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1.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024273

ABSTRACT

Annual vaccination against influenza is the best tool to prevent deaths and hospitalizations. Regular updates of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIV) are necessary due to high mutation rates in influenza viruses. TIV effectiveness is affected by antigenic mismatches, age, previous immunity, and other host factors. Studying TIV effectiveness annually in different populations is critical. The serological responses to Southern-Hemisphere TIV and circulating influenza strains were evaluated in 2018-2020 among Brazilian volunteers, using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Post-vaccination titers were corrected to account for pre-vaccination titers. Our population achieved >83% post-vaccination seroprotection levels, whereas seroconversion rates ranged from 10% to 46%. TIV significantly enhanced antibody titers and seroprotection against all prior and contemporary vaccine and circulating strains tested. Strong cross-reactive responses were detected, especially between H1N1 subtypes. A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016, included in the 2018 TIV, induced the poorest response. Significant titer and seroprotection reductions were observed 6 and 12 months after vaccination. Age had a slight effect on TIV response, whereas previous vaccination was associated with lower seroconversion rates and titers. Despite this, TIV induced high seroprotection for all strains, in all groups. Regular TIV evaluations, based on regional influenza strain circulation, should be conducted and the factors affecting response studied.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Brazil/epidemiology , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Seasons , Vaccines, Inactivated
2.
Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics ; 59(5):595-603, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1894117

ABSTRACT

The MMR vaccine as we know is a vital vaccine to protect against three disease-causing microbes- measles, mumps, and rubella. To commemorate 75 years of Indian independence, the present study delves into the achievement of Indian research and lists out articles retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection database on the domain of MMR vaccine research. The data has been restricted to the publication from India, thereby, has throwing some understanding into the MRR vaccine research in India over the last 28 years- 1994 to 2021. The data have been compared based on scientometric analysis. Qualitative and quantitative analysis have also been taken into account in order to give a comparative insight into the research. The comparison was done based on citation data, usage count data, year of publication, journals, publication media, domains focussed on the papers, and type of document. Astonishingly, in 2021, the most number of papers were published, most of them have related MMR vaccine as a potential immunity developer against COVID-19 infection. A total of 43 articles were retrieved from the search, the numbers are quite big, and the highest citation among them being 99 which was published in 2014, which is quite impressive for such a short duration of time. The comparative study suggests a positive growth of MMR vaccine research in India.

3.
Vaccine ; 40(26): 3597-3604, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873314

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At least one-half of adults beginning an immunization series with a three-dose hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine (ENGERIX-B, RECOMBIVAX-B) have been reported not to receive the third dose. Use of a two-dose vaccine may improve adherence and lead to greater overall levels of seroprotection. OBJECTIVE: To examine expected levels of adherence and overall seroprotection at one year among adults in routine clinical settings beginning an immunization series with either ENGERIX-B or the two-dose HBV vaccine, HEPLISAV-B. METHODS: Decision-analytic model comparing expected levels of adherence and overall seroprotection at one year among a hypothetical cohort of one million previously unvaccinated adults aged ≥ 30 years receiving first doses of either ENGERIX-B or HEPLISAV-B in a routine clinical setting. We stratified the population by age (30-49 years vs ≥ 50 years) to allow for possible differences in adherence and seroprotection. We estimated our model using published adherence rates for HBV vaccines, and reported seroprotection rates by number of doses administered. We also compared total expected costs of HBV immunization with each vaccine. RESULTS: Use of a two-dose rather than three-dose HBV vaccine would increase the expected number of adults seroprotected at one year by 275,000 per one million persons beginning immunization series, largely reflecting a gain of 290,000 in the expected number of persons fully vaccinated. Results were similar for the two age groups. While the cost per dose of HEPLISAV-B exceeds that of ENGERIX-B, its estimated mean cost per person seroprotected at one year is $50-$70 (∼15%) lower. CONCLUSIONS: Use of a two-dose HBV vaccine would increase the number of adults fully seroprotected at one year compared with the number expected with a three-dose vaccine. Notwithstanding its higher unit cost, mean expected cost per person seroprotected is substantially lower for HEPLISAV-B than ENGERIX-B as a result of much higher levels of seroprotection.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis B Vaccines , Hepatitis B , Adult , Cohort Studies , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , Humans , Immunization , Immunization Schedule
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(17)2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374406

ABSTRACT

The causes of the broad spectrum of severity in COVID-19 are unknown. A protective effect through humoral immunity from previous infections by viruses of the SARS-CoV-2 family could explain a mild form of this disease. This study aimed to address whether the presence of antibodies against human seasonal coronaviruses (HCoVs) could prevent severe manifestations of COVID-19. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 165 participants. The presence of pre-existent antibodies against the seasonal HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-NL63 were detected. From all of the seasonal HCoVs studied, it was only found that being seropositive to HCoV-229E presented an association (p = 0.012) with developing mild clinical symptoms of COVID-19 or being asymptomatic. Multinomial regression analysis showed that being seropositive to HCoV-229E is associated with mild or moderate clinical symptoms for COVID-19. Statistical analysis also showed that being female is associated with being asymptomatic for SARS-CoV-2 infection or developing mild COVID-19. A subgroup analysis taking only seropositive to HCoV-229E revealed that females are more likely to develop asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR = 27.242, 95% CI 2.092-354.706, p = 0.012). Our results suggest that previous infections by HCoV-229E could prevent more serious clinical manifestations of COVID-19, but these are not the only variables that influence this event.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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