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1.
Anestezi Dergisi ; 30(2):112-119, 2022.
Article in Turkish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885092

ABSTRACT

Objective: Mortality and complication rates are increasing in emergency and delayed cancer surgeries during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, curing can be provided when colorectal cancer surgery is performed without delay. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the results in patients who underwent colorectal cancer surgery after having COVID-19 infection during the pandemic process. Methods: Data on patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery after or without COVID-19 infection were recorded from the hospital’s electronic database and file records. It was investigated whether there was a difference in 30-day complication and mortality rates in patients with COVID-19 infection. Results: Of the 77 patients between the ages of 20 and 85 who underwent colorectal cancer surgery, 34 were female, 43 were male. Thirty six of the patients who were infected with the COVID-19 (Group-C), 41 of the patients had undergone surgery without infection (Group-N). There was no difference between the groups in terms of lenght of stay in Hospital and Intensive Care Unit. The 30-day mortality rate in Group-C was 11.1%. The 30-day complication rate in Group-C was significantly higher than in Group-N (p=0.048). The most common complication in Group-C was acute kidney injury (11.1%). Being infected with COVID-19 virus within 7 weeks before the operation had no effect on postoperative results. Conclusion: While the surgical procedure is optimized to prevent complications in patients with COVID-19, delaying surgery can lead to local-remote metastases due to waiting and losing the possibility of operation. Decisions should be made according to the patient’s status and planning should be made according to the risk-gain balance.

2.
Revue Medicale Suisse ; 17(737):881-884, 2021.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885078

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has revealed inequalities between men and women and has deepened some existing disparities. While in Switzerland, more women than men have been infected, men have been at greater risk of developing complications and dying. A weaker immune response and more co-morbidities help to explain this poorer prognosis. Socially and economically, women have become more precarious as a result of less stable employment and greater involvement in domestic work. Domestic violence has increased and women’s access to sexual and reproductive health services has become more difficult. Finally, women have been under-represented as research authors but also among experts in task forces and media.

3.
Revue Medicale Suisse ; 17(737):866-870, 2021.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885075

ABSTRACT

Before a trip, a screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR is often required and raises the problem of detection of residual viral RNA at distance from the acute infection (post-Covid). At the University Hospital of Geneva, we developed an expertise to distinguish acute from post-Covid infections. Between October and December 2020, 30% of the people tested positive were able to travel because the result corresponded to post-Covid and 65% were put in isolation because of an acute infection with a risk of transmission. To overcome the detection of residual viral RNA by RT-PCR, a rapid antigenic test would be an interesting and less expensive alternative. It could also be performed a few hours before departure.

4.
Revue Medicale Suisse ; 17(736):822-826, 2021.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885069

ABSTRACT

Among the long-COVID symptoms, neuropsychological sequelae are frequent after an infection by SARS-CoV-2, whatever the severity of the respiratory disease in the acute phase. These deficits seem to result from a neurological disorder, but also from psychiatric symptoms. Not only inflammatory components, which can play a major role in the genesis of the neuropsychological sequelae, but also the hypotheses of vascular systemic lesions, the neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2, or the effect of the stress and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) are suggested. Psychiatric complications due to SSARS-CoV-2 infection would partly explain these neuropsychological sequelae.

5.
Revue Medicale Suisse ; 17(727):389-393, 2021.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885062

ABSTRACT

Patients with chronic nephropathies were particularly affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. These patients suffer from multiple comorbidities and some specific treatments may put them at risk towards severe complications. Hemodialysis patients necessitating an in-center hemodialysis maintenance regimen were unable to be confined and despite strict prevention protocols suffered high infection and subsequently fatality rates. Renal transplant patients, because of their immunosuppressive drugs, also represent an at-risk population of acquiring the SARS-CoV-2.

6.
Revue Medicale Suisse ; 17(726):344-348, 2021.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885059

ABSTRACT

Although SARS-CoV-2 infects individuals of all ages, children show less severe symptoms. Nevertheless, the very rare COVID-19 severe cases in paediatrics require our full attention. Much research has been conducted and is still ongoing on effective treatments. On the antiviral front, no molecule has been proven effective yet and the results of several studies on the benefit of monoclonal antibodies and convalescent plasma are pending. On the side of immunomodulators, the benefit of steroids has been demonstrated for patients severely ill. Other molecules are being investigated. However, all these studies focused on adults and paediatric data are warranted.

