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1.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 888498, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963503

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Here we report our results of a multi-center, open cohort study ("COVID-Kids-Bavaria") investigating the distribution of acute SARS-CoV-2 infections among children and staff in 99 daycare facilities and 48 elementary schools in Bavaria, Germany. Materials and Methods: Overall, 2,568 children (1,337 school children, 1,231 preschool children) and 1,288 adults (466 teachers, 822 daycare staff) consented to participate in the study and were randomly tested in three consecutive phases (September/October 2020, November/December 2020, March 2021). In total, 7,062 throat swabs were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 by commercial RT-PCR kits. Results: In phase I, only one daycare worker tested positive. In phase II, SARS-CoV-2 was detected in three daycare workers, two preschool children, and seven school children. In phase III, no sample tested positive. This corresponds to a positive test rate of 0.05% in phase I, 0.4% in phase II and 0% in phase III. Correlation of a positive PCR test result with the local-7-day incidence values showed a strong association of a 7-day-incidence of more than 100/100,000 as compared to <100/100,000 (OR = 10.3 [1.5-438], p < 0.005). After phase III, antibody testing was offered to 713 study participants in elementary schools. A seroprevalence rate of 7.7% (students) and 4.5% (teachers) was determined. Discussion: During the initial waves of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the risk of a positive SARS-CoV-2 result correlated positively with the local 7-day incidence. Hence, the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infections were reflected in schools and daycare facilities. An increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the setting of daycare and elementary schooling was unlikely.

2.
J Int Med Res ; 50(7): 3000605221099458, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962619

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 and identify associated factors in frontline and second-line healthcare workers (HCWs) at a large hospital in Mexico City during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of HCWs returning to work following mandatory isolation after recovering from COVID-19. Immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibodies elicited by SARS-CoV-2 were semiquantitatively measured using densitometric analysis of band intensities in lateral flow assay (LFA) devices. The mean pixel intensity (dots-per-inch [dpi]) of each band on the LFA was considered a measure of antibody titre. RESULTS: Of the 111 HCWs involved in the study, antibody responses were detected in 73/111 (66%) participants. Severe COVID symptoms was associated with old age. No differences in IgM intensity were observed between men and women, but IgG intensity was significantly higher in men than in women. Second-line HCWs produced a higher IgG intensity than firstline HCWs. The IgG intensity was high in severe cases. CONCLUSIONS: For HCWs who may acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is necessary to establish a routine program for detection of the virus to avoid risk of infection and spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
3.
Journal of School of Public Health & Institute of Public Health Research ; 19(4):413-422, 2022.
Article in Persian | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1957775

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the seroepidemiological history of SARS-CoV-2 infection among asymptomatic children in Tehran. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of children younger than 14 years old were collected during the period autumn-winter 2020 and spring 2021 and tested for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody using the EUROIMMUN ELISA kit. In addition, questionnaires were used to collect demographic and infection status information in the participants. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software.

4.
American Journal of Blood Research ; 12(3):88-96, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955717

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and the associated risk factors among healthy blood donors from Peshawar Pakistan, during the second and third waves of the CO-VID-19 pandemic. Methods: The study was conducted on 4047 healthy (with no history or symptoms of COVID-19) blood donors attending regional blood center Peshawar between Nov 2020 and June 2021. Demographic data was collected and donors were screened for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using electrochemilumines-cence immunoassay (ECLIA). Results: The mean age of the participants was 27.27±7.13 and the majority (99%) were males. Overall, 59% (2391/4047) of the blood donors were reactive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. An increasing trend in seropositivity was observed from 45.5% to 64.8% corresponding to the second and third wave of the pandemic in Pakistan. Logistic regression analysis revealed significantly higher odds of seropositivity among male donors compared to females. Similarly, in multivariable analysis, the odds ratio for seropositivity among blood types AB, A, and B were, 1.6, 1.4, and 1.3 (CI 95%) times higher compared to blood group O (P-value ≤0.0001). Conclu-sions: Seropositivity of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among blood donors gradually increased during the second and third wave of the pandemic in Pakistan indicating a widespread prevalence of Covid-19 in the general population. Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 varies with ABO blood types, with blood group O associated with low risk of infection.

