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1.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(8):BC19-BC23, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2033410

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Lipids are fundamental biomolecules of the body. Infections like COVID-19 with intricate immune response in some patient’s leads to acute complications by affecting metabolic pathways at multiple levels. Metabolism of cholesterol, triglyceride and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-Cholesterol is deranged by cytokines and multiple inflammatory mediators. The sex differences in lipid metabolism may contribute in susceptibility, severity and outcome of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Performing lipid profile in COVID-19 patient may help in assessing severity and prognosis of disease. Aim: To assess the relationship between lipid profile and inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients and also to evaluate the gender wise differences in lipid parameters and their correlations with inflammatory markers. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry at SHKM, GMC, Mewat, Haryana, India (tertiary care health centre) on COVID-19 positive patients attending Outpatient Department (OPD) and Inpatient Department (IPD), from October 2020 to December 2020. The data of 85 patients with COVID-19 positive, confirmed by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and who were prescribed for lipid profile along with C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and serum ferritin were included in the study. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-Cholesterol, CRP and ferritin were measured in the subjects. Data was statistically analysed using Student’s t test and Pearson correlation coefficient. results: Total 85 (46 males and 39 females) COVID-19 patients were included in the study. Mean age in male and female patients were 43.02±15.52 years and 42.02±15.25 years, respectively with a range of 5-82 years. Mean value of Serum triglycerides, HDL-C and total cholesterol was 204.94±141.27 mg/dL, 42.97±13.38 mg/ dL and 187.058±45.75 mg/dL, respectively. Serum triglycerides were statistically significantly higher in males than females (p-value=0.0413). The HDL-C however was significantly higher in females than males (p-value=0.0006). In male patients, r-value between cholesterol and CRP was -0.3538, and p-value was 0.016. Ferritin had a significant negative correlation with HDL-C (r-value=-0.3578, p-value=0.00079). Weak Positive correlation was noted between triglyceride and ferritin (r-value= 0.2285, p-value=0.035). conclusion: High levels of serum triglycerides, low total cholesterol, and low HDL-cholesterol correlates with inflammatory markers like CRP and ferritin in COVID-19 patients. Lipid profile may be used as a potential marker in all COVID-19 patients in assessing prognosis of disease.

2.
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences ; 15(4), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2025222

ABSTRACT

Background: One of the most common mental health-related issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic is high levels of distress and anxiety due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Psychological well being and conservation of the general population are utterly significant components of facing COVID-19 pandemic. It seems that despite the availability of highly standardized tools to investigate COVID-19-related anxiety, the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) can be helpful in different populations due to its short design. Objectives: The present study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Persian (Iranian) version of the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (P-CAS). Methods: In this web-based cross-sectional study, 305 individuals (184 females vs. 121 males) participated. All participants were evaluated by five questionnaires, including the P-CAS, COVID Stress Scales (CSS), the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), Whiteley index (WI), and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Cronbach’s alpha, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and correlation coefficient were used for data analysis using SPSS 23 and AMOS-23 software. Results: The results of CFA demonstrated that the factor structure of the P-CAS was good, and the scale had an appropriate internal consistency (α = 0.80). A satisfactory convergent validity was shown due to positive correlations of the P-CAS with the related scales. Test-retest reliability of P-CAS was also satisfactory (ICC = 0.95). Conclusions: According to our results, the P-CAS is a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate the severity of dysfunctional anxiety due to COVID-19 pandemic. © 2021, Author(s).