7.
Revue Medicale Suisse ; 17(726):334-337, 2021.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885057

ABSTRACT

Children appeared to be initially spared by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, however, in spring 2020, a new clinical entity was described related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection and named multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) or pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS). The gravity of this inflammatory syndrome, the time interval between infection and MIS-C, the response to the various immunomodulatory treatments are all suggestive of an immunologic reaction rather than a virus-mediatred phenomenon. The pathophysiological mechanisms and possible risk factors for MIS-C have not been elucidated. In this article, we summarize what is known to date about the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in children and about the immune response to SARSCoV-2 in children and about the MIS-C.

8.
Revue Medicale Suisse ; 16(701):1450-1455, 2020.
Article in French | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885045

ABSTRACT

The Covid 19 pandemic remains a serious public health problem until effective drugs and/or vaccines are available. Can we explain why so many people remain asymptomatic but nevertheless highly contagious explaining the speed with which the pandemic has spread around the world? Can we explain why the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) appears late but can so quickly have a fatal outcome? In the lung, mucociliary clearance (CMC) and alveolar clearance (CA) depend on the transport of sodium through the plasma membrane of epithelial cells. This transport is mediated by a highly selective sodium channel (Epithelial Sodium Channel = ENaC) which could be a key element in the pulmonary pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

9.
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association ; 72(6):1225-1228, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885006

ABSTRACT

For almost one and a half year the world is facing the pandemic called COVID-19, which is an acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). This disease has already engulfed many lives and has not been tamed so far. Physicians all over the world still, trying to get a hold of this global health issue, are faced with another life-threatening challenge associated with COVID-19, called black fungus-Mucormycosis. Within a span of few weeks, we have encountered three cases of black fungus in our institute which has stirred a serious concern among physicians in Pakistan.

10.
Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association ; 72(6):1166-1174, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1885004

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection has emerged as an unparalleled pandemic with morbidity and mortality tolls challenging diagnostic approaches and therapeutic interventions, and raising serious questions for healthcare policymakers. From the diagnostic perspective, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction remains the gold standard. However, issues associated with gene primer variation in different countries, low analytical sensitivity, cross-reactivity with certain human coronaviruses have raised serious concerns within the scientific community. Alongside longer turnaround times, requirements of sophisticated equipment and trained technicians are the other challenges for conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing. The recent biotechnological boom has now allowed newer nucleic acid testing options for diagnosing severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronovairus 2 (SARS-CoV2) with much better diagnostic efficiency, reduced turnaround times and possible benefit for use as a point-of-care test. Isothermal techniques with simple equipment requirements along with uniform temperature for analysis have emerged to be more sensitive and specific with turnaround times as low as 10-15 minutes. Similarly, Cluster Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats have also been seen to play a very decisive role in COVID-19 diagnostics with much superior diagnostic efficiency and feasibility as a point-of-care test and its possible use for sequencing. The current narrative review was planned to consolidate data for all possible nucleic acid testing options under research/clinical use, and to provide a comparative assessment from the perspective of both the clinician and the laboratory.

11.
Antibiotiki i Khimioterapiya ; 66(5-6):4-10, 2021.
Article in Russian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884987

ABSTRACT

Introduction.The COVID-19 pandcmic has stimulated the search for drugs with specific antiviral activity against the new pathogenic strain of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. First of all, scientific search was aimed at studying drugs with already proven efficacy against influenza and ARVI. The aim of this worfc was to study the antiviral activity of Cytovir∗-3 in vitro in relation to the cytopathogenic effect of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Material and methods. The antiviral activity of the drug Cy- tovir∗-3 against the SABS-CoV-2 virus was studied in experimental models in vitro on Vero CCL81 cell culture (ATCC).The maximum tolerated concentration and the 50% cytotoxic dose were determined using a quantitative microculture tetra- zolium test assay to calculate the working range of the concentrations of the test drug. Results and discussion. As a result of the study, it was shown that the greatest activity of the drug was manifested when it was added to the cells 24 hours before and 1 hour and 24 hours after viral infection, the inhibition level reached 53% (>IC50) at the drug concentrations of 105,55, and 85 fig/ml, respectively. Cytovir∗-3 suppressed the viral activity of SARS-CoV-2 in the dose range from 10 pg/ml to 105 pg/ml under the indicated infection conditions. It was found that the drug did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on the Vero cell culture in the range of antiviral doses. Conclusion. The antiviral activity of Cytovir∗-3 against the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been proven due to the achievement of IC50, which is below the maximum tolerated dose of 149 pg/ml.