5.
Rural Remote Health ; 22(3): 6751, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955301

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic, giving rise to a serious global health threat. Many countries including Greece have seen a two-wave pattern of reported cases, with a first wave in spring and a second in autumn of 2020. METHODS: A cross-sectional seroprevalence study was designed to measure the prevalence of IgG antibodies with a quantitative SARS-CoV-2 IgG lab-based serology test, chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay, against novel coronavirus in rural areas in Greece after the second pandemic wave. The study was conducted on 29 January 2021 in a rural semi-closed area, the municipality of Deskati, prefecture of western Macedonia in Greece after the second pandemic wave. RESULTS: Sixty-nine participants were included in this study. The present study demonstrated a high prevalence of COVID-19 infection (31 of 69 total participants; 45%) and those who were working in the public sector were at higher risk of COVID-19 infection in comparison to their counterparts in private sector (p=0.05364), (relative risk 2.64; 95% confidence interval 1.001-7.086). CONCLUSION: The study presents data showing a high prevalence of herd immunity for COVID-19 in a semi-closed area in Greece. These findings might help to understand the characteristics of this second wave, the behaviour and danger of SARS-CoV-2 in rural areas in Greece and Europe generally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Prevalence , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Workplace
6.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955042

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) affected a disproportionately high percentage of healthcare workers (HCWs). The aim of the study was to assess the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies in nurses and clinicians working in 2 Slovenian regional hospitals, and to identify the factors associated with seropositivity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed as a crosssectional study. Clinicians and nurses were invited to participate in November-December 2020. The respondents (813, 65.8%) completed a questionnaire and consented to provide 10 ml of blood for determining the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. RESULTS: The authors observed a seroprevalence rate of 20.4%. The results of the univariate analysis proved that the age of a nurse or clinician was the factor most strongly associated with seropositivity - in fact, the youngest nurses and clinicians were 8.33 times more likely to be seropositive than those in the oldest age group (p = 0.041). Being in contact with a family/household member who was SARS-CoV-2-positive was also a very important factor. In the work-related factors group, being in the contact with a SARS-CoV-2-positive colleague (OR = 2.35, p = 0.026) or being in contact with a COVID-19 patient (OR = 1.96, p = 0.004) correlated with seropositivity. In the primary work location/department group, the only significant association appeared among those working in surgical, ENT or ophthalmology departments. The results of the multivariate analysis further supported the thesis that the age of nurses and clinicians was the factor most strongly associated with seropositivity. The youngest nurses and clinicians were 12.5 times more likely to be seropositive than those in the oldest age group (p = 0.024). Being in contact with a SARS-CoV-2-positive family/household member remained the second most important factor. CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of clinicians and nurses working in secondary healthcare were infected in the first 9 months of the pandemic.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 896151, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952332

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the introduction of various vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 at the end of 2020, infection rates have continued to climb worldwide. This led to the establishment of a third dose vaccination in several countries, known as a booster. To date, there has been little real-world data about the immunological effect of this strategy. Methods: We compared the humoral- and cellular immune response before and after the third dose of BioNTech/Pfizer vaccine BNT162b2, following different prime-boost regimen in a prospective observational study. Humoral immunity was assessed by determining anti-SARS-CoV-2 binding antibodies using a standardized quantitative assay. In addition, neutralizing antibodies were measured using a commercial surrogate ELISA-assay. Interferon-gamma release was measured after stimulating blood-cells with SARS-CoV-2 specific peptides using a commercial assay to evaluate the cellular immune response. Results: We included 243 health-care workers who provided blood samples and questionnaires pre- and post- third vaccination. The median antibody level increased significantly after the third vaccination dose to 2663.1 BAU/ml vs. 101.4 BAU/ml (p < 0.001) before administration of the booster dose. This was also detected for neutralizing antibodies with a binding inhibition of 99.68% ± 0.36% vs. 69.06% ± 19.88% after the second dose (p < 0.001). 96.3% of the participants showed a detectable T-cell-response after the booster dose with a mean interferon-gamma level of 2207.07 mIU/ml ± 1905 mIU/ml. Conclusion: This study detected a BMI-dependent antibody increase after the third dose of BNT162b2 following different vaccination protocols. All participants showed a significant increase in their immune response. This, in combination with the low rate of post-vaccination-symptoms underlines the potential beneficial effect of a BNT162b2-booster dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Interferon-gamma , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac246, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948420