3.
Epidemiology and Infection ; 150, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2016477

ABSTRACT

We examined the possible sex and age differences in the proportion of experienced Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms in unaware (previously) infected adults, and their uninfected counterparts, estimated by serostatus prior to vaccination, at the end of 2020 (Wuhan strain). A cross-sectional community-based study using a convenience sample of 10 001 adult inhabitants of a southern Dutch province, heavily affected by COVID-19, was conducted. Participants donated a blood sample to indicate past infection by serostatus (positive/negative). Experienced symptoms were assessed by questionnaire, before the availability of the serological test result. Only participants without confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included (n = 9715, age range 18-90 years). The seroprevalence was comparable between men (17.3%) and women (18.0%), and participants aged 18-60 years (17.3%) and aged 60 years and older (18.6%). We showed sex and age differences in the proportion experienced symptoms by serostatus in a large cohort of both unaware (untested) seropositive compared with seronegative reference participants. Irritability only differed by serostatus in men (independent of age), while stomach ache, nausea and dizziness only differed by serostatus in women aged 60 years and older. Besides, the proportion of experiencing pain when breathing and headache differed by serostatus in men aged 18-60 years only. Our study highlights the importance of taking possible sex and age differences into account with respect to acute and long-term COVID-19 outcomes. Identifying symptom profiles for sex and age subgroups can contribute to timely identification of infection, gaining importance once governments currently move away from mass testing again.

4.
Frontiers in Psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009911
5.
Frontiers in Psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009903

ABSTRACT

Background: School-based mental health promotion aims to strengthen mental health and reduce stress. Results on the effectiveness of such programs are heterogeneous. This study realized a school-based mental health promotion program (StresSOS) for all students and aimed to identify moderators (mental health status, gender, grade level) of pre- to post-changes in stress symptoms and knowledge. Methods: Participants were N = 510 adolescents (from 29 classes;46.7% female) aged 12–18 years (M = 13.88, SD = 1.00;grade levels 7–10). They were without mental health problems (65.9%), at risk for mental health problems (21.6%), or with mental health problems (12.5%) and participated in a 90 min per week face-to-face training with 8 sessions in class at school. Demographic variables, mental health status, stress symptoms, and knowledge about stress and mental health were collected at baseline. Program acceptance, stress symptoms, and knowledge were collected post-intervention. Multilevel mixed effects models were conducted with the fixed effects time (within factor), mental health status, gender, and grade level (between factors). Random effects for students within classes were included. Results: In the pre-post comparison, mental health status moderated the changes on psychological stress symptoms (p < 0.05). In adolescents with mental health problems the largest reduction in stress symptoms was observed between pre- and post-assessment. Gender and grade level were less relevant. For all adolescents knowledge gains were revealed (p < 0.001). Program acceptance was moderated by mental health status and grade level (p < 0.01). Mentally healthy adolescents and within the group of adolescents at-risk or with mental health problems, especially younger students (7th/8th grade), rated program acceptance higher. Conclusion: Psychological stress symptoms decreased among adolescents with mental health problems and not among adolescents at risk for or without mental health problems. Mental health-related knowledge increased for all adolescents. The results add to knowledge on school-based mental health intervention research and practice. Its implications for different prevention strategies (universal, selective or a combination of both) are discussed.

6.
Frontiers in Medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009878
7.
Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare ; 15:1909-1919, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009781

ABSTRACT

Background: An epidemic of the Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began in March 2022, and over 600,000 cases were confirmed until early May 2022 in Shanghai, China. Data on Omicron infections are available in other countries, but the clinical features of patients in the Chinese population, especially in Shanghai, are still lacking. We collected data from a subset of asymptomatic and mildly ill patients to learn about the age and sex disparity of Omicron infection based on changes in cycle threshold values. Methods: The basic information of 325 patients who were consecutively admitted to the Shanghai Geriatrics Center was collected through medical records, and patients were tested for viral nucleic acid carriage using nasal swab samples during hospitalization. SAS 9.4 was used for data analysis, and a p value < 0.05% was considered statistically significant. Results: Among the 325 included patients, 58.8% were males, with a mean age of 47.2 years and 13.6 days of hospitalization on average. The average number of nucleic acid tests among female patients was 4.7, which was higher than that among male patients (4.1). The median value of the slope for cycle threshold (Ct) changes in the nucleic acid detection (NAD) test was 1.4. Logistic regression indicated that the proportion of slope for Ct changes >1.5 was slightly higher among male patients than among female patients (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68–1.66), and patients aged <45 years and 45–59 years had a higher proportion of slope for Ct changes >1.5 than patients aged ≥60 years. Ct values were more variable in the early stages of infection and stabilized in the later stages of infection. Conclusion: Among patients with mild illness or asymptomatic infection, the Ct value is a good, timely, and cost-effective method to reflect the recovery progress of patients. The slope of Ct changes was steeper among younger patients and male patients, which indicates faster disease recovery.