12.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ; 12(4):5329-5338, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884955

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a strain of coronavirus that causes COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), has been responsible for a respiratory tract disease which has taken the proportion of the pandemic (COVID-19) ravaging the planet for last 2 and half year. The COVID-19 pandemic has been responsible for about sixty-one million deaths and about 500 million infections worldwide. The medication of infected individuals has been mainly cantered around repurposing of available known antiviral drugs, immunosuppressor/ immunomodulator drugs, monoclonal antibody concoctions and various vaccines as prophylaxis measures. Use phytometabolites in studies have been found to very effective in counter the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding sites, the main step to virus attack on the respiratory epithelial cells. Lichen secondary metabolites are well known for their antimicrobial, immunomodulator and antiviral activities. Current study was done to assess the spike protein binding capabilities of some lichen secondary metabolites of SARS-CoV-2 (Wuhan strain) spike protein binding sites using in-silico docking modelling. The study found that some of the lichen metabolites such as Cryptostictic acid and Quaesitic acid were effective in blocking the target cell recognising regions of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and can be effectively developed as therapeutic medicine.

13.
Archives of the Balkan Medical Union ; 57(1):99-105, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884953

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has constrained healthcare units to reorganize hospital departments, substantially reducing their capacity to perform oncology-related surgeries. Despite the efforts to reduce the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during hospitalization, COVID-19 has complicated the recovery of many surgical patients. Our objective was to assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the postoperative evolution of patients with pancreatic surgery. Cases presentation. We present four patients with pancreaticoduodenectomy for malignant disease, operated in our hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery department, who presented COVID-19 in the postoperative period, despite initial negative screening. 10% of patients who had pancreaticoduodenectomies were subsequently detected with minimal, moderate to severe forms of COVID-19 in the postoperative period, which led to an extension of the hospitalization period, in some cases, by up to five weeks. Conclusions. The side effects of COVID-19 pandemic are yet to have reached their limits. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is a complex surgery with high morbidity rates, but during the COVID-19 pandemics it has become more challenging.

14.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 16(2):1018-1027, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884885

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which was due to novel coronavirus was detected in December 2019 in Wuhan, China for the first time and spread rapidly became a global pandemic. This study aimed to predict the potential of macroalgae compounds as SARS-CoV-2 antiviral by inhibiting of ACE2 receptor through in silico approach. Twenty-seven macroalgae compounds were obtained from PubChem (NCBI, USA), while target protein ACE2 receptor was collected from Protein Data Bank (PDB). Then the initial screening study drug-likeness conducted by Lipinski rule of five web server and prediction of bioactive probability carried out by PASS (Prediction of activity spectra for biologically active substances) Online web server. After those compounds were approved by Lipinski's rule of five and PASS online prediction web server, the blind docking simulation was performed using PyRx 0.8 software to show binding energy value. Molecular interaction analysis was done using BIOVIA Discovery Studio 2016 v16.1.0 and PyMOL v2.4.1 software. There are six macroalgae compounds approved by Lipinski's rule of five and PASS Online Analysis. The result is that macroalgae compound siphonaxanthin among 27 macroalgae compound showed strong binding energy to bind ACE2 receptor with -8.8 kcal/mol. This study also used the SARS-CoV-2 drugs as positive control: remdesivir, molnupiravir, baricitinib, lopinavir, oseltamivir, and favipiravir. The result shows that siphonaxanthin has lowest binding energy than the common SARS-CoV-2 drug. Macroalgae compounds are predicted to have potential as SARS-CoV-2 antiviral. Thus, extension studies need to investigate by in vitro and in vivo analysis for confirmation the siphonaxanthin's inhibitory activity in combat SARS-CoV-2.

15.
Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility ; 24(12):124-131, 2022.
Article in Persian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884880

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 epidemic has severely affected the life of people around the world. Periods of stress and psychological distress caused by this pandemic can affect a woman's menstrual cycle. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on women's reproductive health. This narrative review was performed with aim to evaluate the effect of coronavirus on different aspects of each part of this axis and its relationship with women's health considering hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Methods: In this narrative review study, the databases of Pubmed, Scopus, and Embase were searched using the keywords of "Female Reproductive System", "Hypothalamus", "Pituitary" and "Ovary" with the keywords of "COVID-19" and "SARS-COV-2" with a time limit from 2020 onwards. Then, the studies were summarized conceptually and the findings were categorized and interpreted in terms of the effect of coronavirus on the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and ovary. Results: The potential neuronal invasion by the coronavirus could had led to its direct effect from the beginning to the end of this axis. Although more studies have examined the effect of COVID-19 on the regulation of sex hormones in women with COVID-19, most studies on the hypothalamic and pituitary axis have been based on genetic simulations. Conclusion: Coronavirus can have a wide impact on all organs involved in the female reproductive system. Over time, our understanding of the possible effects of this disease on female fertility will increase.