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies from vaccination and/or prior infection is critical to the public health response to the pandemic. CalScope is a population-based serosurvey in 7 counties in California. Methods: We invited 200 000 randomly sampled households to enroll up to 1 adult and 1 child between April 20, 2021 and June 16, 2021. We tested all specimens for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and spike proteins, and each participant completed an online survey. We classified participants into categories: seronegative, antibodies from infection only, antibodies from infection and vaccination, and antibodies from vaccination only. Results: A total of 11 161 households enrolled (5.6%), with 7483 adults and 1375 children completing antibody testing. As of June 2021, 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28%-37%) of adults and 57% (95% CI, 48%-66%) of children were seronegative; 18% (95% CI, 14%-22%) of adults and 26% (95% CI, 19%-32%) of children had antibodies from infection alone; 9% (95% CI, 6%-11%) of adults and 5% (95% CI, 1%-8%) of children had antibodies from infection and vaccination; and 41% (95% CI, 37%-45%) of adults and 13% (95% CI, 7%-18%) of children had antibodies from vaccination alone. Conclusions: As of June 2021, one third of adults and most children in California were seronegative. Serostatus varied regionally and by demographic group.

9.
Infect Dis Health ; 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1945136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exposure of healthcare workers (HCW) to SARS-CoV-2 is a public health concern. Not only are HCWs particularly exposed to SARS-CoV-2, but their contamination can also weaken the healthcare system. METHODS: We analyzed exposure of French University Hospital HCWs to SARS-CoV-2 through history of positive RT-PCR test and SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence. Potential risk factors, such as age, BMI, having children or not, working in a COVID-19 unit, or smoking were explored. RESULTS: From May to June 2020, among the 8960 employees of the University Hospital of Nancy, a serological test was performed in 4696 HCWs. The average (SD) age was 40.4 (11.4) years, and the sample included 3926 women (83.6%). Of the 4696 HCWs, 1050 were smokers (22.4%). Among them, 2231 HCWs had a history of COVID-19 symptoms and/or flu-like syndrome (47.5%) and 238 were seropositive (5.1%). Neither gender, sex, BMI, nor having children were associated with a history of positive RT-PCR test or seropositive status. Previous work in a COVID-19 unit was associated with a history of positive RT-PCR test (p = 0.045), but not with seroprevalence (p = 0.215). As expected, history of COVID-19 clinical manifestations was more frequent in HCWs with positive serology than in HCWs with negative serology (adjusted OR = 1.9, 95%CI [1.4-2.5], p < 0.001). Less expected, smoking was associated with a reduced risk of seropositivity among HCWs (adjusted OR = 0.6, 95%CI [0.4-0.9], p = 0.019). CONCLUSION: HCW are patently exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Care to COVID-19 patients was not associated with a higher SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence. Smoking appears here associated to a lower seroprevalence.