8.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009593

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancer patients (pts) were among the first to receive vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 (vac). However, their attitude towards as well as experience with vac remain unclear. Methods: Between 04-11/2021 cancer pts at our university cancer center completed a baseline (BL) and follow-up (FU) questionnaire (Q) containing multiple choice questions and ten eleven-level Likert items ranging from 1 (“totally disagree”) to 11 (“totally agree”). Data was analyzed using Student's t-test or Chi-square test. Results: 219 pts (43% female) completed BLQ (110 FUQ). Mean age was 64 (24-87) years. 82% had solid tumors, 93% were on active therapy (80% chemotherapy). 4% had history of COVID-19. 78% had already received at least one vac at BL, mainly BNT162b2 (91%) or ChAdOx1-S (8%). Only 1% refused vac. Most pts completely agreed to “definitely get vaccinated” (82%) and completely disagreed with “vac is dispensable due to COVID-19 being no serious threat” (82%;more dissent among men, p = 0.037) or “being against vaccination in general” (81%). Self-assessment as member of a risk group (p = 0.03) and fear of COVID-19 (p = 0.002) were more common among women. Every third patient (31%) completely agreed to “being afraid of COVID-19”, every second thinks “SARSCoV-2 infection would be very dangerous” (56%). Only 41% expressed “complete confidence in the vaccine being safe” and 37% “not being afraid of side effects”. Fear of side effects (SE) was more common among women (p = 0.0016), pts with solid tumors (p = 0.05), with GI tumors (p < 0.0001) and below mean age (p = 0.006). The latter expressed less “confidence in the vaccine being safe” (p = 0.0029). At FUQ, most pts (91%) reported their vac to be well tolerated, 44% reported no SE, especially men (p = 0.001) and pts above age average (p = 0.002). Most common SE was local pain at injection site (36%), which was more frequent among women (p = 0.002), younger pts (p = 0.024) and pts with solid tumors (p = 0.04). Other common SE included fatigue (18%) and myalgia (8%). No thromboembolic events occurred. Only 3 pts had their therapy postponed due to SE. Almost all pts felt retrospectively sufficiently informed about vac and possible SE (94%), would have it again (88%) and agree to get it yearly, if recommended (78%). After vac, pts felt safe meeting friends or family (91%) or shopping (62%). Vacation (32%), work (22%), public transport (21%) or sports (19%) were considered less safe (less frequent among men, p < 0.05). Most pts (70%) did not feel that the COVID-19 pandemic negatively influenced their treatment and regarded the hospitals protective measures as adequate (91%). Conclusions: Willingness to get vac is high among cancer pts and vac is well tolerated in this sensitive cohort. However, concerns about vac safety remain an issue. Those as well as gender differences need to be addressed to increase vac rates and tolerability. The present results may help identify pts that benefit from more detailed pre-vac consultation.

9.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:130-131, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009090

