the presence of breastmilk neutralising antibodies likely provides a foundation for passive immunisation of the breastmilk-fed infant.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Milk, Human/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , /blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/analysis , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Infant , Lactation , Milk, Human/chemistry , Prospective Studies
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