10.
Virusdisease ; : 1-6, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1943381

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A serosurvey was designed to ascertain the extent of infection among police personnel in Mumbai, India, during the last week of January 2021, at the end of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, and just before the introduction of vaccination. Methods: The survey was carried out to screen for SARS-CoV-2 among 3232 police personnel. Of the 3176 participants willing for blood sample collection, 3077 personnel were found to be eligible for testing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus using the Roche Diagnostics' Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay. Results: The overall seroprevalence was 74.1% (95% CI 72.5-75.6). Males (75.1%, 73.4-76.8) had significantly higher seroprevalence than females (69.8%, 66.0-73.3), 18-39 years age group (76.4%, 74.4-78.3) than 40-59 years age group (70.6%, 67.9-73.1), non-officers (75.2%, 73.5-76.7) than officers (63.8%, 58.2-69.0), and personnel without comorbidities (75.0%, 73.3-76.6) than with comorbidities (69.7%, 65.6-73.5). Additionally, personnel with resident members positive for COVID-19 (89.6%, 84.7-93.1), personnel having reported COVID-19 earlier (95.5%, 93.8-96.7), and personnel having PCR positivity earlier (96.4%, 94.7-97.6) had significantly higher seroprevalences than others. All other variables, including diabetes and blood glucose status, lipid levels and thyroid enzymes, were not significantly associated with the seroprevalence levels. Conclusions: Almost three-fourths of frontline police personnel had evidence of past COVID-19 infection at the end of the first wave in January 2021, just before the introduction of COVID-19 vaccination. These frontline non-healthcare essential workers are an important risk group, and amenable to rapid serosurveys. These findings may help in estimating transmission status in the general community, along with disease burden, aiding prioritization of healthcare services.

11.
ETHIOPIAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH DEVELOPMENT ; 35(4), 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1935110

ABSTRACT

Background: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests are increasingly used for sero-epidemiological purposes to provide a better understanding of the extent of the infection in the community, and to monitor the progression of the COVID-19 epidemic. A sero-prevalence study was conducted to estimate prior infections with SARS-CoV-2 in Addis Ababa. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 23 to 28, 2020 among 301 randomly selected residents of Addis Ababa;sub-city health offices, health facilities and health extension workers were contacted, to obtain a population profile and to conduct the random selection of study participants. Participants were selected, who had not been in direct contact with people who had contracted COVID-19, to maintain consistency among the study population. Interviews on socio demographic and behavioural risk factors, followed by serological tests were performed for SARS-CoV-2 IgM, and IgG antibodies, using the COVID-19 IgG/IgM Rapid Test Cassette. Based on the manufacturer information, the test has a sensitivity of 87.9% and specificity of 100% for IgM;and a sensitivity of 97.2% and specificity of 100% for IgG. A Polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test was also done on combined nasopharyngeal and oropharengeal swabs. Findings: The unadjusted antibody-based crude SARS-CoV-2 prevalence was 7.6% and the adjusted (weighted average) SARS-CoV-2 prevalence was estimated at 8.8% (95% CI 5.5%-11.6%) for the study population. Higher sero-prevalence were observed for males (9.0%), age below 50 years (8.2%), students and unemployed (15.6%), as well as those with primary education (12.1%), educated above high school (37.9%), non- smokers (78.7%), with no history of regular alcohol (53.8%), no chat (70.8%), and no shisha use (94.7%). According to the findings, a significantly higher number of individuals had been infected in Addis Ababa as compared to what was being detected and reported by the RT-PCR test, which is suggestive of community transmission.

12.
Epidemiol Health ; : e2022028, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939239

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) is a nationwide cross-sectional surveillance system that assesses the health and nutritional status of the Korean population. To evaluate the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the community, we investigated the presence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 using the sera of KNHANES participants. METHODS: The subjects were recruited between April 24, 2020, and December 12, 2020. A total of 5,284 subjects aged 10-90 years from 17 regions participated in the survey. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were screened using the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay. Positive samples were verified using four different SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays and the plaque reduction neutralizing test (PRNT). The final seropositivity criteria were defined as a positive screening test and at least one positive out of the five additional tests. RESULTS: The distribution of survey participants was as follows: 49.2% (2,600/5,284) were from a metropolitan area, 48.9% were middle-aged (in their 40s and 60s) and 19.3% were in their 20s or younger. The seropositivity rate among the participants was 0.09% (5/5,284). Out of the five antibody-positive subjects, three had a history of infection, of whom, two were infected abroad while one was infected through a local cluster outbreak. CONCLUSION: The low seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody in Korea indicates the fewer COVID-19 patients due to succeed of COVID-19 management measures. Moreover, asymptomatic infections were also detected fewer due to active PCR testing. However, hidden infections may still be prevalent in the community, thus requiring continuous quarantine and vaccination.