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic, with its uncertainties, fears of contagion, mass lockdowns and containment measures, has dramatically impacted on people's everyday lives leading to an increased risk of mental disorders, particularly Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Despite evidence in general population and healthcare workers1,2, scant data emerged on vulnerable populations, such as of patients with chronic illness, particularly rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs)3,4, who also underwent difficulties in the management and treatment of their disorders. Objectives: To assess PTSD and post-traumatic stress symptoms in a sample of patients with RMDs, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. Methods: PERMAS is a monocentric prospective observational study led by the Rheumatology Unit, the Psychiatric Clinic and the Institute of Management of the School of Advanced Studies. Patients with a RMD diagnosis, were consecutively enrolled from May 2021 to January 2022. During the visit, sociodemographic characteristics and psychopathological data were collected through online survey, whereas clinical data were collected by physician. The survey included the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), aimed to assess symptomato-logical PTSD and post-traumatic stress symptoms related to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: A total of 194 eligible patients, with a mean age of 50.3±12.17 years, was included: 142 (73.19%) were females;112 (57.74%) patients reported connective tissue diseases (CTD), 63 (32.47%) arthritis and 19 (9.8%) vasculitis. A total of 33 (17%) subjects reported a symptomatological PTSD by means of the TALS-SR. The prevalence of Partial PTSD (defned by at least 2 out of the 4 criteria for DSM-5 diagnosis of the disorder) was 56.7%, with signifcant higher rates among females (90, 81.8%) with respect to males (20, 18.2%) (p=.013). Accordingly, a IES-R mean total score of 21.90 ±15.98 was found in the total sample and a gender difference emerged, with higher mean scores among females rather than males (23.42 ±16.26 vs 21.90 ±15.98, p=.031). Conclusion: The present fndings point out high prevalence rates of symptoma-tological PTSD among patients suffering from RMDs, highlighting the potentially traumatic burden of the COVID-19 pandemic in this particular population, especially among females, suggesting the need of further investigations to address tailored prevention and intervention strategies.

10.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2007240

ABSTRACT

Background: Increasingly, women are serving in the military and seeking care at the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Women veterans face unique challenges and barriers in seeking mental health (MH) care within VHA. VA Video Connect (VVC), which facilitates video-based teleconferencing between patients and providers, can reduce barriers while maintaining clinical effectiveness. Objective: Primary aims were to examine gender differences in VVC use, describe changes in VVC use over time (including pre-COVID and 6 months following the beginning of COVID), and determine whether changes over time differed by gender. Design: A retrospective cohort investigation of video-to-home telehealth for MH care utilization among veterans having at least 1 MH visit from October 2019 to September 2020. Participants: Veterans (236,268 women;1,318,024 men). Interventions (if applicable): VVC involves face-to-face, synchronous, video-based teleconferencing between patients and providers, enabling care at home or another private location. Main Measures: Percentage of MH encounters delivered via VA Video Connect. Key Results: Women veterans were more likely than men to have at least 1 VVC encounter and had a greater percentage of MH care delivered via VVC in FY20. There was an increase in the percentage of MH encounters that were VVC over FY20, and this increase was greater for women than men. Women veterans who were younger than 55 (compared to those 55 and older), lived in urban areas (compared to those in rural areas), or were Asian (compared to other races) had a greater percentage of MH encounters that were VVC since the start of the pandemic, controlling for the mean percentage of VVC MH encounters in the 6 months pre-pandemic. Conclusions: VVC use for MH care is greater in women veterans compared to male veterans and may reduce gender-specific access barriers. Future research and VVC implementation efforts should emphasize maximizing patient choice and satisfaction.

11.
Journal of Clinical Densitometry ; 25(2):281, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2004252

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID pandemic has altered health care delivery, including clinical research, by introduction of measures to reduce COVID. How these measures affect clinical research participation is unclear. Objectives: The purpose of this survey was to document research volunteer's attitudes toward COVID infection control procedures. Methods: Our research program implemented the following: 1. Staff wore masks, disposable gowns, face shields and gloves when with subjects. 2. Subjects were asked if they tested positive or were experiencing COVID symptoms;upon entry their temperature was measured, and hand sanitizer used. 3. Disinfecting was expanded to all scanner room surfaces in contact with humans between each visit. 4. Only 1 subject was allowed in the research office at a time. Staff, when possible, remained > 6 feet away from other persons. As part of a study evaluating total body DXA, community dwelling volunteers completed a self-administered health care delivery preference survey from Dec 2020 to May 2021. A 5-point scale was used to capture responses to 10 questions (Table 1). Responses were tested using Chi Square with age and sex comparisons assessed by ANOVA. Results: Eighty-two adults (41F/41M) mean (SD) age 50.9 (18.3) yrs (range 18-79) without sex difference participated. Participants strongly agreed (84%;p < 0.001) they were more comfortable seeing effort to prevent COVID-19;72% agreed 1 subject, without a companion, should be seen, and 81% strongly agreed masks be required. Seeing staff clean visit space was important to 66%, more so among women (33%) than men (21% (p = 0.007)). Most subjects (83%) reported comfort having elective procedures and did not feel “unclean” or “diseased” (87%) by procedures. Some, 26%, preferred a non-hospital setting, 66% were neutral;those age 50+ (17%) preferred this more (p = 0.004) than younger subjects (5%). Finally, 91% preferred to have a brief test description before visit arrival. Conclusions: In this university-based study, most subjects favored masking, cleaning and limiting personal contact for research visits. Notably, no information regarding vaccination status was exchanged and the study began just as vaccines became available and ended just after all US citizens over age 16 were eligible for vaccination. Thus, it is unknown if vaccination status might alter research participation perception. However, people do prefer that steps are taken to reduce infection in research settings. It seems likely that this would be the case in clinical care settings.