16.
Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research ; 6(SpecialIssue1):49-58, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884827

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an invisible enemy that has made people observe issues such as eating habits, personal hygiene, and environmental factors that may affect their immune systems. Objectives: Because air pollution can affect the immune system, it is necessary to examine the relationship between air quality parameters and COVID-19. Methods: his study examines the correlation between air quality and COVID-19 considering 7 air pollutants: PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, NOx, NO, and O3. The confirmed COVID-19 cases were considered from 9 provinces, accounting for 78% of the total cases in Turkey. The required data were collected from the websites of the country’s relevant official institutions. Two statistical tests, the Pearson correlation, and Spearman Rho were conducted to determine any potential linear and monotonic relationships. Results: Based on both test results, a significant positive correlation was observed between air SO2 content and the number of COVID-19 cases in Turkey. Conclusion: The outcomes could help identify provincial actions or measures.

17.
Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research ; 6(SpecialIssue1):27-36, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884824

ABSTRACT

Background: The whole planet is facing one of the scariest pandemic situations in this era. On 11th February, 2020 the World Health Organization announced the name of an unknown disease as COVID-19, which is caused by the ssRNA virus SARS-CoV-2 (formally recognized as a sister of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV). The epicenter of this disease is Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. COVID-19 can affect all age groups, but particularly affects immune compromised and aged persons with co-morbid conditions. It is highly contagious disease that involves mild to severe respiratory symptoms along with breathing difficulties. Objectives: As SARS-CoV-2 is a new strain of β-coronavirus that spreads from animals to humans via an unknown intermediate host, no vaccines have been developed yet and only supportive treatment is given to the infected patients. The review paper highlights the pharmacological therapy as a supportive treatment given to the COVID-19 patients and nonpharmacological therapeutic approaches for the prevention. Methods: Methods: Authors were surveyed and reviewed numerous articles, magazines, news papers, conference proceedings from different search engines and made the review successful. Results: Some drugs of different categories are approved and prescribed to the patients and some others are still under investigation and have gone through clinical trials. Conclusion: As no specific treatment or drugs for this disease have been developed till the date;therefore, social distancing, home quarantine, and proper healthy lifestyle management are the best current short-term options to avoid further spread of this pervasive virus.

18.
Iranian Journal of Microbiology ; 14(2):138-144, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884819

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Health care workers (HCWs) are a high-risk group for acquiring and transmitting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Aim of the study was the evaluation of sero-prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in a random sample of HCWs at a large acute care hospital in Iran. Materials and Methods: We collected blood samples of 180 medical staffs from September 22, 2020 to January 26, 2021. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) tests were used for evaluation of the presence of IgG antibodies. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire, comprising demographics, occupational, the work area, and personal protection data. Results: Of the 180 HCWs who participated in this study, 44 (24.4%) were seropositive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. The percentage of IgG positivity was higher in males than females (P<0.05). Also, there was statistically significant difference between presence of the antibodies and the occupation, location, and infecting family members with Covid-1 (P<0.05). Other factors did not associate significantly to antibody presence against SARS-CoV-2 (P>0.05). Conclusion: According to this point that the number of COVID-19 cases is still growing rapidly among HCWs. So, the epi-demiological estimate of SARS-CoV-2 infection remains a major challenge that is needed to prevent the spread of infection in the hospitals.

19.
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Publica ; 39(1):111-114, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884807

ABSTRACT

During acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, there is persistent deregulation of the immune system that can last up to 8 months after the acute condition is controlled. This, added to other factors, is possibly associated with an increased risk of the appearance and concurrence of autoimmune diseases. The simultaneous occurrence of GBS and ITP has been rarely reported in the literature, and GBS is rarely associated with another autoimmune disease. We present the case of a man who, one month after his recovery from acute moderate COVID-19, presented concurrent GBS and ITP with an adequate response to treatment.

20.
Paediatria Croatica ; 64(2):94-100, 2020.
Article in Croatian | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884766

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak in December 2019, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic virus has been a major public health problem in all countries of the world. The virus is transmitted by inhalation of respiratory droplets from the patient or asymptomatic carrier and is highly contagious. The clinical disease in children is similar to any acute respiratory infection with predominant upper respiratory symptoms, but occasionally can progress to pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan failure. The disease is milder in children than in adults, with low mortality, and it appears that infants and young children have a somewhat more severe clinical course. Diagnosis is made by detecting the virus from respiratory samples (mainly nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs) using polymerase chain reaction. Treatment is usually symptomatic, and in severe and critical forms, the use of one of the antiviral drugs (lopinavir-ritonavir, remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine) may be considered

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