13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(7)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939071

ABSTRACT

Essential agricultural workers work under occupational conditions that may increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 exposure and transmission. Data from an agricultural worker cohort in Guatemala, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG (anti-N IgG) testing were used to estimate past infections and analyze risk factors associated with seropositivity at enrollment and association with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The stability of neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses were assessed in a subset of participants. The adjusted relative risk (aRR) for seroprevalence at enrollment was estimated accounting for correlations within worksites. At enrollment, 616 (46.2%) of 1334 (93.2%) participants had anti-N IgG results indicating prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. A cough ≤ 10 days prior to enrollment (aRR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13-1.46) and working as a packer (aRR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.67-2.38) or packing manager within the plants (aRR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.36-2.43) were associated with increased risk of seropositivity. COVID-19 incidence density among seronegative workers was 2.3/100 Person-Years (P-Y), higher than seropositive workers (0.4/100 P-Y). Most workers with follow-up NAb testing (65/77, 84%) exhibited a 95% average decrease in NAb titers in <6 months. While participants seropositive at baseline were less likely to experience a symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection during follow-up, NAb titers rapidly waned, underscoring the need for multipronged COVID-19 prevention strategies in the workplace, including vaccination.

14.
Harran Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi ; 11(1):120-127, 2022.
Article in Turkish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934962

ABSTRACT

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infections are widespread in newborn calf diarrhea, which is one of the critical problems in cattle breeding. This study aims to investigate BCoV infection in calves with diarrhea in Sanliurfa province. In this study, 94 calves with diarrhea (3 months) following clinical examination were sampled. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the presence of BCoV antigen. A total of 5 stool samples were found to be BCoV positive (5.32%). This result showed that BCoV was low in calves with diarrhea in Sanliurfa province. However, considering the rapid spread of the infection in cattle populations, it is thought that it may cause significant economic losses due to treatment costs and calf deaths.

15.
Prevalencia de anticuerpos contra SARS-CoV-2 y factores asociados en trabajadores de la salud de un hospital Covid-19 en México. ; 64(4):348-356, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1934838

ABSTRACT

Objective. To determine the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among healthcare workers (HCW) and to identify factors associated with infection. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a Covid-19 hospital in Morelos, Mexico. Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins were detected by ELISA. A bivariate and multivariable Poisson regression model were performed to identify factors associated with infection. Results. Among all participants, 31% had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, while only 13.1% had reported a history of positive RT-PCR. Individuals who reported cohabiting with someone with Covid-19, and those who had a previous RT-PCR test, were more likely to be seropositive. Laboratory personnel had the lowest seroprevalence (12.0%), while social workers had the highest (35.7%). Conclusions. The results of this study show the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among HCW in a hospital in Mexico, and underline the importance of serological tests for a better estimate of prevalence in health systems where only symptomatic cases are recorded. (English) [ FROM AUTHOR] Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de anticuerpos contra SARS-CoV-2 entre trabajadores de la salud e identificar factores asociados con la infección. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal en un hospital Covid-19 de Morelos. Se detectaron anticuerpos contra las proteínas spike y nucleocápside del SARS-CoV-2 por ELISA. Se realizó un análisis bivariado y multivarible mediante regresión de Poisson para identificar factores asociados con la infección. Resultados. El 31% de los participantes tenía anticuerpos anti-SARS-CoV-2 y sólo 13.1% reportó antecedentes de RTPCR positiva. Cohabitar con una persona con Covid-19 y reportar una prueba RT-PCR fueron factores asociados con la seropositividad. El personal de laboratorios tuvo la prevalencia más baja (12.0%), mientras que trabajadores sociales la mayor (35.7%). Conclusiones. Se informa la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra SARS-CoV-2 entre personal de salud en un hospital de México y se subraya la importancia de las pruebas serológicas para una mejor estimación de la prevalencia en sistemas de salud que sólo registran casos sintomáticos. (Spanish) [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Salud Pública de México is the property of Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