12.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice ; 186, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2004013

ABSTRACT

Background: In this study, we are focussing on gender differences in occurrence of COVID 19 in young patients with diabetes and without diabetes. Aim: 1. To find out gender differences in the age of COVID 19 patients with and without diabetes. 2. To find out the gender difference in the frequency of Covid 19 in patients with and without diabetes.Table 1.Table 2.Table 3.Method: All patients admitted to Voluntary Health Services (VHS) with confirmed COVID-19 from May 2020 - May 2021 were included. All patients with COVID 19 were classified into two categories as Covid with diabetes and Covid without diabetes. Age was categorized into five groups. The data was retrieved from the hospital medical records and recorded in excel files for further statistical analysis. Results: Out of 945 patients who had Covid, 497(52.6%) were having diabetes and 448(47.4) did not. Of the patients with diabetes, 179(36.1%) were women and 318(63.9%) were men respectively. Men have been more affected than women among persons with and without diabetes. However, among Covid 19 patients below age 25 years without diabetes, twice as many women have been affected compared to men. This has major public health significance in terms of educating women of reproductive age about vaccination and other prevention strategies. Discussion: Our study establishes that COVID 19 infections have been more common in younger women compared to men, even in the absence of non-communicable diseases like diabetes. Further research is required to focus on the factors that have made young women more vulnerable to COVID 19 infection.

13.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice ; 186, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2004012

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes and its association with poor outcomes in patients with COVID-19 is a well established fact. In this study, we are focusing on gender differences in age of occurrence of COVID 19, gender differences in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes vs established diabetes. Through this study, we are trying to focus on gender specific diabetes care in the background of the current pandemic. Aim: 1. To compare the gender differences in age of occurrence of Covid 19. 2. To find out the gender difference in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes vs established diabetes. Method: All patients admitted to the Voluntary Health Services (VHS) hospital with confirmed COVID-19 from May 2020 - May 2021 were included. Established diabetes was determined using patients’ history and patients were considered to have newly diagnosed diabetes if the HbA1c level at admission was ≥6.5% and no known history of diabetes. Age was categorised into five groups: Group 1: Those below 25, Group 2 :25–40, Group 3: 41–60, Group 4: 61–80, Group 5: Above 80. The data was retrieved from our hospital medical records. Results: Of 497 patients who had Covid with diabetes, we could include 411 patients for the analysis of newly diagnosed vs established diabetes. The results were as follows: (See Table 1 and 2) This study has revealed that the incidence of newly diagnosed diabetes is higher in men. As for clinical outcome, mortality rate was higher in men than women. More men got admitted with COVID 19 than women in all age groups. Discussion: Our study has revealed that overall 42.8% were under the age of 60. More men had Covid at all ages and their outcomes were poorer. More men had new onset diabetes than women. Nearly 25% of the men and 15% of the women had new onset diabetes which has serious implications for future burden of diabetes. Follow up is the need of the hour especially for women who already have an increased lifetime risk of diabetes.

14.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice ; 186, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2004011

ABSTRACT

Background: Covid-19 and its association with comorbidities especially diabetes has been a global public health challenge. While more men have developed Covid 19, there is limited data on gender differences in glycemic status on admission need to be understood. Aim: To study the gender differences on admission HbA1c in patients hospitalized with Covid-19 and diabetes. Method: All patients admitted to Voluntary Health Services (VHS) with confirmed COVID-19 from May 2020 - May 2021 were included. Diabetes was determined using patients’ past history (diagnosed) or was newly diagnosed if the haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) level at admission was ≥6.5%. Based on the HbA1c level, the patients were divided into five groups. Group 1: Those below 7%, Group 2:7–8%, Group 3: 8.1–10%, Group 4: 10.1–12%, Group 5: above 12%. Patients with HbA1c more than 8 were categorised as having poorly controlled diabetes. The data was retrieved from our institution's medical records and recorded in excel files for further statistical analysis. Results: Of 497 patients who had Covid with diabetes, 342 patients with admission A1c were included for the analysis. Out of 342, 120 (35.1%) were women and 222 (64.9%) were men respectively. The results: Women with HbA1c below 7% n = 22 (22.2%), between 7–12% n = 21(17.1%), above 12% n = 15 (12.8%). Men with A1c value below 7% n = 61 (26.8%), between 7–8% n = 54 (24.5%), 8.1–10% n = 55 (25.0%), 10.1–12% n = 32 (14.5%), above 12% n = 20 (9.1%). This study has revealed that women have poorer baseline glycemic control than men on admission. (See Table 1) Discussion: The gender difference in patients with Covid 19 and DM is not well documented. With this present study, we observed that women have poorly controlled diabetes than men in all subgroups with A1c > 8. This study shows the gender centric impact of the pandemic and given the socioeconomic impact the pandemic is likely to have on the long-term care of women with diabetes, there is an urgent need to create effective communication, policies and interventions to promote optimal care in this vulnerable group.

15.
Journal of Men's Health ; 18(8), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1998159

ABSTRACT

Background: Because the worldwide spread of coronavirus disease 2019 has forced a moratorium on student sports activity in Japan, reports on its impact on sports injuries are limited given its novelty. This study aimed to determine the characteristics and gender differences of injuries in adolescent athletes after returning to sport following restriction of club activities due to the coronavirus pandemic. Methods: An online retrospective questionnaire was distributed to 500 adolescent athletes who belong to school sports clubs in Japan from March 1–19, 2021. An anonymous questionnaire was created before and after the restriction of sports activities following the declaration of the first state of emergency of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. Subsequently, 258 valid responses were obtained, and injury-related characteristics were compared between injured and non-injured athletes after returning to sports and between genders for injured athletes. There were no differences in the body areas of sports injuries between males and females. Result: We found that injury experience before club activity restriction was significantly associated with injury after returning to sports (p < 0.001). Moreover, practice time increased before and after the restriction in the injury group (p = 0.038). The injury rate was higher in females (p < 0.024), and the trauma rate was higher among males (p = 0.016). There were no differences in the body areas of sports injuries between males and females. Conclusions: Our results provide gender-differentiated ideas and suggestions as they relate to injury prevention once in adolescent athletes returning to sports after the coronavirus disease 2019 induced restriction of club activities. We show the need for injury rehabilitation and practice time control in adolescent athletes in the coronavirus disease 2019 setting.