16.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):2816-2823, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934408

ABSTRACT

Background: Estimating seroepidemiolgical prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody is an essential public health strategy. There is insufficient evidence of prevalence among those belonging to young age population in India.

17.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):2709-2716, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934403

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Slums are the most vulnerable settlements for COVID-19 infection due to overcrowding and unsanitary conditions. Thus, this study was undertaken to determine the level of seroprevalence for SARS-CoV-2 infection among slum dwellers. Material and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey was conducted at several slums of Patna over four weeks, that is, January 20-February 20, 2021. A total of 650 participants were recruited in the study by applying a two-stage random sampling technique.

18.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):2667-2671, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934399

ABSTRACT

Background: The tide of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has scoured the global community with India, from 30 January 2020 to 30 September 2021, reporting 33,739,980 confirmed cases and over 448,090 deaths from coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Serologic testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection among the general public will provide essential information regarding the risk of infection. So, the present study was conducted to provide relevant information on the proportion of people who hadexperienced either a recent or past infection. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adults >18 years in the Department of Community Medicine, Government medical college, Srinagar. Blood samples of the participants were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay-based serologic test.

19.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):2789-2793, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1934391

ABSTRACT

Context: Population-based seroepidemiological studies are recommended to measure the extent of spread of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) infection in an area. The present seroprevalence survey was planned with the aim to estimate the cumulative burden of the COVID-19 disease in the Pimpri Chinchwad corporation area. Aims: To estimate the cumulative burden of the COVID-19 disease in the Pimpri Chinchwad corporation area. Settings and Design: The study was carried out in Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC) city area. It was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. Materials and Methods: A population-based seroprevalence study for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was carried out among 10082 residents in the age group of 6 years and above selected by cluster random sampling. Thirty-five clusters were in slums, 45 clusters in tenements and 120 clusters from housing societies. The fieldwork for the collection of samples was carried out from 16 June to 17 June 2021. For antibody testing, a kit from Abbott (SARS-CoV-2 IgG) was used which employs chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) technology. Statistical Analysis Used: Frequency analysis was done for sociodemographic variables, the cumulative incidence of COVID-19, age-stratified infection rate, risk factors and COVID symptomatic versus asymptomatic cases. Chi-square test of association was applied to test the association between seropositivity and sociodemographic and clinical profile of participants.

20.
Statistical Science ; 37(3):306-321, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1933181

ABSTRACT

This paper concerns the construction of confidence intervals in standard seroprevalence surveys. In particular, we discuss methods for constructing confidence intervals for the proportion of individuals in a population infected with a disease using a sample of antibody test results and measurements of the test’s false positive and false negative rates. We begin by documenting erratic behavior in the coverage probabilities of standard Wald and percentile bootstrap intervals when applied to this problem. We then consider two alternative sets of intervals constructed with test inversion. The first set of intervals are approximate, using either asymptotic or bootstrap approximation to the finite-sample distribution of a chosen test statistic. We consider several choices of test statistic, including maximum likelihood estimators and generalized likelihood ratio statistics. We show with simulation that, at empirically relevant parameter values and sample sizes, the coverage probabilities for these intervals are close to their nominal level and are approximately equi-tailed. The second set of intervals are shown to contain the true parameter value with probability at least equal to the nominal level, but can be conservative in finite samples. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2022

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