16.
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences ; 26(15):5568-5573, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1988903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: SARS-CoV-2 infection primarily affects T-lymphocytes, particularly CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. However, there is a need for simpler and less expensive laboratory tests with predictive values comparable to CD4+ cell counts. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the role of neopterin levels in predicting intensive care and mortality in coronavirus disease patients in 2019. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 87 hospitalized patients who were diagnosed with COVID-19. Patients were divided into two groups: those receiving intensive care (Severe COVID-19;S-COVID-19) and those receiving non-intensive care (Moderate COVID-19;M-COVID-19). Patients’ clinical characteristics, serum neopterin levels, and other laboratory data were compared across groups. RESULTS: The average age was 63.9±155.2 years, and 44 (%) of the participants were male. WBC (p = 0.008), neutrophil (p = 0.002), HDL (p = 0.009), ferritin, calcium, albumin, LDH, APTT, lymphocyte, INR, D-dimer, troponin, prothrombin time sedimentation, and PaO2 (p = 0.001) were all associated with death. The neopterin level in the M-COVID-19 group was 3 (min-max;3.1–5.9) and 3.2 (2.3–7) in the S-COVID-19 group, with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.456). Gender differences between groups were not significant (p = 0.183). According to the ROC analysis, if parameters such as age, D-Dimer, troponin, ferritin, albumin, LDH, CRP, procalcitonin, and PaO2 exceed the cut-off values and lymphocyte levels are below, it can predict the need for intensive care and mortality in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although we did not find statistically significant results with neopterin in terms of mortality in COVID-19 individuals in our study, more thorough, prospective, randomized controlled studies with expanded patient populations at various phases of the disease are needed.

17.
Russian Open Medical Journal ; 11(2), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1988615

ABSTRACT

Rationale - The goal of the study was to investigate gender characteristics of functional somatic disorders in adolescents of the indigenous population of Khakassia (using the case study of the Abakan city). Material and methods - The object of the study was 215 (46.8%) boys and 244 (53.2%) girls of four secondary schools in Abakan. Their average age was 14.5±1.3 years. Data collection was conducted by means of an original screening questionnaire developed by Professor S.Yu. Tereshchenko. Results - The incidence of recurrent pain in the total sample of the surveyed youths was 184 (40.1%) for cephalalgia, 225 (49.0%) for abdominal pain, and 269 (58.7%) for back pain. The prevalence and structure of functional somatic disorders in Khakas adolescents depended on their gender. Asthenic syndrome was more common among girls - 42 (17.2%) vs. 14 (6.5%) in boys. In girls, the percentage of frequent headaches was higher than in boys: 22 (9.0%) vs. 8 (3.7%), respectively. Similar trend was observed in case of rare headaches: 100 (41.0%) vs. 54 (25.1%). Also, girls, compared with boys, were characterized by a higher incidence of both frequent and rare abdominal pains: 38 (15.6%) vs. 9 (4.2%) and 106 (43.4%) vs. 72 (33.5%), correspondingly. Conclusion - The case study of surveyed ethnic sample of Abakan school students revealed a high prevalence of recurrent pain syndromes in the indigenous youths of Khakassia. We have also established that incidence, structure and severity of recurrent pain, as well as its negative impact on well-being and daily activities, were associated with gender.

18.
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences ; 16(2), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1988362

ABSTRACT

Background: During the pandemic of COVID-19, some countries imposed lockdown restrictions on their cities to stop the outbreak of the virus. However, this mandatory lockdown was not imposed by all countries. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the induced-compliance situation generated by not imposing the lockdown restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic on individuals’ COVID-19 perceived risk and practicing the World Health Organization preventive actions, considering the moderating role of gender. Methods: The research was conducted through a causal-comparative method. Participants were 320 social media users who were randomly selected to complete the justification of COVID-19 perceived risk and COVID-19 preventive action implementation questionnaires. Instruments’ validity and reliability were confirmed through confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach alpha. Results: The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant interactive effects of gender and work attendance on the justification of COVID-19 perceived risk so that the highest rate of justification was applied by males who were required to attend their workplace physically. The ANOVA results showed the significant main effects of gender and work attendance on the action. Based on these findings, the lowest rate of preventive actions belonged to males and those who attended their workplace physically. Conclusions: It is concluded that not imposing the lockdown restrictions, other than its direct role in increasing social contacts and the probability of virus spread, also lowers preventive actions implementation. This could happen due to belief modification to eliminate the undesirable state of cognitive dissonance that emerged from the induced-compliance situations.

19.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(2):438-458, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1981086

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs), especially spirometry is an established mode of assessing chronic lung diseases especially Asthma. Spirometric reference values are essential in assessing pulmonary function. Normative values of these tests differ from population to population and with difference in methods and apparatus used. The normal standards for pulmonary function measurements among the hilly areas of Himachal Pradesh is not reported yet. Aim: To measure the normative values of spirometry (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEFR) in children of 5- 18 years age range living in and around Solan district of Himachal Pradesh, India. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at M.M Medical College and Hospital, Kumarhatti, Solan, HP, India and comprised school-going children and nearby community aged 5-18 years. After noting their gender, age, height and weight, the pulmonary function test measures, Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC%, FEF 25-75% and peak expiratory flow rate were taken. Simple and multiple regression models were used for the prediction of pulmonary function test values. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis Results: Of the 200 participants, 110(55%) were boys and 90 (45%) were girls. The mean age was 12.47±3.27 years. The means height, weight, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, force vital capacity, peak expiratory flow rate FEV1/FVC% and FEF 25-75% were 147.39±16.07cm, 41.30±12.38kg, 2.54±0.70, 2.90±0.8, 5.42±1.30, 87.41±3.85% and 2.90±0.84 respectively. All the three variables - Age, Height and Weight-had significant linear relationship and positive correlation with the pulmonary function test values (p0.7). Among these three variables maximum correlation was found with height (r=>0.8). Conclusion: Age, height and weight had statistically significant and positive correlation with the PFT values, both for boys and girls. Height was found to be most strongly and positively correlated with the PFT values. Overall significant difference was seen in FEV1/FVC and FEF 25-75 among boys and girls except FEV1, FVC and PEFR of the same age group. The fitted regression equations would help to predict the PFT values for the Indian children living in hilly areas at given age, height and weight. This study should be seen as a pilot study and will require data from a large population to establish normal values for our population.

20.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-852, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967376

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted medical personnel and scientists in numerous ways. Many providers in academic medicine experienced increases in both clinical and domestic responsibilities, and it is not known if the COVID-19 pandemic impacted both genders equally. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, women published fewer papers in the first or senior authorship position in gastroenterology (GI) and hepatology journals compared to men. We hypothesized that the COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted the research productivity of women and men publishing in GI and hepatology journals differently. Methods: We reviewed four select GI and hepatology journals, namely the American Journal of Gastroenterology (AJG), Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology (CGH), Gastroenterology, and Hepatology from May 2020 to April 2021, and extracted the authors of COVID-related publications within this period. We separately considered authors in the first-author position, authors in the senior (last) author position, and authors in any position. Gender was determined using Genderize.io, an online database that predicts gender with high reproducibility. As a reference group, we extracted all authors from Hepatology and AJG from January to June 2019 (pre-pandemic). We used the chi-square test to measure the difference in proportions of women authors (first-author, senior-author, any-author position) of COVID-related papers compared to reference publications in 2019. Results: We identified 2,184 authors of COVID-related publications and 3,533 authors of non- COVID papers (2019 reference group) after excluding 10 authors where the gender could not be determined. Genderize.io was able to identify the gender of 84.4% of authors with high certainty (probability of ≥0.8). Overall, we observed no differences in the gender of authors between COVID-related papers and the reference group. Women comprised 30.5% of authors of COVID-related papers, compared to 31.4% of authors in the reference group (p=0.6). Women comprised 31.9% of first authors of COVID-related papers compared to 32.4% of first-authors in the reference group (p=0.9) and 21.2% of senior authors of COVIDrelated papers compared to 21.2% of senior authors in the reference group (p=1.0). The proportion of women authors of COVID-related papers, by position, for each journal is shown in the Figure. Conclusion: While gender gaps exist among authors of GI and hepatology publications, we did not observe gender differences in research productivity, as measured by published papers of COVID-19 related papers compared to work published the year prior, for authors publishing in select GI and hepatology journals. Additional studies are needed to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the future professional careers and academic advancements of women in gastroenterology and early-stage career scientists.

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